Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess in Comstock, 1880)

mine

Rather long, narrow, strongly convoluted, not strongly widening, upper-surface gallery, often ending in a secondary blotch. Frass in thread fragments at either side. Mines often in the distal part of the lamina. Pupation outside the mine.

hostplants

Broadly polyphagous on all sorts of dicotyledons

Anemone; Anethum; Anthriscus; Antirrhinum; Apium; Arachis; Arctium; Artemisia vulgaris; Asclepias; Aster; Avena; Basella; Bellis; Beta; Bidens; Brachyscome; Brassica; Bryonia; Cajanus; Callistephus; Canavalia; Capraria; Capsella; Capsicum; Cardiospermum; Carthamus; Cassia; Celosia; Centaurea; Centranthus; Cestrum; Chelone; Chenopodium; Chrysanthemum; Cirsium arvense; Citrullus; Conoclinium; Convolvulus; Crataegus; Crotalaria; Cucumis; Cucurbita; Dahlia; Datura; Daucus; Dianthus; Dimorphotheca; Erechtites; Erigeron; Eupatorium; Fallopia; Flaveria; Fuchsia; Gaillardia; Galinsoga; Gazania; Gerbera; Gladiolus; Glycine; Gnaphalium; Gossypium; Gypsophila; Helianthus; Helichrysum; Helminthotheca echioides; Hibiscus; Holmskioldia; Hordeum; Hydrocotyle; Hymenopappus; Ipomoea; Kallstroemia; Lactuca serriola; Lamium; Lannea; Lantana; Lathyrus; Launaea; Leucanthemum; Linaria; Lycopersicon esculentum; Medicago; Melilotus; Molucella; Momordica; Nepeta; Ocimum; Passiflora; Pastinaca; Peperomia; Peristrophe; Petroselinum; Petunia; Phaseolus; Phlox; Picris hieracoides; Piper; Pisum; Plantago; Polygonum; Portulaca; Primula; Pupalia; Ranunculus; Raphanus; Ricinus; Rumex; Ruspolia; Salvia; Scaevola; Senecio; Solidago; Sonchus asper; Spilanthes; Spinacia; Stellaria; Synedrella; Tagetes; Tanacetum; Taraxacum; Thlaspi; Tithonia; Trachelium; Tragopogon; Tribulus, Tridax; Trifolium; Trigonella; Tropaeolum; Typha; Verbena; Vernonia; Vicia; Vigna; Withania; Xanthium; Zinnia.

BENELUX

BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

NE recorded (van Frankenhuyzen & van de Bund, 1979a).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

The first records of the species come from North and South America. Transported over practically the entire world in the eighties by the trade in cut flowers (chrysanthemums). In temperate regions mainly in greenhouses (Dempewolf, 2004a).

larva

Front spiraculum with 6 papillae, rear spiraculum with 3, the outher ones somewhat elongated. Contrary to L. bryoniae the larval is entirely yellow (Minkenberg & van Lenteren, 1986a).

puparium

Yellowish brown.

synonyms

Liriomyza phaseolunulata (Frost, 1943); L. alliovora Frick, 1955.

In many older publications (including Hering,1957a) but also Stammer (2016a) the name trifolii is used to denote what presently is named Liriomyyza congesta. The “L. trifolii” in van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a) is a mix of congesta and trifolii.

notes

Very serious pest species, in temperate regions mainly in greenhouse crops, in the tropics and subtropics also in the open. The species is particularly dangerous because it quickly has developed a high degree of resistance against a variety of insecticides (Spencer, 1973b; Minkenberg & van Lenteren, 1986a; Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen, 2000a).

references

d’Aguilar & Martinez (1979a), Bethke & Parella (1985a), Beuk (2002a), Capinera (2014b), Černý (2004a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Černý & Vála (1996a), Ci̇velek, Çikman & Dursun (2008a), Collins (0000a), Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen (2000a), Dempewolf (2004a), van Frankenhuyzen & van de Bund (1979a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gil Ortiz (2009a), Gil Ortiz ao (2009a), Iwasaki & Mizushima (1997a), Komnenovic & Pagliarini (1980a), Masetti, Lanzoni, Burgio & Süss (2004a), Minkenberg & van Lenteren (1986a), Parella (1987a), Parella, Jones, Youngman & LeBeck (1985a), Protocol for the diagnosis of quarantine organisms [2008], Šefrová (2015a), Shiao (2004a), Spencer (1973b), Stammer (2016a), Süss (1991b), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).

28/04/2017

mod 13.ix.2017