Lepidium, cress, pepperweed

fam. Brassicaceae

1a larva with well recognisable head; mine full depth, transparant => 2

1b larva a maggot; mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish when lighted from behind => 5

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva with prolegs; older larvae live free; mine small => 3

2b no prolegs; larve mines livelong; mine not that small, a corridor => 4

3a mine roundish; older, free living, larvae under the leaf: Plutella xylostella

3b mine of undefinite shape; free living larvae among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana

4a larva witthout feet: Ceutorhynchus minutus

4b larva with thoracic feet: Phyllotreta nemorum

5a mine a corridor, in the end widening into an irregular blotch => 6

5b a corridor from start to end => 7

6a frass powdery, in green clouds in remote corners of the mine: Scaptomyza flava

6b frass black, in grains or strings: Liriomyza xanthocera

7a corridor pinnately branched, its main and side branches on top of the midrib and lateral veins: Liriomyza strigata

7b several short corridors, starting from the midrib: Ophiomyia beckeri

7c corridor independent of the leaf veins => 8

8a pupaption within the mine, in a, generally lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

8b pupation external => 9

9a larva: rear spiraculum with 7-12 papillae: Liriomyza bryoniae

9b rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza brassicae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Heeroderidae: Heterodera cruciferae

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Aceria drabae; Aculops lepidii

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Contarinia lepidii, nasturtii

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Brevicoryne brassicae; Lipaphis ruderalis

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia isiacae

108 – smut fungi

108a Urocystidaceae: Urocystis coralloides

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe cruciferarum; Leveillula taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Hyaloperonospora lepidii-perfoliati, parasitica; Perofascia lepidii

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Albugo lepidii

110b Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Plasmodiophora brassicae

See also Cardaria, that often is united with Lepidium.