Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931

on Caltha

Phytomyza calthophila: mines on Caltha palustris

Caltha palustris, Sweden, Öland © Cor Zonneveld

mine

Long upper-surface, parallel-sided corridor, pale green, later browned. The corridor is little contorted and hardly branching. Frass in gradually coarser grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis (Hering, 1957a) or upper epidermis (Pakalniškis, 2004a).

hostplants

Ranunculaceae, monophagous

Caltha palustris.

phenology

Larvae in May-July and August-September (Hering, 1957a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1991a).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a, als nigritella).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees and Czechia, and from Ireland to Lithuania and Poland (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

Described by de Meijere (1926a, as nigritella); rear spiraculum strikingly large, bifid, with two long arms.

puparium

The rear spiracula are illustrated by Spencer (1990a).

synonyms

Phytomyza nigritella: auct.

notes

Mines mainly in the upper leaves.

references

Ahr (1966a), Beiger (1965a, 1970a, 1979a), Beuk (2002a), Bland (1994b), De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus (1991a), Buhr (1932a, 1941b, 1964a), Černý (2001a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Černý & Vála (1996a), Dreger & Myssura (2005a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1931a, 1955b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Maček (1999a), Manning (1956a), de Meijere (1924a, 1926a, 1939a), Michalska (1970a, 1972a, 1976a), Nowakowski (1954a), Pakalniškis (2004a), Robbins (1991a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Spencer (1954a, 1972a, 1976a, 1990a), Starke (1942a), von Tschirnhaus (1999a).

mod 15.v.2018