Milium, millet

1a larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine => 2

1b larva a maggot; pupation within or outside the mine => 6

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mines small, of indefinite shape, wthout frass; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 3

2b mines not unusually small, containing clear amounts of frass; larve mine all their life => 5

3a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

3b pinacula black => 4

4a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

4b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

5 of the following species the mines are not diagnostic and the larvae in many cases insufficiently described; no key can be constructed: Cosmopterix orichalcea; Elachista adscitella, albifrontella, apicipunctella, atricomella, bifasciella cingillella, diederichsiella, dimicatella, elegans, luticomella, obliquella, stabilella, unifasciella

6a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation outside the mine => 7 *

6b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within or outside the mine => 9

7a the three papillae of the rear spiracula elongated, sigmoid: Agromyza cinerascens

7b these papillae neither elongated nor sigmoid => 8

8a rear spiracula almost touching each other, separated by less than their diameter: Agromyza albipennis

8b rear spiracula well separated: Agromyza nigrella / A. mobilis

9a puparium in the mine => 10

9b pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza flaveola

10a 2-4 larvae in the mine; puparia anchored in the mine with strands of silk => 11

10b larva solitary; puparium loose in the mine => 12

11a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a “root”: Cerodontha incisa

11b these warts large, with a deep, dark “root”: Cerodontha pygmaea

12a larva and puparium with the rear spiraculum strongly lengthened and fang-shaped: Chromatomyia milii

12b rear spiracula normal => 13

13a puparium shining black: Cerodontha muscina

13b puparium orange brown: Chromatomyia nigra

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria tenuis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, graminis, milii-effusi, poae-nemoralis

108 – smut fungi

108a Ustilaginaceae: Ustilago striiformis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

* See also the key to the grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

22/12/2016