Picea, spruce

fam. Pinaceae

1a needles are mined from their base, from a silken tube attached to the branch => 2

1b no silken tube => 8

1c galls, etc => 100

2a larva green => 3

2b larva brownish => 4

3a mine in spring: Epinotia nanana

3b mine in autumn: Epinotia tedella

4a mine without frass: Coleotechnites piceaella

4b mined needles contain frass grains => 5

5a mine in the previous year’s needles; larvae remain in the mine till shortly before pupation => 6

5b mine in the fresh needles; older larvae do not mine any more => 7

6a larva in May-June; in front of the anus a row of spines: Chionodes electella

6b larva in September-May; no such row of spines; mine in the basal part of the needle: Batrachedra pinicolella

7a larva: upper lip white: Dichelia histrionana

7b upper lip dark: Pseudohermenias abietana

8a fleck mine: Archips oporana

8b not so => 9

9a the larve mines a single leaf (then bites it off, and uses it as a case): Nemophora associatella

9b the larva mines several leaves => 10

10a mine does not contain frass; larva orange-brown: Coleotechnites piceaella

10b in the top or base of the mine frass is present; larva greenish => 11

11a larva: head and pronotum dark brown => 12

11b head and pronotum light brown => 13

12a mining larvae in spring: Epinotia pygmaeana

12b larvae in June-July: Epinotia subsequana

13a older larva bores into the twig: Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana

13b older larva between spun needles: Cymolomia hartigiana

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Epitrimerus piceae; Keiferella piceae

102b Phytoptidae: Nalepella haarlovi; ? Trisetacus pini

107 – roesten

107a Coleosporiaceae: Chrysomyxa abietis, empetri, ledi, pyrolae, rhododendri, worononi

107b Pucciniastraceae: Pucciniastrum areolatum, sparsum

110 – andere veroorzakers

110a Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Cydia pactolana

110b Plantae, Santalaceae: Viscum album

Not included in the key: Aphelia viburnana; Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Blastobasis vittata; Exoteleia dodecella; Spilonota laricana.