Fagus sylvatica, Bloemendaal, Buitenveldert, Duin en Kruisberg, Niewendam: gall (upper surface) from the side
split vertically, and cut from its base
the larva sits usually (always?) in the base
The gall is attached to the leaf with a narrowed base
the point of attachement
vertical section through the base of the gall
detail; trophic tissue?
underside; the dark centre suggests an opening but that is (still?) closed (detail picture at right)
upperside of a very young gall
somewhat older gall
same gall, underside
Fagus sylvatica, de Kaaistoep: an even younger stage; © Paul van Wielink
Fagus sylvatica, Bussum; the same, very early stage; the gall at left is the most advanced of the three. When from that gall the upper epidermis is taken away, it appears that a tuft of white hairs has developed below it (photo at right).
Fagus sylvatica, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt: young, failed galls
detail of the underside
Fagus sylvatica, Denekamp, lg Singrave; when the galls have dropped off in winter, their scars still are easily recognisable in the fallen leaves.
Fagus sylvatica, lg. Welna © Hans Jonkman
Larva white, solitary; a single generation per year; the larva hibernates in the fallen gall and pupates therein also in spring.
Fagus orientalis, sylvatica.
Oligotrophus fagineus Kieffer, 1909; Phegobia tornatella (bremi 1847).
the ontogeny of the very first stages of the gall is described by Rohfritsch (2011a).
Galls mainly high up in the canopy (Kampichler & Teschner, 2002a).
The larvae may be killed within their gall by a strong development of the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.
Abras, Fassotte, Chandelier & Cavelier (2008a), Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2001c, 2002e,g, 2005a, 2006a, 2007b, 2012a), Bellido, Ros-Farré & Pujade-Villar (2003a), Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Chinery (2011a), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Gagné (2010a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2004b, 2006a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Romain (2009a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Mirumian (2011a), O’Connor & Wistow (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý 1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá (1989a, 2006a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1988a, 1992b, 1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2008a, 2010a, 2012a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Rohfritsch (2011a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Stănescu (2009a), Tomasi (2003a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).