Trifolium, clover

Incl. Amoria, Chrysapis.

1a fleck mine: Apterona helicoidella

1b under-surface tentiform mine => 2

1c corridor or blotch => 3

1d galls, etc => 100

2a m ine strongly inflated, almost the entire leaf folding over it; upper side white-mottled; cremaster with two pairs of thorns that are set close together; especially the outer pair stout: Phyllonoryter nigrescentella

2b mine weakly inflated, upper side largely green; cremaster witth two pairs of thread thin spines, not set close together: Phyllonoryter insignitella

3a older larvae live free between spun leaves; mine full depth, very transparant => 4

3b larvae remain in the mine => 5

4a larva dark grey with anteriorly a white dorsal line: Aproaerema anthyllidella

4b larva brownish-yellow with red transverse bands: Syncopacma taeniolella

5a at the start of the mine an egg shell; long corridor, gradually widened to become a blotch: Trifurcula cryptella

5b no egg shell at the begin => 6

6a mine (almost) witout frass => 7

6b mine contains abundant frass => 8

7a larva witrh chitinised head: Parectopa ononidis

7b mine contains a puparium: Hydrellia griseola

8a puparium in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

8b pupation outside the mine => 9

9a mone lower-surface for most of its length: Phytomyza brischkei

9b mine entirely upper-surface (in the end locally full depth) => 10

10a a corridor till the end; larva: cephalic skeleton with two rearwards pointing arms: Liriomyza congesta

10b final part of the corridor blotchy; cephalic skeleton with three rearwards pointing arms => 11

11a gallery weakly widening, upper-surface throughout; frass with a broad green band: Agromyza frontella

11b gallery strongly widenend in the end, here locally full depth; frass in a few large lumps: Agromyza nana

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: trifolii

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria ? plicator, trifolii; Aculops eximius

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Acyrthosiphon pisum

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Uromyces fallens, jaapianus, minor, striatus, trifolii, trifolii-repentis

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Rhizobiaceae: Rhizobium leguminosarum

110b Fungi, Dermateaceae: Pseudopeziza trifolii

110c Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Cymadothea trifolii

110d Fungi, Physodermataceae: Physoderma trifolii, vagans

110e Fungi, Sclerotiniaceae: Botrytis anthophila

110f Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Ancylis badiana; Cnephasia asseclana, incertana; Liriomyza bryoniae, trifolii; Phyllonorycter medicaginella, trifoliella; Polyommatus icarus; Syncopacma vinella.