Plantago, plantain

fam. Plantaginaceae

1a upper-surface tentifom mine: Aspilapteryx tringipennella

1b mine upper- or lower-surface, opaque, more or less a corridor => 2

1c mine full depth, transparant => 7

1d fleck mine => 10

1e galls, etc => 100

2a corridor lower-surface, epidermal (silvery): Apsilapteryx tringipennella (youth mine)

2b mine deeper, whitish-light green => 3

3a larva a maggot; in broader corridors the frass in two rows along the sides => 4

3b larva with chitinised head; in broader corridors frass in a central line => 7

4a pupation outside the mine; frass in strings: Liriomyza strigata

4b pupation in the mine (sometimes in the petiole!); frass in discrete grains => 5

5a corridor strongly branched, fanning out from the petiole; on Plantago major and media: Phytomyza griffithsi

5b corridor little branched, sometimes from the petiole; also on other Plantago-species => 6

6a corridor unusually narrow; frass grains very widely apart (at least 4 times their diameter): Phytomyza plantaginis

6b corridor with normal width, frass grains less widely spaced (about twice their diameter); uncommon on Plantago: Chromatomyia horticola

7a very narrow and short corridor in young leaves (March-April); Plantago coronopus, maritima: Scrobipalpa samadensis

7b corridor or blotch in a different season and on all Plantago-species => 8

8a corridor ca 1 mm wide, sinuous: Longitarsus luridus

8b corridor wider, contorted => 9

9a mine beginning in the leaf base or a thick vein: Orthochaetes setiger

9b mine not associated with leaf base or veins: Apteropeda orbiculata, splendida

10a larva mines from a silken tube, attached to the plant, into which it retreats upon danger or during feeding pauses => 11

10b larva free: Jordanita globulariae

11a larva grey-green with whitish length lines: Scythris picaepennis

11b larva dark purple with narrow transverse white bands: Scythris siccella

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne hapla

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Mecinus collaris, pyraster

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Jaapiella schmidti

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Dysaphis aucupariae, plantaginea

105a Asterolecaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia cynodontis

108 – smut fungi

108a Entylomataceae: Entyloma plantaginis

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Golovinomyces sordidus; Leveillula taurica; Podosphaera plantaginis

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora alta

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Botryosphaeriales: Phyllosticta plantaginis

110b Fungi, Capnodiales: Ramularia plantaginis,

110c Fungi, Dermateaceae: Spilopoda nervisequa

110d Fungi, Nectriaceae: Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans

110e Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum, erieum, plantagineum

110f teratology: teratologie

Not included in the key: Aspilapteryx multipunctella, spectabilis; Digitivalva perlepidella; Jordanita notata; Liriomyza bryoniae, trifolii; Orthochaetes setiger; Phytosciara halterata, macrotricha.