Lithospermum, gromwell

fam. Boraginaceae

1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella

1b corridor or blotch =>2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine at least partly full depth, whitish in transparancy; larva with feet and chitinised head => 3

2b mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparancy; larva a maggot => 4

3a mine very small, irregulary in shape; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

3b mine a large blotch; larvae mine all their life: Dialectica imperialella

4a corridor from start to end: Chromatomyia horticola

4b mine eventually a blotch => 5

4a larva: cephalic skeleton with 2 arms directed backwards => 6

4b cephalic skeleton with 3 arms directed backwards => 7

6a larvae communal: Phytomyza medicaginis

6b larva solitary: Phytomyza lithospermi

7a secondary feeding lines conspicuous; in the blotch the frass more or less reticulate: Agromyza abiens

7b secondary feeding lines inconspicuous; in the blotch the frass not reticulate: Agromyza lithospermi

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura lithospermi

105 – Hemiptera

105a Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia cerinthes-agropyrina, ? recondita

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cynoglossi

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora lithospermi