Acer, maple

fam. Sapindaceae

1a corridor mine => 2

1b blotch or tentiform mine, not ending in an excision => 6

1c small blotch, from which eventually an excision is made of almost equal size => 25

1d fleck mine; larva mines from a transportable case: Coleophora badiipennella

1e small, full depth mines of indefinite shape => 26

1f galls, etc => 100

2a corridor shallow (often iridescent, epidermal): very young mines of Phyllonorycter ( => 7) or Caloptilia/Parornix ( => 11)

2b corridor (almost completely) full depth => 3

3a corridor ≤ 1 cm, in a vein axil; egg shell at start of mine iridescent: Bucculatrix thoracella

3b corridor ≤ 1 cm, near the margin of the leaf: Roeslerstammia erxlebella

3c corridor > 2 cm; egg shell shining => 4

4a lowland species: Bucculatrix thoracella

4b mountain species, Alps: Bucculatrix demaryella castaneae

5a on Acer campestre and platanoides: Stigmella aceris

5b on Acer pseudoplatanus: Stigmella speciosa

6a inflated tentiform mine => 7

6b flat blotch mine => 10

7a on Acer campestre, NW Europe: Phyllonorycter acerifoliella

7b on Acer campestre, elsewhere => 8

7c on Acer monspessulanum => 9

7d on Acer platanoides: Phyllonorycter joannisi

7e on Acer pseudoplatanus: Phyllonorycter geniculella

7f on Acer obtusifolium, sempervirens: Phyllonorycter obtusifoliella

8a pupa: at either side of the anus a sharp tubercle: Phyllonorycter acerifoliella

8b no such tubercle: Phyllonorycter monspessulanella

9a male pupa: front wing roughly sculptured; female pupa: metanotum with a pair of pits near the caudal margin: Phyllonorycter fiumella

9b male pupa: front wing smooth; female pupa: metanotum without a pair of pits: Phyllonorycter monspessulanella

10a mine < 1 cm, mostly in a vein axil; larva greenish or whitish; older larvae free-living in a down-folded leaf segment or leaf roll => 11

10b mine much larger, larvae not that pale => 16

11a larva: pronotum with 2+2 black spots; older larvae in a downfolded leaf margi: Parornix carpinella

11b larva: pronotum white; older larvae almost always in a leaf roll => 12

12a pupa: pronotum with a transverse ridge, bearing several sharp spines; spinulation of abd5 anteriorly much coarser than posteriorly; mostly on Acer pseudoplatanus: Caloptilia rufipennella

12b ridge without, or with only blunt, spines; spinulation of abd5 homogenous; mainly on Acer campestre => 13

13a pupa: pronotum with e median depression; larva greyish yellow: Caloptilia fribergensis

13b no median depression => 14

14a pupa: pronotum with short transverse ridge, more laterally a shallow despression: Caloptilia hemidactylella

14b pupa unknown => 15

15a larva yellow (reliable?); on Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus: Caloptilia hauderi

15b larva pale green; problably only on Acer campestre: Caloptilia semifascia

15c problably only on Acer platanoides: Caloptilia jurateae

16a oviposition site, mostly at the tip of a leaf lobe, covered by a shining black drop of hardened secretion: Trachys minutus

16b no such drop => 17

17a frass coarsely granular; mine transparant => 18

17b centre of the mine darkend by an accumulation of tar-like frass on the floor; mine brownish: Cameraria ohridella

18a larva: feet slender, colourless; pupaption outside the mine => 19

18b feet short, triangular, generally darkly coloured; pupation in a disk-shaped cocoon within the mine => 22

19a mine upper-surface, greenish; a shining agg shell at the start of the mine => 20

19b mine full depth, transparant; no egg shell visible; spring => 21

20a mine small; frass in a central spot; summer: Leucoptera aceris

20b mine large; frass dispersed; autumn: Leucoptera nieukerkeni

21a on Acer campestre; larva: head dorsally with a dark V: Hinatara nigripes

21b on Acer campestre, platanoides; head dorsally unmarked: Hinatara recta

21c on Acer monspessulanum, less often pseudoplatanus: Hinatara excisa

22a the cocoon falls out of the mine, leaving a circular excision in the upper epidermis => 23

22b the cocoon is not excised, falling finally along with the leaf: Heterarthrus leucomela

23a on Acer campestre: Heterarthus wuestneii

23b on Acer platanoides: Heterarthrus flavicollis

23c on Acer obtusifolium: Heterarthrus cypricus

23d on Acer sempervirens: Heterarthrus imbrosensis

23e on Acer pseudoplatanus => 24

24a mine begins at the tip of a leaf lobe: Heterarthrus aceris

24b mine begins in the centre of the leaf: Heterarthrus cuneifrons

25a larva with yellow-brown head; May-June: Incurvaria pectinea

25b larva with black head; July-August: Incurvaria oehlmanniella

25c mining stage unknown; Central Europe: Vespina slovaciella

26a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana

26b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Drepanosiphum platanoidis; Mimeuria ulmiphila; Periphyllus acericola, aceris, spec., testudinaceus

105b Diaspididae: Chionaspis salicis

105c Psyllidae: Rhinocola aceris

106 – Hymenoptera

106a Cynipidae: Pediaspis aceris

110f Eulophidae: Dichatomus acerinus

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: ? Erysiphe syringae-japonicae; Phyllactinia marissalii; Sawadaea bicornis, tulasnei

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Rhizobiaceae: Agrobacterium tumefaciens

110b Fungi, Gnomoniaceae: Apiognomonia hystrix

110c Fungi, Nectriaceae: Neonectria coccinea

110d Fungi, Rhytismataceae: Rhytisma acerinum

110e Fungi, Sclerotiniaceae: Cristulariella depraedans

110f Fungi, Taphrinaceae: Taphrina acericola, acerina, polyspora, pseudoplatani

110g Plantae, Santalaceae: Viscum album

Not included in the key: Caloptilia honoratella.

In the wings of the fruits (samaras) short corridors may be found, made by Ectoedemia-species (Nepticulidae). On Acer campestre lives Ectoedemia louisella , on A. platanoides Ectoedemia sericopeza, and on A. pseudoplatanus Ectoedemia decentella.

26/02/2017