Viteus vitifoliae (Fitch, 1855)
Vitis vinifera, Hungary, Balatonfüred © László Érsek
opened gall, with female and eggs
upperside of the leaf, with gall openings
Vitis vinifera, France, dépt. Lot, Faycelles © Sébastien Carbonelle: upper side
Vitis vinifera: France, dépt. Ardèche, Soyons, lieu-dit “Tour penchée” © Stéphane Claerbout: density at which crop loss will happen
Vitis vinifera, Peru © Chris Snyers
strongly galled leaf
underside of the leaves with 3-7 mm larve pouch galls, open to the outside by a small opening in the upperside. The galls are strongly hairy, often red; inside a number of yellow aphids. Later in the season the aphids cause malignant growth on the roots.
Daktulosphaira vitifoliae; Phylloxera vastatrix (Planchon, 1868). The Aphid Species File (2014) convincingly argues that Daktulosphaira vitifoliae is the correct name, contrary to the Fauna Europaea.
Introduced in the 19th century from North America into Europe, nearly causing the collapse of the French wine industry.
Beguinot (2002a,d,f, 2003b), Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Hellrigl (2004a), Ianovici, Matica & Scurtu (2010a), Lambinon & Schneider (2004a), Pellizzari (2010a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a).