Pulmonaria, lungwort

fam. Boraginaceae

1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella

1b blotch, at least locally full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head: Dialectica imperialella

1c mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2

1d galls, etc => 100

2a corridor from start to end; puparium in the mine; frass in discrete grains: Chromatomyia horticola

2b eventually an upper-surface blotch; pupation usually after the mine has been vacated; frass partly in thread fragments => 3

3a larva: mandible with 2 alternating teeth (seen from aside seemingly 4!); mine communal, 5-10 mm wide at its very beginning: Agromyza ferruginosa

3b larve: mandible with 2 not alternating teeth; mine initially individual, starting with a 1-maggot corridor (that will be overrun later); usually several young mines coalesce, forming one large communal mine: Agromyza abiens

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aulacorthum langei

105a Tingidae: Dictyla echii, humuli

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia arnaudii, symphyti-bromorum

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces cynoglossi

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora omphalodis, pulmonariae

Not included in the key: Cnephasia incertana, stephensiana; Coleophora pulmonariella; Phytomyza pulmonariae, Phytosciara halterata, macrotricha.

02/12/2016