Lipara lucens Meigen, 1830
Phragmites australis, Hungary, Kimle © László Érsek
ga; party opened
larva below the growing point (at richt)
Phragmites australis, gall, also after removal of the leaf sheaths; Denmark © Simon Haarder
Phragmites australis, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon © Jean-Yves Baugnée
puparium, made transparant
The larva begins its life between the youngest leaves but soon its bores itself down through the growing point and thence feeds on in inside of the very tip of the stem The topmost 6-8 internodes are completely shortened, their leaf sheaths are strongly compacted. The solitary, yellowish white larva lies in a chamber just below the growing point; after the summer the chamber’s wall is sclerified. Monovoltine, pupation internal, after hibernation. The maximal thickness of the gall is more than twice the thickness of the stem just below.
In Lipara galls Anthomyza collini, Asynapta phragmitis, Cryptonevra diadema, C. flavitarsis, C. nigritarsis, Incertella zuercheri, and Calamoncosis minima. Lestodiplosis gracilis, probably also Cleigastra apicalis live here as a predator.
Abraham & Carstensen (1982a), Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a), Bellmann (2012a), De Bruyn (1994a), De Bruyn, Vandevyvere, Jaminé & Prinsen (1997), Buhr (1065a), Chinery (2011a), Chvála, Diskočil, Mook & Pokorný (1974a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Grochowska (2008a,b), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Nartshuk (2011a, 2012a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Spooner & Bowdrey (2012a), Roskam (2009a), Ruppolt (1957a), Schwarzländer & Häfliger (2000a), Tomasi (2014a), Waitzbauer (1969a), Waitzbauer, Pruscha & Picher (1972a).