Festuca, fescue

Incl. x Festulolium, Patzkea, Schedonorus

1a larva with thoracic feet and a chitinised head => 2

1b larva a maggot without feet or recognisable head => 8

1c galls, etc => 100

2a the larva bores in the stem, but sometimes makes short excursions into the blade => 3

2b the mine begins in the blade => 4

3a the oviposition site, just above a node in the stem, is overed with a dried drop of secretion: Cylindromorphus gallicus

3b no such drop: Glyphipterix fuscoviridella

4a the mine extends into a bore tunnel in the ste => 5

4b the larve lives entirely as a leafminer => 6

5a mine a gallery from the leaf-tip to its base: Photedes morrisii

5b mine undescribed: Ochsenheimeria vaccuella

6a larva: has ventrally on each segment a light spot: Cosmopterix orichalcea

6b no such series of spots => 7

8a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often within a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

8b mandible with 2 or more teeth; no egg shell visible => 9

9a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation outside the mine => 10 *

9b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within or outside the mine => 11

10a larva: mandible with 4 teeth: Agromya albipennis

10b mandible with 3 teeth (the basal one clearly smaller than the other two): Agromyza mobilis & A. nigrella

11a puparium in the mine => 12

11b pupation outside the mine => 19

12a puparium: either front or rear spiraculum penetrate the epidermis => 13

12b puparium not connected with the outside world => 16

13a larva and puparium with rear spiracula strongly enlarged, fang-shaped, anchored in the leaf tissue: Chromatomyia milii

13b rear spiracula normal => 14

14a puparium shining black; rear spiracula penetrating: Cerodontha muscina

14b puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrating => 15

15a puparium monochromous orange brown; front spiraculum indistinctly bifid: Chromatomyia nigra

15b puparium yellow – orange brown with a dark ventral length band; front spiraculum fist-shaped: Chromatomyia fuscula

16a larva: rear spiraculum with 11-16 papillae; puparium in the leaf sheath: Cerodontha denticornis

16b rear spiraculum with 6 papillae at most; puparium in the blade => 17

17a the mine contains several puparia, each anchored within the mine with a strand of silk => 18

17b larva/puparium solitary, puparium not anchored in the mine: Cerodontha rohdendorfi

18a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

18b these warts large, with a deep “root”: Cerodontha pygmaea

19a larva and puparium with on each segment a transverse row of long spinelike papillae: Pseudonapomyza atra

19b no such rows of spines => 20

20a larva: rear spiraculum with 12-18 papillae: Cerodontha flavocingulata

20b rear spiraculum with 6 papillae: Liriomyza graminivora

20c rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina agrostis, graminis; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Subanguina radicicola

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera avenae

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria cornuta, tenuis; Aculodes dubius

102b Tarsonemidae: Steneotarsonemus graminis

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa brevicollis, breviornis, giraudi, hieronymi, longiornis

108 – smut fungi

108a Georgefischeriaceae: Jamesdicksonia dactylidis

108b Tilletiaceae: Tilletia controversa, sterilis, vankyi

108c Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago striiformis

108d Urocystidaceae: Urocystis ulei

108e Ustilentylomataceae: Ustilentyloma brefeldii

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110b Fungi, Ceratobasidiaceae: Ceratorhiza rhizodes

110b Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea; Epichloe festucae

110c Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma graminis

* Incl. x Festulolium, Patzkea, Schedonorus

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Not included in the key: Elachista carinisella.