Parietaria, pellitory

fam. Urticaceae

1a most frass is expelled, part of it is trapped in spinning below the leaf; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine contains much frass; larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a species of the Canary Islands: Cosmopterix turbidella

2b species of southern and western Europe: Cosmopterix pulchrimella

3a mine begins (usually in the centre of the leaf) with a number of close, intestine-like, loops; frass partly in a long thread; larva solitary: Agromyza anthracina

3b mine, usually at the leaf margin, without an intestine-like start; frass not in a thread; larvae generally communal => 4

4a larva: the anteriorly-pointing arm of the cephalic skeleton two-coloured: frontal half dark brown, proximal part red brown: Agromyza reptans

4b this arm uniformly dark brown: Agromyza pseudoreptans

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis parietariae

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma parietariae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Oidiopsis parietariae; Podosphaera parietariae

110 – other causers

110c Lepidoptera, Choreutidae: Anthophila fabriciana

01/04/2017