Tropaeolum, nasturtium

fam. Tropaeolaceae

1a entire mine full depth, very transparant; larva with chitinised head => 2

1b mine (mostly entirely) upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3

1c galls, etc => 100

2a mine < 1 cm; larva, with thoracic feet, later lives free, causing window feeding: Plutella xylostella

2b mine longer; larva without feet, remaining in the mine till just before pupation: Ceutorhynchus minutus

3a blotch mine, with lobe-like extension; there the frass, as clouds of dark green dust: Scaptomyza flava

3b corridor mine; frass in black grains or strings => 4

4a frass in widely spaced grains; puparium in the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola

4b frass in strings or pearl chains; pupation outside the mine => 5

5a corridor pinnately branched, main branch overlying a thick vein => 6

5b corridor little or not branched, not associated with a thick vein => 7

6a main branch of the mine a slender corridor: Liriomyza strigata

6b main brand broad, somewhat of an elongated blotch: Liriomyza xanthocera

7a larva: rear spiraculum with 3 papillae: Liriomyza brassicae

7b rear spiraculum with 7-12 papillae: Liriomyza bryoniae

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

101 – Nematoda

101a Anguinidae: Ditylenchus dipsaci

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus

105 – Hemiptera

105a Aphididae: Aphis fabae mordvilkoi; Brevicoryne brassicae

107 – rust fungi

107a Coleosporiaceae: ? Coleosporium tropaeoli

107b Cronartiaceae: Cronartium flaccidum, ribicola

107c Pucciniaceae: Puccinia isiacae; Uromyces tropaeoli

109 – powdery and downy mildews

109a Erysiphaceae: Leveillula tropaeolicola

Not included in the key: Liriomyza trifolii.