Rabdophaga heterobia (Loew, 1850)
Salix triandra, female catkin, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek
part of the fruitlets is disfigured, yellowed, swollen
larvae in the galls
cocoon and puparia
Salix triandra, male catkin, Belgium, prov. Namur, Barvaux-Condroz © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Salix triandra, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, Boussu-en-Fagne © Sébastien Carbonelle: gall of the summer gneration
Salix triandra, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek
Larvae of the spring generation make a gall in the male catkins, where they also pupate. The gall of the summer generation is a swollen bud that only partly opens into a hairy rosette, where several orange-red larvae are living.
Salicaceae, strictly monophagous
Béguinot (2012a) reports Salix arbuscula and purpurea; this almost certainly is incorrect.
Gagné & Jaschhhof mention as a synonym also Rabdophaga amenticola (Kieffer, 1909); this is surprising because the larvae of thst species live in the (female) catkins of Salix retusa.
According to the literature there are two genertions: a hibernating generation that in spring causes catkin-galls, and a summer generation galling terminal buds. This seems incorrect: the pictures of the summer gall from Hungary were made in spring, even a few days before those of the spring generation (May 1st and 5th, respectively) This rather suggests that both gall types are caused simultaneously by the same generation. It is not clear if this generation is followed by a second one that obviously can only cause bud galls.
Barnes (1951a), Béguinot (2002g,h, 2007b, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1965a), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Jaschhhof (2024a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Mirumian (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1996a, 2000a, 2004a, 2007a), Skrzypczyńska (2007a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá, Bayram, Çam ao (2005a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi ao (2014a), Skuhravá (1989a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1994a, 1997a, 1999a, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Blasco-Zumeta & Pujade-Villar (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Buhr (2013a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dončev & Dimitrova (1991a, 1992a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Neacsu (1972a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a), Unal & Akkuzu (2009a).