Lyonetia prunifoliella (Hübner, 1796)
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne, Pairées © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Prunus spinosa, IJzevoorde
another mine from the same plant
Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Chimay (Momignies): occupied mines © Stéphane Claerebout
Malus sylvestris, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne, Pairées; © Jean-Yves Baugnée
Two cocoons, attached to silken strands at the underside of a leaf, in a manner characteristic for the genus Lyonetia.
Eggs are deposited in (not: on) the underside of a leaf, well away from the margin, often several per leaf. Around the oviposition site a cavity develops, that in the end often leaves a hole in the leaf. Then a narrow, hardly widening, winding corridor, largely filled with a broad reddish brown frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a wide, full depth blotch, that often lies against the leaf margin. The larva may leave its mine and continue elsewere, even on a different leaf. Also the first blotch may already lie on a different leaf. Frass dispersed, in oval granules. Most frass is ejected through semicircular cuts along the outer limit of the blotch; part of it is often trapped in strands of silk under the leaf.
Betulaceae, Rosaceae; narrowly polyphagous on woody plants
Betula pendula, pubescens; Chaenomeles japonica; Cotoneaster integerrimus; Crategus monogyna; Cydonia oblonga; Mespilus germanica; Prunus armeniaca, cerasifera, dulcis, mahaleb, persica, spinosa; Pyrus communis; Sorbus.
In North America a pest on Malus domestica.
Larvae in July and September – October (Hering, 1957a), but in the Netherlands dead (parasitised) larvae were found in end-August.
BE recorded (De Prins, 2003a).
NE recorded (Ellis & Zwier, 2004a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009), but certainly present.
distribution within Europe
All Europe, except Ireland, the Iberian Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009). In Britain after 1900 not seen, and considered extinct flor many year (Emmet, 1985a); but recently the species is found here and there (Kitchener, 2010a).
In a greenish cocoon that is attached to some silken strands under a leaf. See Patočka (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), for a description of the pupa.
Lyonetia speculella Clemens, 1862.
Contrary to what almost is a rule for leaf mines, most prunifoliella mines are in the very youngest leaves.
Baryshnikova (2007a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Borkowski (2003a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1981a, 1992b), Ellis & Zwier (2004a), Emmet (1985a), Grandi (1931a, 1933a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1930b, 1957a, 1961a), Huber (1969a), Huisman ao (2009a), Kitchener (2010a), Klimesch & Skala (1936b), Kuroko (1964a), Maček (1999a), Patočka (2000a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (2003a), Robbins (1991a), Schmitt, Brown & Davis (1996a), Seven (2006a), Skala (1951a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Starý (1930a), Stolnicu (2007a, 2008a), Szőcs (1977a), Ureche (2010a).