Monarthropalpus flavus (Schrank, 1776)

on Buxus

Monarthropalpus flavus: galls on Buxus sempervirens Angustifolia

Buxus sempervirens ‘Angustifolia’, Hongarije, Budapest © László Érsek

Monarthropalpus flavus: galls on Buxus sempervirens Angustifolia

underside

Monarthropalpus flavus: galls on Buxus sempervirens Angustifolia

detail

Monarthropalpus flavus gall

Buxus sempervirens, Belgium, Liege; upper side of the leaf; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Monarthropalpus flavus gall

underside of the leaf

Monarthropalpus flavus gall

larva in opened gall

Monarthropalpus flavus old galls

Buxus sempervirens, Belgium, prov. Liège: Ben-Ahin, Lovegnée-Bosquet: old galls; © Jean-Yves Baugnée

Monarthropalpus flavus larva

another larva

Monarthropalpus flavus: exuvium protruding from the gall

Buxus sempervirens France, Paris, Versailles, Château de Versailles © Stéphane Claerebout: exuvium protruding from the gall

mine

Lower-surface circular mine, just a few mm in diameter. Upper surface wart-like, somewhat discoloured, opaque. Mine often on top of the midrib. Sometime several mines together, which may fuse. The larvae live of leaf tissue by means of external digestion.

hostplants

Buxaceae, monophagous

Buxus balearica, microphylla, sempervirens, wallichiana.

phenology

One generation per year; the larve hibernates in the gall, and pupates in spring.

BENELUX

BE recorded (Jean-Yves Baugnée: Liége).

NE recorded de Meijere (1924a).

LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

distribution within Europe

Entire Europe, except Ireland and the southern Balkan (Fauna Europaea, 2008).

larva

Young larvae are white, older ones pale orange. Galled leaves are dropped prematurely. Univoltine. Larvae hibernatee in the gall, pupate in spring.

synonyms

Monarthropalpus buxi (Laboulbène, 1873).

references

Barnes (1948a), Béguinot (2000b, 2002a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1964b), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Docters van Leeuwen (1936a), Draghia (1971a), Gagné (2010a), Groom (2011a), Hering (1957a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Lambinon, Carbonelle & Claerebout (2015a), de Meijere (1924a, 1939a), Meyer & Jaschhof (1999a), Nijveldt & Beuk (2002a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonelle (2015a), Salas-Remón, Llimona, Lozano, Alcaraz & Pujade-Villar (2015a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam, Tezcan & Can (2005a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a, 2005c, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).

mod 16.i.2018