Aquilegia, columbine

fam. Ranunculaceae

1a mine less than 1 cm; the larva, with chitinised head, soon leaves the mine and continues feeding among spun leaves => 2

1b mine larger; the larva, a maggot, mines life long => 4

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva: pinacula colourless (although the basis of the setae is black): Cnephasia incertana

2b pinacula black => 3

3a larva: behind/below the anus a chitinous comb: Cnephasia asseclana

3b no anal comb present: Cnephasia stephensiana

4a pale green corridor: Phytomyza minuscula

4b large blotch, often purple brown: Phytomyza aquilegiae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Macrolabis aquilegiae

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Longicaudus trirhodus

107 – rust fungi

107a Pucciniaceae: Puccinia actaeae-agropyri, actaeae-elymi, agrostidis, scarlensis

108 – smut fungi

108a Urocystidaceae: Urocystis aquilegiae, sorosporioides

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Erysiphe aquilegiae var aquilegiae; Leveillula taurica

109b Peronosporaceae: Peronospora spec. op Aquilegia

Not included in the key: Orthochaetes setiger.