Alyssum, small alison

Incl. Hormathophylla, Ptilotrichum; see also Alyssoides, Aubrieta, Aurinia, Berteroa, Lobularia.

1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine upper or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5

1c fleck mine; larva mines from a transportable case => 8

1d galls, etc. => 100

2a mine small, < 1 cm; frass in discrete grains; larvae with thoracic and abdominal feet, lives later outside of the mine => 3

2b mine > 1 cm, frass different; larva without abdominal feet => 4

3a mine in the leaf margin; older larva lives in a felty mass; on Alyssum montanum: Lunakia alyssella

3b mine not exclusively in the leaf margin; older larva lives free: Plutella xylostella

4a frass partly in strings; larva without thoracic feet: Ceutorhynchus minutus

4b frass in lumps; larva with thoracic feet: Phyllotreta nemorum

4a frass in discrete black grains: Chromatomyia horticola

5b frass in strings or almost powdery => 6

6a mine centered on the leaf base and/or midrib => 7

6b mine free in the leaf, a corridor at first, then a blotch, and in the end a mine of the stem rind: Liriomyza alyssi

7a narrow corridor, free in the leaf, widening into an irregular upper- or lower-surface blotch overlying the thickest veins; frass in green-black clouds: Scaptomyza flava

7b broad corridor overlying the midrib, side branches over the lateral veins; frass in strings: Liriomyza strigata

8a case helicoidal: Apterona helicoidella

8b case more or less straight; composite leaf case => 9

9a leaf fragments all in the same, diagonal, position: Coleophora telonica

9b leaf fragments placed in alternating position: Coleophora kautzi

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria drabae

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Aulacobaris lepidii; Ceutorhynchus assimilis, leprieuri

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura alyssi; Janetiella fallax

105 – Hemiptera

105a Asteroleacaniidae: Planchonia arabidis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia alyssi

108 – smut fungi

108a Glomosporiaceae: Thecaphora thlaspeos

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe cruciferarum

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora alyssi-calycini

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, AlbuginaceaeAlbugo candida

110b Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Plasmodiophora brassicae

14/04/2017