Pyrus, pear

Incl. x Sorbopyrus

1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus

1b mine with an excision: Incurvaria pectinea

1c tentiform mine => 2

1d blotch, without a preceding corridor => 7

1e corridor from start to end (possibly ending an a secondary blotch) => 12

1f corridor (usually partly following the leaf margin), ending in a primary blotch: Ectoedemia atricollis

1g fleck mine => 18

1h gallen etc => 100

2a mine upper-surface => 3

2b mine lower-surface => 5

3a mine grey or silvery; positioned over a vein => 4

3b mine silvery, later orange-brown, between two veins: Callisto denticulella

4a fully developed mine silvery white, without black speckles: Phyllonorycter leucographella

4b fully developed mine dirty grey because of many black speckles on the upper epidermis: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella

5a mine epidermal, silvery, later orange-brown: Callisto denticulella

5b mine not epidermal; epidermis pale green => 6

6a pupa grey-brown to grey; grass in a lump in a corner of the mine; common species: Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae

6b pupa reddish-brown to chestnut; frass in a line in the mine; rare species: Phyllonorycter mespilella

7a oviposition spot (usually the leaf tip) covered by a black, shining, drop of hardened secretion: Trachys minutus

7b no such black drop => 8

8a bloth full depth => 9

8b bloth upper-surface => 10

9a mine in spring: Yponomeuta malinellus

9b mine in autumn: Scythropia crataegella

10a mine ca. 5 mm, brown, often in number; frass in a thick plug: Rhamphus oxyacanthae

10b mine larger, not brown; frass different => 11

11a mine red-brown with a dark centre; frass in concentric circles: Leucoptera malifoliella

11b mine silvery, beginning as a narrow line over a vein, widening subsequently: young mines of Phyllonorcter corylifoliella or Ph. leucographella

12a at the start of the corridor a globular, shining black egg shell; larva green => 13

12b no egg shell visible where the corridor starts; larva whitish => 16

13a in the second half of the corridor the frass line occupies at least half its width; frass coiled; common species => 14

13b in the second half of the corridor the frass line at most 1/3 of the corridor width; frass dispersed or indistinctly coiled; rare species => 15

14a mine very compact, on a small surface (sometimes a secondary blotch); especially the first part of the corridor contorted with a broad, sometimes very broad, frass line; frass black; egg upper- or lower-surface: Stigmella pyri

14b mine not compact, running through a sizable section of the leaf; especially the first section of the corridor much less contorted, with a narrow frass line; frass brown; egg lower-surface: Stigmella oxyacanthella

15a frass line very narrow; often a secondary blotch: Stigmella desperatella

15b frass line broader; frass dispersed or narrowly coiled: Stigmella minusculella

16a corridor > 3 cm; frass in a narow central line; larva chamber more than 3 times as wide as long: Lyonetia clerkella

16b corridor shorter, may be devoid of frass; larva chamber indistinct => 17

17a corridor narrow, branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella

17b corridor relatively broad, hook-like, in a vein axil, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella

18a pistol case: Coleophora anatipenella

18b lobe case: Coleophora violacea

18c leaf case => 19

19a case > 7 mm: Coleophora hemerobiella

19b case < 7 mm: Coleophora spinella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Anthonomus piri, pomorum, spilotus

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Tenthredinidae: Pristiphora abbreviata

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Gymnosporangium clavariiforme, confusum, dobozrakovae, sabinae. tremelloides

107a Uropyxidaceae: Ochropsora ariae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Phyllactinia mali; Podosphaera clandestina leucotricha

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Nectriaceae: Neonectria galligena

110b Fungi, Sclerotiniaceae: Monilinia fructigena

110c Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphrina bullata

110d Heteroptera, Miridae: Closterotomus fulvomaculatus

110e Plantae, Santalaceae: Viscum album

Not included in the key: Coleophora currucipennella, kroneella; Lyonetia prunifoliella; Parornix anguliferella; Phyllonorycter anceps, blancardella, cydoniella, hostis, pyrifoliella, sorbi; Stigmella pyrivora, stettinensis.

15/02/2017