Anchusa, bugloss

1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case: Coleophora pennella

1b corridor or blotch => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine lower- or upper-surface; larva a maggot => 3

2b mine at least partially full depth; larva with thoracic feet and chitinised head => 4

3a corridor from start to end; pupation within the mine: Chromatomyia horticola

3b corridor, followed, and mostly overrun, by a large brown blotch: Agromyza abiens

4a blotch, preceded by a very long and thin, epidermal, corrido: Dialectica scalariella

4b mine different => 5

5a blotch with a strong accumulation of frass in the, strongly inflated, central part; pupation within the mine => 6

5b mine small, without a definite shape, not strongly inflated, with hardly any frass; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia asseclana

6a mine, generally in the leaf base, strongly malforms the leaf; the larva may also live an a gall-like swollen part of the stem; uncommon on Anchusa: Cynaeda dentalis

6b mine more often in the distal part of the, hardly malformed, leaf; mainly on Anchusa: Epascestria pustulalis

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Aphelenchoididae: Aphelenchoides fragariae

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Anthocoptes aspidophorus

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Pachycerus segnis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Tingidae: Dictyla echii

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia aegilopis, recondita, symphyti-bromorum

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe lycopsidis; Golovinomyces cynoglossi

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Actinomycetales: Rhodococcus fascians

Not included in the key: Agromyza myosotidis; Cynaeda gigantea.