Parna tenella (Klug, 1816)
Tilia sp., France, Pyrénées Central, St. Savin: comparison of the mines of P. tenella, left, and P. apicalis, right; © Tineke Cramer
Tilia x vulgaris, België, prov. Antwerpen, Mol © Carina Vansteenwinkel
larva (prepupa?) in the mine (the mine has been unrolled by hand)
Tilia cordata, Italy, Vicenza © Paul van Wielink
detail of a mine
Tilia x vulgaris, Reusel: old mines
A somewhat inflated full depth blotch, that begins at the leaf margin. The oviposition causes the leaf to roll inwords, covering (and often partly hiding) the mines (Buhr, 1964a; Burger ao, 1985a; Halstead, 2004a). Often several mines in a leaf. Mainly in suckers. Frass pellets up to 2 mm long (Halstead, 2009a).
Tilia americana, chinensis, chingiana, cordata, x europaeae, x moltkei, mongolica, oliveri, platyphylos, tuan.
The not European species in this list derive from observations in botanical gardens in England by Halstead (2004a). He also gives a list of Tilia species that were not infested.
Larvae mine from May 25 to June 25 (Burger ao, 1985a). Then they leave their mine and hibernate in the ground (Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher, 1998a; Halstead, 2004a).
BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
NE with certainty recorded in the Netherlands (Ad Mol in litt., 2008).
LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a).
distribution within Europe
From Sweden and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy and Bulgaria, and from Britain to Poland (Fauna Europaea, 2008).
The morphology of Parna larvae is discussed by Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Altenhofer (1980a), Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), and Lengesova (2008a), but no characters are known that discriminate the larvae of P tenella from those of P. apicalis
Liston (1993c) discovered that the name Parna tenella as understood till then covered a second species which he described as P. reseri, later rebaptised as P. apicalis. Identifications from before that date can refer to both species.
Contrary to P. apicalis, P. tenella is not parthenogenetic (Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher, 1998a).
Altenhofer (1980a,b,c, 2003a), Altenhofer & Pschorn-Walcher (1998a), Beiger (1979a), Blank & Taeger (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a, 1965a), Burger, van Frankenhuyzen, de Goffau & Ulenberg (1984a, 1985a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Edmunds (2016a), Halsted (2004a, 1009a), Haris (2009a), Hering (1924a, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Lengesova (2008a), Liston (1993c, 1995b, 2006a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a), Michalska (1976a), Michna (1975a), van Ooststroom (1976a), Pieronek (1962a), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schedl (2006a), Scobiola-Palade (1974a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Taeger, Blank & Liston (2006a), Ulenberg ao (1983a), Ureche (2010a), Viramo (1969a), Wahlgren (1944a, 1951a, 1963a).