Fenusella nana (Klug, 1816)
Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel
the larva lies belly-up in the mine
unusual: two incipient mines in the same leaf
Betula, Ruinen, Echtenerzand: young mine with dead larva; © Kees Boele
Betula pubescens, Bergen NH
Large blotch, starting from the leaf margin. The very first triangular part of the mine is filled with a dense mass of frass, caused by lateral movements of the larva that actually press the frass in this first mine segment. The mine seems full depth, but actually is upper-surface, albeit very deep and (fresh) only very weakly greenish. Pupation outside the mine.
Larvae in June and July-August (Hering, 1957a).
BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a).
LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).
distribution within Europe
From Scandinavia and Finland to rhe Pyrenees, Italy and Bulgaria, and from Ireland until into Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
Messa, Scolioneura nana; Fenusa quercus (Cameron); Scolioneura laeta Enslin, 1918.
Contrary to Fenusa pumila this species mines older, full-grown leaves in the centre of the crown (DeClerck & Shorthouse, 1985a).
Ahr (1966a), Altenhofer (1980a, 2003a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Csoka (2003a), DeClerck & Shorthouse (1985), Digweed, MacQuarrie, Langor, Williams, Spence, Nystrom & Morneau (2009a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Haase (1942a), Haris (2009a), Hering (1931d, 1937c, 1957a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva (2013a), Liston (1995b), Maček (1999a), Nowakowski (1954a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pieronek & Soltyk (1993a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Robbins (1991a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Smith (1971a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Taeger ao (1998a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1963a).