Pinus, pine

1a needle swollen, clearly shorter than normal: Brachonyx pineti

1b needle normal in shape and length => 2

1c galls, etc => 100

2a small full depth fleck mine (so without frass): Archips oporana

2b mine larger, much frass => 3

3a mine begins in the base of the needle => 4

3b mine begins in the upper half => 5

4a larva with short setae: Cedestis gysseleniella

4b larva with remarkably long setae: Batrachedra pinicolella (occurrence on Pinus uncertain)

5a mine descends from an oval egg in the top of the needle => 6

5b mine ascends from a small hole (closed with silk) a few cm below the tip: Exoteleia dodecella

6a thoracic feet obvious, 3-jointed => 7

6b thoracic feet reduced to a small hump with a minute hook => 8

7a larva reddish-brown; circle of hooks on the abdominal feet seemingly in a double row(?): Clavigesta purdeyi

7b larva green in autumn, turning purple brown in winter; abdominal feet with hooks in a single circle: Cedestis subfasciella

8a pupa: terminal abdominal segments with two swollen spinulose fields that are relatively small, and don’t touch each other dorsally: Ocnerostoma piniariella

8b these fields much larger, dorsally touching each other medially: Ocnerostoma friesei

100a Nematoda => 101

100b Acari => 102

100c Coleoptera => 103

100e Diptera => 104

100f Hemiptera => 105

100d Hymenoptera => 106

100g rust fungi => 107

100h smut fungi => 108

100i powdery and downy mildews => 109

100j other causers => 110

102 – Acari

102a Eriophyidae: Phyllocoptes farkasi; Platyphytoptus sabinianae

102b Phytoptidae: Setoptus pini; Trisetacus cembrae, ehmanni, pini

103 – Coleoptera

103a Curculionidae: Pissodes validirostris; Tomicus piniperda

104 – Diptera

104a Cecidomyiidae: Cecidomyia pini; Contarinia baeri; Thecodiplosis brachyntera

105 – Hemiptera

105a Adelgidae: Cinara pini; Pineus pini, strobi

107 – rust fungi

107a Coleosporiaceae: Coleosporium telekiae, tussilaginis

107b Cronartiaceae: Cronartium flaccidum, quercuum, ribicola

107b Melampsoraceae: Melampsora pinitorqua

110 – other causers

110a Bacteria, Agrobacteriaceae: Agrobacterium tumefaciens

110b Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: Cydia conicolana; Pseudococcyx turionella; Retinia resinella; Rhyacionia buoliana

110c Plantae, Santalaceae: Viscum album

Not included in the key: Aphelia viburnana; Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana.