Medicago, medick

fam. Fabaceae

1a fleck mine => 2

1b larva with feet and a chitinised head; mine never a gallery => 8

1c larva a maggot; mine a gallery, or blotch preceded by a gallery => 17

1d galls, etc => 100

2a larva lives free under the leaf: Polyommatus icarus

2b larva mines from a case => 3

3a case helicoidal => 4

3b case different, essentially straight => 5

4a convolutions clearly separated by a deep suture: Apterona helicoidella

4b convolutions indistinctly separated, suture shallow: Apterona gracilis

5a larva in a sheath case: Coleophora fuscociliella

5b .. composite leaf case (occurrence on this host plant doubtful): Coleophora discordella

5c .. lobe case: Coleophora hospitiella

5d .. pistol case => 6

6a case up to 16 mm, straw-coloured with a pallium of about 1/5 of the length of the case: Coleophora cartilaginella

6b case shorter, darker, with a proportionally much larger pallium => 7

7a pallium at its base with a pair of winglike extensions: Coleophora vicinella

7b pallium without extensions: Coleophora spumosella

8a tentiform mine with length folds in the epidemis; pupation within the mine => 9

8b mine flat, without folds => 11

9a pupa: cremaster with two pairs of spines that are set very close together; especially the outer spines strong: Phyllonoryter nigrescentella

9b cremaster with two pairs of long and thin spines that are set widely apart => 10

10a pupa: cremaster spines with a notch just below the terminal hook; abdomen segment 10 about as broad as long: Phyllonorycter medicaginella

10b cremaster spines not notched below the terminal hooks; abdomen segment 10 broader than long: Phyllonorycter insignitella

11a frass in concentric arcs; the larva mines all its life: Leucoptera onobrychidella

11b frass, if at all present, never in arcs; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 12

12a larva: dark grey => 13

12b whitish, yellowish, to rather dark purplish brown => 16

13a mine quite small, (almost) without frass => 14

13b mine not remarkably small, with vlear amounts of frass: Aproaerema anthyllidella

14a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

14b pinacula black => 15

15a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

15b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

16a anal shield shining black: Syncopacma vinella

16b anal shield pale brown: Syncopacma taeniolella

17a quite short gallery that seems to end upon a thick vein: Ophiomyia curvipalpis

17b mine not like this => 18

18a mine a corridor until the end => 19

18b corridor in the end widened into a clear primary blotch => 25

19a puparium formed in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

19b larva leaves the mine before pupation through a semicircular exit slit in the epidermis => 20

20a corridor pinnately branched, main and side branches overlying the midrib and thick lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

20b corridor little branched, not associated in this way with the leaf venation => 21

21a larva: cephalic skeleton with two rearwards directed arms => 22

21b cephalic skeleton with three rearwards directed arms: Agromyza frontella, A. drepanura, & A. roskoznyi

22a frass in a broad green central band with minute black granules at either side: Liriomyza congesta

22b frass in black strings or thread fragments at either side of the corridor => 23

23a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 hook-like papillae: Liriomyza trifolii

23b rear spiraculum with 6-12 papillae => 24

24a gallery usually ends in a secondary blotch: Liriomyza bryoniae

24b usually no secondary blotch: Liriomyza cicerina

25a corridor part very shallow, whitish; blotch much deeper, partly even full depth (very common species): Agromyza nana

25b mine deeper, green; in the blotch (almost) no full depth parts => 26

26a corridor part of the mine follows the leaf margin for some distance; frass in green lumps: Phytoliriomyza variegata

26b corridor part free of the leaf margin; frass different => 27

27a frass at least partly in thread fragments; larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza xanthocera

27b frass powdery, in green – black clouds along the sides of the mine; rear spiraculum (virtually) consisting of one acute pointed structure => 28

28a larva: end of the rear spiraculum dark, bud-like: Scaptomyza graminum

28b end of rear spiraculum light coloured, inverse bottle-shape: Scaptomyza flava

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: Heterodera goettingiana

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne arenaria, hapla, incognita, javanica, naasi

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria plicator, ononidis, trifolii; Aculus acraspis, alfalfae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Acyrthosiphon pisum

105b Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Uromyces magnusii, punctatus, striatus, trigonellae

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporiaceae: Thecaphora deformans

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe pisi var. pisi; Leveillula papilionacearum

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora aestivalis, romanica, ? trigonellae

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Rhizobiaceae: Rhizobium leguminosarum

110b Fungi, Dermateaceae: Pseudopeziza medicaginis

110c Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma alfalfae

110s Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum