Lunaria, honesty

fam. Brassicaceae

1a mine upper- and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot: Scaptomyza flava

1b mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a more or less a corridor, starting at the midrib, withour frass: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus

2b the mine does not start at the midrib => 3

3a mine small, with little or no frass; older larvae live free => 4

3b mine > 1 cm, containing clear amouns of frass; larvae mine life long => 6

4a larvae light in colour: Plutella xylostella

4b larvae dark grey or dark green => 5

5a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

5b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

6a frass in thread fragments; mine an untidy corridor; larva without thoracic feet: Ceutorhynchus minutus

6b frass in lumps; mine an irregular blotch; larva with thoracic feet: Phyllotreta nemorum

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchus assimilis, chalibaeus, pallidactylus

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Brevicoryne brassicae

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe cruciferarum

109b Peronosporaceae: Hyaloperonospora lunariae

110 – other causers

110a Fungi, Albuginaceae: Albugo candida

110c Fungi, Plasmodiophoraceae: Plasmodiophora brassicae

30/07/2016