Cystiphora leontodontis (Bremi, 1847)
Leontodon hispidus, Kunderberg © Melchior van Tweel
same leaf, underside
Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diameter, usually a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of fluid resulting from external digestion. Pupation in the soil.
Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous
Larvae from June on (Hering, 1957a), two, or more generations per year (Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen, 2006a).
The gall has been found by Melchior van Tweel in the extreme south of the Netherlands in 2005; pictures have been placed by him on the portal Waarneming.nl. The species is not known from Belgium or Luxembourg.
distribution within Europe
From Poland to the Pyrenees, and from the UK to Italy (Fauna Europaea, 2007).
Reddish-yellow (Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen, 2006a).
The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.
Buhr (1964a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Hering (1957a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Maček (2002a), Meyer & Jaschhof (1999a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, García Prieto & Pérez Hidalgo (2005a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a,b, 1997a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2014a).