Ditylenchus dipsaci Kuhn, 1857

Nematoda, Anguinidae

on numerous herbaceous plants

Ditylenchus dipsaci: gall on Hirschfeldia incana

Hirschfeldia incana. Greece, Kreta © Paul Fontaine; identification cf

Ditylenchus dipsaci: galls on Saponaria officinalis

Saponaria officinalis, Belgium, Antwerp; © Chris Snyers

Ditylenchus dipsaci: gall on Veronica arvensis

Veronica arvensis, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Vaulx-le-Tournai © Sébastien Carbonelle

gall

The nematode feeds on the parenchyma of the abovenground parts of the plant. The stems are shortened and thickened; no gall chambers. Also the leaves have spongy swellings, and show growth disturbances. The inflorescence is stunted and disfigured. In section nematodes can be seen, especially by teasing apart a small piece of the gall in water.

hostplants

strongly polyphagous on herbaceous plants

Aethusa cynapium; Agrostemma githago; Agrostis stolonifera; Allium cepa, proliferum, schoenoprasum, vineale; Amberboa moschata; Anagallis arvensis; Anemone coonaria, hepatica, “japonica”; Angelica archangelica; Anthoxanthum odoratum; Anthriscus sylvestris; Anthyllis vulneraria; Apera spica-venti; Apium graveolens; Arabidopsis thaliana; Arabis alpina subsp. caucasica, hirsuta; Arenaria serpyllifolia; Argentina anserina; Armoracia rusticana; Arnoseris minima; Arrhenatherum elatius & subsp. bulbosum; Artemisia campestris; “Aster”; Atriplex hortensis, patula; Aubrieta deltoidea; Avena fatua, sativa; Bellevalia; Bellis; Brassica napus; Callistephus chinensis; Camelina microcarpa, sativa; Campanula carpatica; Cannabis sativa; Capsella bursa-pastoris; Capsicum annuum; Cardamine hirsuta, pratensis; Cardaria draba; Carduus crispus; Carlina vulgaris; Carum carvi, verticillatum; Cerastium arvense, fontanum subsp. vulgare, semidecandrum; Chelone glabra; Chenopodium album, foliosum, polyspermum; Cichorium intybus;Cirsium arvense, oleraceum, tataricum; Colchicum autumnale; Convolvulus arvensis; Coronopus squamatus; Crepis biennis, capillaris, foetida & subsp. rhoeadifolia, leontodontoides, paludosa, tectorum, vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia; Cucumis melo, sativus; Cyanus segetum; Dactylis glomerata; Daucus carota; Delphinium; Dianthus barbatus, caryophyllus, chinensis; Digitalis purpurea; Dipsacus fullonum, sativus; Echinochloa crus-galli; Eplobium palustre; Erigeron canadensis; Erodium cicutarium; Erysimum bicolor, cheiri, x marshallii; Fagopyrum esculentum; Falcaria vulgaris; Fallopia convolvulus, dumetorum; Festuca; Fragaria; Fumaria officinalis; Gagea pratensis; Galanthus nivalis; Galeopsis angustifola, ladanum, speciosa, tetrahit; Galinsoga parviflora;
Galium; Geranium dissectum, molle; Gladiolus; Gnaphalium uliginosum; Helianthus annuus, tuberosus; Hieracium prenanthoides; Hirschfeldia incana; Holcus lanatus; Hordeum vulgare; Hyacinthoides hispanica; Hyacinthus; Hydrangea macrophylla; Hyoscyamus aureus, niger; Hypochaeris maculata, radicata Iris; Isatis tinctoria; Juncus bufonius; Kickxia spuria; Knautia arvensis; Koeleria pyramidata; Lactuca serriola; Lamium amplexicaule, purpureum; Lathyrus odoratus; Leontodon hispidus & subsp. hastilis, incanus; Leucanthemum maximum, vulgare; Linaria arvensis; Linum tenuifolium, usitatissimum; Lolium perenne, multiflorum; Lupinus angustifolius, luteus; Lycopersicon esculentum; Lycopsis arvensis; Lysimachia punctata, vulgaris; Medicago lupulina, sativa; Melampyrum arvense; Melilotus albus, officinalis; Mentha arvensis, pulegium; Mercurialis; Muscari botryoides; Myosotis micrantha; Myosurus minimus; Narcissus poeticus subsp. radiiflorus; Nicotiana tabacum; Ochlopoa annua; Odontites; Oenothera biennis; Onobrychis viciifolia; Ornithogalum candicans; Ornithopus perpusillus, sativus; Panicum miliaceum; Papaver dubium, rhoeas, setigerum; Pastinaca sativa; Penstemon barbatus, eatonii, fruticosus, gentianoides, hartwegii; Persicaria lapathifolia, maculosa, minor, mitis; Petroselinum crispum; Phacelia tanacetifolia; Phaseolus vulgaris; Phleum pratense; Phlox amoena, paniculata; Picris hieracioides; Pilosella cymosa, officinarum; Pisum sativum; Plantago cornutii, holosteum, lanceolata, major, maritima, media; Poa trivialis; Polygonum aviculare; Primula veris; Ranunculus acris, arvensis, auricomus, bulbosus, repens, sceleratus; Raphanus raphanistrum; Rheum rhabarbarum, rhaponticum; Rhinanthus angustifolius; Rumex acetosa, acetosella, crispus; Saponaria ocymoides, officinalis; Satureja hortensis; Saussurea alpina; Saxifraga umbrosa; Scilla bifolia, sibirica; Scorzonera hispanica; Scorzoneroides autumnalis, pyrenaica; Scrophularia nodosa, umbrosa; Secale cereale; Senecio vulgaris; Silene armeria, bupleuroides, coelirosa, gallica, italica, latifolia, noctiflora, nutans, reichenbachii, viridiflora; Sinapis alba, arvensis; Solanum tuberosum; Solidago canadensis; Sonchus asper, arvensis, bulbosus, oleraceus; Spergula arvensis, morisonii, pentandra; Spinacia oleracea; Stachys arvensis, palustris, setifera; Stellaria media; Tagetes patula; Tanacetum cinerariifolium, vulgare; Taraxacum officinale; Thlaspi; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium arvense, campestre, dubium, hybridum, incarnatum, medium, pratense, repens; Triglochin maritima, palustris; Trigonella foenum-graecum; Tripleurospermum inodorum; Triticum aestivum; Tropaeolum majus; Tulipa; Urtica urens; Valeriana officinalis; Valerianella locusta; Veronica agrestis, arvensis, chamaedrys, hederifolia, opaca, peregrina, praecox, serpyllifolia, spicata; Vicia cracca, faba, hirsuta, pannonica, sativa, tetrasperma, villosa; Viola arvensis, tricolor, x wittrockiana; Vitis vinifera; Zea mays.

notes

When food runs out, the nematodes may migrate to the surface. Depending on the circumstances the nematodes may become dehydrated and become “worm wool”, perfectly apt for wind dispersal.

synonyms

Ditylenchus phloxidis Kirjanova, 1951.

references

Béguinot (2002h, 2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Bongers (1988a), Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Koops (2013a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez, Jordá Gutiérrez, López González, Andrés Yebes & Duran-Vila (2010a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a).

07/08/2016

pub 27.ii.2017 · mod 18.vii.2017