Epinotia pygmaeana (Hübner, 1799)
dingy spruce bell
Groups of young needles are completely mined out by the young larvae. Between the needles only a few strands of silk (often also bud scales are trapped in the silk). Later in summer the larva lives free among spun needles.
Mining larvae in spring.
BE recorded (Phegea, 2009).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
distribution within Europe
From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees, Italy, and Bulgaria, and from Britain to Central Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009).
Light greenish, with black brown head and pronotum. Anal comb present, c. 6 prongs. Pinacula moderately large, concolorous with the integument. Prolegs with c. 45 crochets in a double row (Bradley ao, 1979a; Grandi 1931a, 1933a; Swatschek, 1958a).
It is difficult to understand why this species is noy treated in Patočka’s (1960a) monograph of Central European Abies moths.
Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Buhr (1935b), Grandi (1931a, 1933a), Hering (1957a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Robbins (1991a) van Roosmalen, Wijker & Knijnsberg (2013a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Swatschek (1958a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a).