Cochlearia, scurvy grass, spoonwort

1a the mine radiates from a galled portion of the midrib of petiole: Ceutorhynchus chalibaeus

1b no association with a gall => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva a maggot; mine (partly) lower-surface of upper-surface => 3

2b larva with chitinised head; mine full depth => 6

3a gallery from start to end => 4

3b mine finally a blotch => 5

4a corridor pinnately branched; pupation external: Liriomyza strigata

4b corridor not pinnate; pupation within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

5a frass in black strings: Liriomyza xanthocera

5b frass grains powdery, in green clouds, often visible only after opening the mine: Scaptomyza flava

6a mine small, roundish, often several in a leaf; larvae with prolegs; they mine only briefly, then live free under the leaf: Plutella xylostella

6b mine more or less a corridor; larvae without prolegs; they mine till just before pupation => 7

7a larvae with thoracic legs: Phyllotreta nemorum

7b larvae without legs => 8

8a mine radiates from the leaf base, sometimes the midrib: Orthochaetes insignis

8b mine not associated with leaf base or midrib, often near the leaf margin: Ceutorhynchus minutus

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchus chalibaeus

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Dasineura armoraciae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Lipaphis cochleariae

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia eutremae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe cruciferarum

109b Peronosporaceae: Hyaloperonospora cochleariae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Albugo candida

110b Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Plasmodiophora brassicae

15/11/2015

pub 15.xi.2015 ยท mod 4.viii.2017