Laburnum, laburnum

Incl. Laburnocytisus.

For a discussion of the biology and the parasitoids of Laburnum miners see Askew (1968a).

1a fleck mine, larve mines from a case => 2

1b fleck mine, larva mines while living free between tqo sandwiched leaves: Mirificarma cytisella

1c tentiform mine => 3

1d corridor or blotch => 4

1e gallen etc => 100

2a anal section of the case strongly curved downwards: Coleophora colutella

2b anal section straigt or only weakly curved: Coleophora trifariella

3a mine strongly contracted, larva solitary: Phyllonorycter staintoniella

3b mine flat, several larvae or cocoons in a mine: Macrosaccus robiniella

4a mine practically without frass; initially stellate, on the midrib, eventually a large blotch: Micrurapteryx kollariella

4b mine does contain frass, not beginning on the midrib => 5

5a a corridor, not or very little widening, not following the leaf margin: Phytomyza cytisi

5b narrow short corridor, followed by a small blotch: Leucoptera laburnella (youth mine)

5c eventually a secondary blotch => 6

6a frass in broad concentric arches; larva with chitinised head; mine not positioned along the leaf margin: Leucoptera laburnella

6b frass not in arches; larva a maggot; mine along the leaf margin: Agromyza demeijereri

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aculops cytisicola; Aculus acraspis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis cytisorum

105a Diaspididae : Chionaspis salicis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Uromyces laburni

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe guarinonii; Leveillula papilionacearum

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora cytisi

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Rhizobiaceae: Rhizobium leguminosarum