Cystiphora sonchi (Vallot, 1827)

Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

Cystiphora sonchi: galls on Sonchus spec.Cystiphora sonchi

Sonchus spec.,’s-Heer Abskerke: upperside and underside of the same leaf; © Lucien Calle


Sonchus asper Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler


Sonchus asper, Amstelveen: two vacated mines, lower surface


a young larva in its mine


Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diam, often quite a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of liquid resulting from external digestion. Pupation sometimes in the mine, sometimes in the soil.


Asteraceae, monophagous

Sonchus arvensis, asper & subsp. glaucescens, oleraceus, tenerrimus.


Larvae from July on (Hering, 1957a); two or more generations per year, pupation of the summer generation(s) in the galls, pupation of the winter generation in the soil (Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a).


BE recorded (Gosseries, 1991c).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).

LUX recorded (Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz, 2001b).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Serbia, and from the UK to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2007).


Initially white, later yellowish.


The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.


Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a), Beiger (1970a), Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1941b, 1965a), Ceresa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Drăghia (1968a), Gosseries (1991c), Hering (1957a), Hellrigl (2006a), Huber (1969a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Karimpour & Skuhravá (2012a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Maček (2002a), de Meijere (1939a), Nijveldt & Beuk (2002a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntyte (2003a), Peschken (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonelle (2015a), Schneider (2016a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi, Gol & Joghataie (2014a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2002a, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2009a,b, 2010a, 2011a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Ebejer (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Sønderup (1949a), Stănescu (2009a), Sylvén (1960a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a).