Ballota, black horehound

fam. Lamiaceae

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 4

1c fleck mine => 9

1d galls, etc => 100

2a at the start of the mine a shining black drop of dried secretion: Trachys pumilus

2b no such drop => 3

3a mine strongly contracted: Stephensia calpella

3b mine flat: Dibolia depressiuscula

4a corridor from start to end, may form a secondary blotch => 5

4b narrow, hardly widening, corridor, abruptly followed (and often overrun) by a large primary blotch => 7

4c mine inadequately described (“ablotch”); species from southern Europe: Amauromyza balcanica

5a the middle part of the corridor forms a distinct secondary blotch: Phytomyza salviae

5b nowhere does the corridor form a secondary blotch => 6

6a corridor pinnately brached, its main branch overlying the midrib; frass in strings; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza strrigata

6b corridor not pinnate, not associated with the midrib; frass in discrete granules; pupation in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

7a frass in the corridor part in a broad, green central line, with very fine black granules at either side: Amauromyza labiatarum

7b frass in black grains or thread fragments along the corridor wal => 8

8a in the entire corridor the frass in clear thread fragments, neatly alternating along the sides: Amauromyza lamii

8b frass in the corridor in untidy thread fragments, towards the end mostly in grains: Amauromyza morionella

9a rear end of the case bent downwards: Coleophora ballotella

9b not so => 10

10a case conspicuously laterally compressed, especially near the end: Coleophora lineolea

10b case hardly compressed: Coleophora ochripennella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia ballotae

104b Tephritidae: Aciura coryli

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Cryptomyzus alboapicalis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Leveillula duriaei; Neoërysiphe galeopsidis; Oidiopsis gigaspora

Not included in the key: Coleophora pennella.

25/07/2016