Solanum, nightshade

Incl. Lycopersicon.

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine uppper- or lower-surface, not transparant; larva a maggot => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine large, very transparant, not associated with the midrib => 3

2b mine smaller, brownish-opaque, often following the midrib or in a vein axil: Scrobipalpa costella

3a larva with red length lines: Phthorimaea operculella

3b larva pale yellowish green => 4

4a on Solanum dulcamara: Acrolepia autumnitella

4b on other Solanum species: Tuta absoluta

5a blotch mine => 6

5b corridor mine => 7

6a clutch size about 5: Pegomya hyoscyami

6b clutch about 11: Pegomya dulcamarae

7a frass in discrete grains; puparium in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

7b frass in strings or pearl chains; pupation outside the mine => 8

8a upper-surface pinnately branched corridor, main branches overlying the major veins: Liriomyza strigata

8b corridor not pinnate and upper-surace at the same time; mostly in greenhouses => 9 **

9a larva: rear spiraculum wit 3 papillae => 10

9brear spiraculum wit ≥ 6 papillae => 11

10a corridor contorted, almost a secondary blotch: Liriomyza trifolii

10b corridor winds loosely through the blade: Liriomyza sativae

11a mine mostly in the basal part of the leaf, often in contact with the midrib, frequently between two veins; usually beginning upper-surface, becoming lower-surface further on: Liriomyza huidobrensis

11b mine randomly positioned, often crossing a vein; usually initially lower-surface, but upper-surface in the end: Liriomyza bryoniae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

101b Heteroderidae: Globodera pallida, rostochiensis

101c Meloidogynidae: Meloidogyne arenaria, chitwoodi, hapla, incognita, javanica, naasi, thamesi

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria kuko, lycopersici; Aculops lycopersici

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia gennadii, trabuti; Contarinia solani; Macrolabis dulcamarae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis fabae solanella

110 – other causera

110c Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Spongospora subterranea

110e Fungi, Synchytriaceae: Synchytrium aureum, endobioticum

Not included in the key: Keiferia lycopersicella; Scrobipalpa ergasima.

** for a positive identification of these four, often very noxious species, rearing or molecular techniques may be necessary.