Triticum, wheat

Incl. Triticale.

1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine: Elachista albifrontella, E. freyerella

1b mine upper-surface; larva a maggot; pupation within or outside the mine => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a at the start of the mine (often within a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell; larva with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola

2b no egg shell visible; larva with 2 or more teeth => 3

3a larva: cephalic skeleton of Agromyzinae-type; pupation usually outside the mine => 4 **

3b cephalic skeleton of Phytomyzinae-type; pupation within or outside the mine => 13

4a larva: ventrally, behind the mandibles, a field with spinulose warts => 5

4b no such field => 10

5a larva: abdominal segment 8 dorsally spinulose over its entire width: Agromyza nigrociliata

5b abdominal segment 8 dorsally spinulose only at its anterior and posterior margin => 6

6a larva: rear end of cut off obliquely; larvae usually communal; mine greenish => 7

6b rear end cut off at right angle; lar usually solitary; mine whitish => 9

7a larva: rear spiracula touching each other (rare on this hostplant): Agromyza megalopsis

7b rear spiracula separated by at least their own diameter => 8

8a mines in July: Agromyza nigrella

8b mines in June and August: Agromyza mobilis

9a larva: mandible with 2 teeth: Agromyza rondensis

9b mandible with 3 teeth: Agromyza ambigua

10a larva: the three papillae of the rear spiraculum elongated and sigmoid => 11

10b these papillae normal in length and shape => 12

11a larva front spiraculum with 8 papillae; puparium anteriorly blackish, brown behind: Agromyza luteitarsis

11b front spiraculum with 11-14 papillae; puparium brown throughout: Agromyza intermittens

12a larva: rear spiracula touching each other; mandible with 4 teet: Agromyza albipennis

12b rear spiracula widely separated; mandible with 2 teet: Agromyza prespana

13a pupation outside the mine; larva and puparium with transverse rows of long spinelike papillae: Pseudonapomyza atra

13b puparium in the mine; no such spines => 14

14a puparium: front spiracula penetrate the epidermis => 15

14b puparium not connected with the outside world => 16

15a puparium monochromous orange brown; front spiracula indistinctly bifid: Chromatomyia nigra

15b puparium yellow to orange brown; front spiraculum fist-shaped: Chromatomyia fuscula

16a larva: rear spiraculum with 11-16 papillae; puparium in the leaf sheath: Cerodontha denticornis

16b rear spiraculum with 6 papillae at most; puparium in the blade => 17

17a 2-4 larvae in the mine; puparia anchored in the mine with strands of silk => 18

17b larva solitary; puparium loose in the mine => 19

18a larva: the black warts at the outside of the rear spiracula small, without a ‘root’: Cerodontha incisa

18b these warts large, with a deep, dark ‘root’: Cerodontha pygmaea

19a larva: rear spiracula with a big, black, finely spinulose wort that almost completely hides the tracheal tube below; puparium: rear spiracula, seen from above, form a U: Cerodontha superciliosa

19b warts present, but smaller, not covering the tracheal tube; puparium: rear spiracula form a V: Cerodontha lateralis

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Anguina tritici; Ditylenchus dipsaci; Subanguina radicicola

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera avenae; Punctodera punctata

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne naasi

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Abacarus hystrix; Aceria tenuis

102a Tarsonemidae: Steneotarsonemus spirifex

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Diuraphis frequens; Laingia psammae

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Eurytomidae: Tetramesa maderae, vaginicolum

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, graminis, striiformis, triticina

108 – smut fungi

108a Tilletiaceae: Tilletia caries, controversa, laevis

108b Urocystidaceae: Urocystis tritici

108c Ustilaginaceae: Ustilago tritici

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Blumeria graminis

109b Peronosporaceae: Sclerophthora macrospora

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Clavicipitaceae: Claviceps purpurea

110b Fungi, Dothideomycetes: Dilophospora alopecuri

110c Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma graminis

* See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae.

Not included in the key: Agromyza albipennis; Elachista maculicerusella; Ochsenheimeria taurella, urella, vaccuella; Pseudonapomyza spinosa; Syringopais temperatella.