Hierochloe, holy-grass

fam. Poaceae

1a larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation externa: Cosmopterix orichalcea

1b larva a maggot; pupation within the mine => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva and puparium with strongly enlarged, fang-shaped, rear spiracula, anchoring into the leaf tissue: Chromatomyia milii

2b rear spiracula normal => 3

3a several puparia in a mine, each anchoresd with a strong of silk: Cerodontha incisa

3b puparium solitary, without a silken strand => 4

4a puparium shining black; rear spiracula penetrate the epidermis: Cerodontha muscina

4b puparium orange brown; front spiracula penetrating: Chromatomyia nigra

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: >Puccinia coronata, graminis, hierochloina

108 – smut fungi

108a Urocystidaceae: Urocystis hierochloae

108b Ustilaginaceae: Ustilago striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis