Lolium, rye-grass

1a larva with well recognisable feet and sclerotised head => 2

1b larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva whitish, unusually slender: Ochsenheimeria vaccuella

2b larva lemon yellow, not unusually slender: Elachista luticomella

3a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often in a leaf shear) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola

3b mandible with 2 or more teeth; no egg shell visible => 4

4a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation outside the mine: Agromyza mobilis & A. nigrella *

4b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within or outside the mine => 5

5a mine partly or wholly in the leaf sheath: Cerodontha denticornis

5b mine entirely in the blade => 6

6a puparium in the mine => 7

6b pupation outside the mine => 11

7a pupaprium: front or rear spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 8

7b puparium not in connection with the outside world => 10

8a larva and puparium with strongly lengthened, fang-shaped, rear spiracula, that are anchored in the leaf tissue: Chromatomyia milii

8b rear spiracula normal => 9

9a puparium shining black; rear spiracula penetrate: Cerodontha muscina

9b puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrate: Chromatomyia nigra

10a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

10b these warts large, with a deep “root”: Cerodontha pygmaea

11a larva and puparium set with transverse rows of long, spinelike papillae: Pseudonapomyza atra

11b larva puparium without such spines => 12

12a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza flaveola

12b rear spiraculum with 6-8 papillae: Liriomyza phryne

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci; Subanguina radicicola

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera avenae

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne naasi

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria tenuis, tulipae; Aculodes dubius

102a Tarsonemidae: Steneotarsonemus spirifex

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia lolii; Haplodiplosis marginata

104b Chloropidae: Oscinella frit, nitidissima, pusilla, vastator

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Diuraphis frequens

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, graminis, loliicola, loliina, poae-nemoralis, striiformis

108 – smut fungi

108a Georgefischeriaceae: Jamesdicksonia dactylidis

108b Tilletiaceae: Tilletia controversa, lolii, vankyi

108c Urocystidaceae: Urocystis bolivari

108d Ustilaginaceae: Tranzscheliella hypodytes; Ustilago bullata, lolii, striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Hypocreales: Claviceps purpurea; Epichloë ? tyhpina, poae

110b Fungi, Phyllachoraceae: Phyllachora graminis

110c Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma graminis

* See also the key to the grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Not included in the key: Cylindromorphus gallicus angelini.