Phleum, cat’s-tail

fam. Poaceae

1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow stretches the frass in a more or less narrow, central line => 2

1b larva a maggot; in narrow parts frass in two rows => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva yellow; mine strongly inflated; common species: Elachista albifrontella

2b larva initially yellow, later grey green; mine flat, inconspicuous; very rare: Elachista bedellella

2c larva grey green => 3

3a larva with a whitish dorsal length line: Elachista argentella

3b larva monochromous: Elachista pullicomella, subocellea

4a larva: mandible with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola

4b mandible with at least 2 teeth => 5

5a mine begins as a, usually upper-surface, corridor in the leaf blade, then descends into the inside of the leaf sheath; there also the puparium: Cerodontha denticornis

5b mine entirely in the blade => 6

6a puparium in the mine => 7

6b pupation outside the mine => 11

7a puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 8

7b puparium metallic black; spiracula not penetrating => 9

8a puparium monochromous; front spiraculum indistinctly bifid: Chromatomyia nigra

8b puparium with a darker ventral length line; front spiraculum fist-shaped: Chromatomyia fuscula

9a larva solitary; puparium loose in the mine: Cerodontha superciliosa

9b larva communal; puparia anchored in nthe mine with a strand of silk => 10

10a larva: the warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a ‘root’: Cerodontha incisa

10b these warts large, with a deep ‘root’: Cerodontha pygmaea

11a larva bright yellow; cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type => 12

11b larva white to amber; cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type => 13 *

12a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola

12b rear spiraculum with 12 or more papillae: Cerodontha flavocingulata

13a larva: ventrally, behind the mandible, a field with small spines: Agromyza nigrella

13b no such field: Agromyza albipennis

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Subanguina radicicola

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria cornuta, tenuis, tulipae; Aculodes dubius

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Diuraphis muehlei; Laingia psammae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa albomaculatum, phleicola

108 – smut fungi

108a Georgefischeriaceae: Jamesdicksonia dactylidis

108b Tilletiaceae: Tilletia paradoxa

108cUrocystidaceae: Urocystis phlei-alpini

108d Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Capnodiales: Cladosporium phlei

110b Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizoides

110c Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichlo√ę tyhpina

110d Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma gerhardtii

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza-larvae.

Not included in the key: Agromyza mobilis; Elachista adscitella, dimicatella, nolckeni, rudectella, Ochsenheimeria vaccuella.