Prunella, selfheal

fam. Lamiaceae

1a corridor and/or blotch => 2

1b fleck mine => 5

1c galls, etc. => 100

2a long, narrow, hardly widening corridor, abruptly changing into a blotch (the corridor may be overrun by the blotch, but is usually recognisable in the frass pattern) => 3

2b broad corridor, may be widenend blotch-like here and there => 4

3a mine begins at a globular shiny egg shell; frass in the corridor in a central line; larva with chitinised head: Trifurcula headleyella

3b no egg shell; frass in the corridor part in a broad green central band, with tiny black granules at either side; larva a maggot: Amauromyza labiatarum

4a larva without feet: Orthochaetes insignis

4b larva with thoracic feet: Apteropeda globosa & orbiculata

5a larva in a helicoidal case; hole in the mine untidy, angular: Apterona helicoidella

5b larva in a tubular case; hole neatly round: Coleophora albitarsella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aculops clinopodii; Aculus prunellae; Epitrimerus jaceae

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Ametrodiplosis nivea; Dasineura brunellae; Macrolabis brunellae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis brunellae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia brunellarum-moliniae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces biocellatus sensu lato; Neoërysiphe galeopsidis

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum

Not included in the key: Phytomyza abdita, Phytosciara halterata; Vulcaniella extremella.

21/12/2016