Rhamnus, buckthorn

incl. Frangula.

1a blotch; oviposition site (at the leaf margin) covered by a shining black drop of dried secretion: Trachys minutus

1b fleck mine (lobe case) => 2

1c corridor or blotch => 3

1d galls, etc => 100

2a the lobes used to enlarge the case are cut out of the upper epidermis of the leaf: Coleophora violacea

2b these lobes cut out of the lower epidermis: Coleophora ahenella

3a on Rh. glandulosa; ribbon-like blotch; Canary Islands: Thiodia glandulosana

3b on Rh. crenulata; corridor with a central frass line; Canary Islands: Stigmella crenulatae

3c on other species; European mainland and Mediterranean islands => 4

4a mine begins as a densely wound spiral, or several loops densely arranged “intestine-like” in semicircles => 5

4b mine different => 7

5a mine < 1 cm; first, largest, part of the corridor in a dense circle; older larvae live free on the leaf: Bucculatrix frangutella

5b mine larger; corridor begins with several semicircles; larve mine all their life => 6

6a on Rh. alpina, cathartica, pumilis, saxatilis, (Rh. frangula?): Stigmella rhamnella

6b on Rh. alaternus, lycioides, palaestina: Stigmella rhamnophila

7a blotch, may be preceded by a short of long corridor => 8

7b corridor, little or not widenend in the end => 12

8a mine begins with a shining globular egg shell; then a long corridor, finally a large blotch => 9

8b no egg shell visible; corridor short => 11

9a initial corridor closely following the leaf margin => 6

9b initial corridor runs freely through the leaf => 10

10a on Rh. lycioides; western mediterranean species: Stigmella crenulatae

10b on Rh. alaternus; western mediterranen species: Stigmella alaternella

10c on Rh. oleoides, pyrellus; eastern mediterranean species: Stigmella pyrellicola

11a larva mines several leaves that are spun on top of each other; larva mines all of its life: Hedma rhamnifoliae

11b the mined leaves are not spun together; older larvae live in a leaf roll: Calybites quadrisignella

12a on Rh. catharticus => 13

12b on Rh. alaternus: Bucculatrix alaternella

13a long, slender, corridor; frass green when fresh, brown later, coiled: Stigmella catharticella

13b short, angular, corridor; frass black, in lumps: Bucculatrix rhamniella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia coronata, mesnieriana, sesleriae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe divaricata, friesei

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110b unknown gall (?) on Frangula alnus

Not included in the key: Lyonetia clerkella; Recurvaria nanella.

13/08/2016