Prunus, cherry

incl. Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus, Padus, Persica.

1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus

1b mine with an excision => 2

1c tentiform mine => 3

1d blotch without preceding corridor => 11

1e corridor from start to end => 18

1f corridor, widening into a blotch => 24

1g fleck mine => 28

1h galls, etc. => 100

2a larva with yellow-brown head; May-June: Incurvaria pectinea

2b larva with black head; July-August: Incurvaria oehlmanniella

3a mine upper-surface => 4

3b mine lower-surface => 5

4a mine silvery, epidermal, containing frass: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella

4b mine greenish, practically without frass: Coptotriche gaunacella

5a lower epidermis whitish, grey or brown; mine < 8 mm; older larva lives free => 6

5b lower epidermis green or yellow-green; mine > 12 mm; pupa in the mine => 7

6a mine elongated, inflated; lower epidermis grey, opaque, with several pleats; larva grey with black feet: Parornix finitimella

6b mine oval or rectangular, hardly inflated; lower epidermis whitish, transparant, not ple`ted; larva pale green with green feet: Parornix torquillella

7a on Prunus padus: Phyllonorycter sorbi

7b on other Prunus species => 8

7c (Prunus species can be exceptional hosts to the (very) rare Phyllonoryter cydoniella, mespilella, and messaniella; breeding is necessary to come to a definite identification in these cases.)

8a pupa: cremaster clearly longer than wide (rare, certainly on this hostplant): Phyllonorycter cavella

8b cremaster shorter than wide => 9

9a pupa: cremaster with two pairs of spines, the inner pair not much smaller than the outer pair: Phyllonorycter sorbi

9b inner pair disticntly smaller tahn the outer one => 10

10a pupa: rear margin of cremaster weakly concave; sides of frontal appendage, seen from above, somewhat curved outwards; usually on Prunus spinosa: Phyllonorycter spinicolella

10b rear margin of cremaster straight to convex; sides of frontal appendage straight; generally on cultivated Prunus species: Phyllonorycter cerasicolella

11a oviposition site (mostly the leaf tip) covered by a shining black drop of hardened secretion: Trachys minutus

11b nu such drop => 12

12a mine full depth => 13

12b mine upper-surface => 16

13a mine < 10 mm => 14

13b mine larger => 15

14a spring mines: Yponomeuta evonymella

14b autumn mines: Scythropia crataegella

14c summer mines (young Incurvaria-mines) => 2

15a in the same or a neighbouring leaf slender corridors stuffed with reddish brown frass; mine mostly in young leaves, along the leaf margin: Lyonetia prunifoliella

15b no corridors nearby; mine in older leaves, in the centre of the blade: Pseudoswammerdamia combinella

16a mine ca. 5 mm, brown, often in number; frass in a thick plug: Rhamphus oxyacanthae

16b mine larger, not brown; frass different => 17

17a blotch with a dark centre; frass in concentric circles: Leucoptera malifoliella

17b mine silvery, epidermal, often beginning as a narrow white line overlying a vein, becoming broader in due course: Phyllonorcter corylifoliella (young mine)

18a mine begins near a globular, shining egg shell => 19

18b no egg shell visible => 21

19a corridor runs in a number of closed loops around the egg, ‘intestine-like’; frass green when fresh, turning grey later: Stigmella prunetorum

19b corridor in loose loops, not intestine-like; frass brown or black => 20

20a frass partly coiled: Stigmella oxyacanthella

20b frass nowhere coiled: Stigmella malella

21a mijn > 3 cm, very slender; frass in a narrow central line; larva chamber more than 3 times as long as wide => 22

21b mine shorter; frass sometimes absent; larva chamber indistinct => 23

22a frass brown; on the same or neighbouring leaf blotches that are (almost) free of frass; rare species: Lyonetia prunifoliella

22b frass black; no blotches around; common species: Lyonetia clerkella

23a mine narrow, branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella

23b mine relatively broad, unbranched, containing frass: Paraswammerdamia albicapitella

24a most frass is ejected from the blotch; some grains are trapped in spinning under the leaf; no egg shell visible at start of the mine: Lyonetia prunifoliella

24b all frass remains in the blotch; corridor begins at a shining egg shell => 25

25a corridor part contorted; larva whitish => 26

25b corridor not contorted; larva yellow or green => 27

26a mine quite small; corridor very strongly contorted; on Prunus spinosa & domestica: Ectoedemia spinosella

26b mine not exceptionally small; corridor somehwat contorted; on Prunus avium & mahaleb: Ectoedemia atricollis

27a mines ends in a primary blotch; mainly on Prunus spinosa & domestica: Stigmella plagicolella

27b mine ends in a secondary blotch; mainly on Malus, rarely on Prunus avium & cerasus: Stigmella malella

28a tubular silken case: Coleophora trigeminella

28b pistol case: Coleophora anatipenella

28c lobe case => 29

28d leaf case => 30

29a lobes cut from the upper epidermmis; case brown: Coleophora violacea

29b lobes cut from the lower epidermis; case generally whitish: Coleophora potentillae

30a case > 8 mm: Coleophora hemerobiella

30b case smaller: juvenile cases of Coleophora hemerobiella, and C. coracipennella, prunifoliae, spinella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Anthonomus bituberculatus, humeralis, rufus

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Tenthredinidae: Pristiphora monogyniae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniastraceae: Pucciniastrum areolatum

107b Uropyxidaceae: Leucotelium cerasi; Ochropsora ariae; Tranzschelia arasbaranica, discolor, pruni-spinosae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe prunastri; Golovinomyces orontii; Phyllactinia mali; Podosphaera ? clandestina, leucotricha, pannosa, tridactyla

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora sparsa

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Mycosphaerellaceae: Stigmina carpophila

110b Fungi, Phyllachoraceae: Polystigma amygdalinum, fulvum, rubrum

110c Fungi, Sclerotiniaceae: Cristulariella depraedans; Monilinia fructigena

110d Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

110e Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphrina armeniacae, confusa, deformans, farlowii, insititiae, padi, pruni, wiesneri

110f Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae: Argyresthia semifusca, spinosella

110g Plantae, Santalaceae: Viscum album

Not included in the key: Bucculatrix bechsteinella; Callisto insperatella; Coleophora adjectella, ahenella, currucipennella, serratella; Ectoedemia mahalebella; Parornix anguliferella, atripalpella.petiolella, szocsi; Phyllonorycter anceps, blancardella, hostis, laurocerasi; Stigmella amygdali, perpygmaeella.

28/12/2016