Stachys, woundwort

incl. Betonica.

1a mine full depth => 2

1b mine upper- or lower-surface => 12

1c fleck mine => 16

1d galls, etc. => 100

2a larva with well recognisable head => 3

2b larva a maggot: Phytosciara halterata

3a mine small, of indefinite, variabe, shape => 4

3b mine not remarkably small, definite corridor or blotch => 6

4a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

4b pinacula black => 5

5a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

5b anal comb absent: Cnephasia stephensiana

6a corridor, possibly a secondary blotch => 7

6b primary blotch => 8

7a mine rather small; larva, with prolegs, later lives free among spun leaves: Cnephasia longana

7b mine large; larva, without prolegs, mines all its life: Apteropeda globosa & orbiculata

8a oviposition site covered by a black, shining, drop of hardened secretation => 9

8b no such drop => 10

9a in SW Europe: Trachys quercicola

9b in central and eastern Europe: Trachys problematicus

10a at the underside of the leaf, joined up to the mine, a dense spinning: Stagmatophora heydeniella

10b no spinning at the underside of the leaf => 11

11a on Stachys recta: Dibolia rugulosa

11b on Stachys officinalis: Dibolia foersteri

12a corridor from start to end => 13

12b long, slender corridor, abruptly widening into a large blotch (which may overrun the corridor, but the corridor usually remains recognisable in transparancy in the frass pattern) => 14

13a corridor pinnately branched, its main branch overlying the midrib; frass in strings: Liriomyza strrigata

13b corridor not pinnate, independent of the midrib; frass in well spaced grains: Chromatomyia horticola

14a frass in the corridor part in a broad green central band, with tiny black granules at either side: Amauromyza labiatarum

14b frass in the corridor in black grains or thread fragments => 15

15a frass in the entire corridor as neat thread fragments, alternating along the sides: Amauromyza lamii

15b frass in the corridor in shorter, untidily arranged thread fragments; towards the end more in grains: Amauromyza morionella

16a sheath case: Coleophora albitarsella

16b spatulate leaf case: Coleophora auricella

16c lobe case => 17

16d composite leaf case => 19

17a mouth angle c. 45°; “lobes” very large and untidy: Coleophora virgatella

17b mouth angle 80-90°; “lobes” less extreme => 18

18a case clearly flattened, especially near the tip: Coleophora lineolea

18b case only little flattened: Coleophora ochripennella

19a outline of the case serrate: Coleophora onopordiella

19b outline practically straight => 20

20a case lies almost flat on the leaf; only on op Stachys officinalis: Coleophora wockeella

20b case stands nearly upright on the leaf; also on other species: Coleophora ballotella (but see also Coleophora pennella)

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heeroderidae: Heterodera cruciferae

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria solida; Epitrimerus jaceae

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Thamnurgus kaltenbachii

104 – Diptera

104a Agromyzidae: Napomyza lateralis

104b Cecidomyiidae: Ametrodiplosis crassinerva; Asphondylia stachydis; Wachtliella stachydis

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis stachydis

105b Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia betonicae, stachydis, vossii

108 – smut fungi

108a Microbotryaceae: Microbotryum betonicae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Leveillula duriaei; Neoërysiphe galeopsidis

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora jagei, stachydis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, anamorph of Mycosphaerella: Ramularia lamii

110b Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Liriomyza eupatorii (xenophagy?); Ophiomyia curvipalpis.