Phyllonorycter connexella (Zeller, 1846)
on Populus, Salix
Populus x canadensis, Lauwersmeer (Gr.) © Gerrit Tuinstra
mine, lighted from behind
cremaster in dorsal and lateral view (from Gregor & Patočka)
Lower-surface tentiform mine, usually between two side veins. One strong length fold. Pupa in a cocoon. Frass incorporated in the sides of the cocoon, giving the impression of two dark lines when the leaf is held against the light.
Larvae in June and October (Hering, 1957a).
BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010).
LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
distribution within Europe
From Fennoscandia to the Pyrenees and Italy, and from France to Central Russia and the Ukraine (Fauna Europaea, 2010).
Yellowish to dark brown. The cremaster is shorter than wide, and puckered over its entire surface. Two pairs of spines. The outer, rather small, pair is curved outwards. The inner pair is very small, and curved upwards (Gregor & Patočka, 2001a; Patočka & Turčáni, 2005a).
Arru (1996a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Buhr (1935b, 1937a), Buszko (1992b), Davis & Deschka (2001a), Delplanque (1998a), Deutschmann (2008a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Hering (1923a. 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huisman & Koster (1998a), Jaworski (2009a), Kasy (1965a), Klimesch (1950c), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), van Nieukerken, Gielis, Huisman ao (1993a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Sønderup (1949a), Szőcs (1977a, 1978a, 1981a).