Cystiphora sonchi (Vallot, 1827)

Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

Cystiphora sonchi: galls on Sonchus spec.Cystiphora sonchi

Sonchus spec.,’s-Heer Abskerke: upperside and underside of the same leaf; © Lucien Calle

74797479

Sonchus asper Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler

17378

Sonchus asper, Amstelveen: two vacated mines, lower surface

17378_2

a young larva in its mine

mine

Circular, lower-surface blotch, about 5 mm in diam, often quite a number together on a leaf. Upper surface wart-like, strongly reddish discoloured, opaque. At the lower surface the mine is closed only by the epidermis. The larva is easily visible, as is its food: drops of liquid resulting from external digestion. Pupation sometimes in the mine, sometimes in the soil.

hostplants

Asteraceae, monophagous

Sonchus arvensis, asper & subsp. glaucescens, oleraceus, tenerrimus.

phenology

Larvae from July on (Hering, 1957a); two or more generations per year, pupation of the summer generation(s) in the galls, pupation of the winter generation in the soil (Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a).

BENELUX

BE recorded (Gosseries, 1991c).

NE recorded (de Meijere, 1939a).

LUX recorded (Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz, 2001b).

distribution within Europe

From Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy and Serbia, and from the UK to the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2007).

larva

Initially white, later yellowish.

notes

The biology of Cystiphora species forms a transition between the mining and galling ways of life.

references

Bayram, Skuhravá & Çobanoğlu (2005a), Beiger (1970a), Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1941b, 1965a), Ceresa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Drăghia (1968a), Gosseries (1991c), Hering (1957a), Hellrigl (2006a), Huber (1969a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Karimpour & Skuhravá (2012a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Maček (2002a), de Meijere (1939a), Nijveldt & Beuk (2002a), Ostrauskas, Pakalniškis & Taluntyte (2003a), Peschken (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonelle (2015a), Schneider (2016a), Seidel (1957a), Simova-Tošić & Skuhravá (2001a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Postolovski (2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi, Gol & Joghataie (2014a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a,b, 1999a,b, 2002a, 2005c, 2006a, 2007a, 2009a,b, 2010a, 2011a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Ebejer (2002a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Hellrigl (2001a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Massa (2007a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Sønderup (1949a), Stănescu (2009a), Sylvén (1960a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a).

24/11/2016

mod 28.vi.2017