Cronartium flaccidum (Albertini & Schweinitz) Winter, 1880

on Pinus

gall

large swellings, 10-20 cm long of the younger branches, sometimes as thick as the branch itself, with large groups leaf-like, orange-yellow aecia, up to 7 mm large. The mycelium in the branches is systemic and lives for many years.

spermogonia, aecia

Pinaceae, monophagous

Pinus halepensis, mugo, nigra & subsp. laricio, pinaster, pinea, ponderosa, sylvestris.

two-needled species.

notes

Throughout Europe an important forestry pest.


on dicotyledonous herbs

Cronartium flaccidum; uredinia on Paeonia lactiflora

Paeonia lactiflora, Germany, Munich © Paul Fontaine

Cronartium flaccidum: telia on Vincetoxicum hirundinaria

em>Vincetoxicum hirundinaria, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Tellin, Tienne des Vignes © Carina Van Steenwinkel

Cronartium flaccidum: telia on Vincetoxicum hirundinaria

detail

Cronartium flaccidum: germinating teliospores

detail: the teliospores are already germinating

gall

uredinia hypophyllous, up to 0.25 mm large warts, covered by a peridium that has a round pore; spores rotund-oval, up tp 30 µm long, finely spinulose. Telia develop within the uredinia; the teliospores are elliptic, 60 µm long; they stick together, and are squeezed out as a 1-2 mm long column.

uredinia, telia

herbs, strongly polyphagous

Asclepias incarnata, lutea, syriaca, tuberosa; Bartsia alpina; Cynanchum mongolicum, purpurascens; Delphinium elatum; Euphrasia nemorosa, stricta; Gentiana asclepiadea, verna; Glandularia laciniata, platensis; Impatiens balsamina, glandulifera, parviflora; Loasa lateritia, tricolor; Meconopsis cambrica; Melampyrum arvense, nemorosum, pratense, sylvaticum; Myosotis; Nasa triphylla; Nemesia strumosa, versicolor; Odontites vernus, vulgaris; Paeonia anomala, arietina, lactiflora, mascula, mlokosewitschii, officinalis & subsp. microcarpa, peregrina, x suffruticosa, tenuifolia; Pedicularis palustris, sceptrum-carolinum; Ruellia elegans; Schizanthus grahamii; Scyphanthus stenocarpus; Tropaeolum majus, minus, peregrinum, peltophorum; Verbena hybrida, officinalis; Veronica longifolia; Vincetoxicum fuscatum, hirundinaria, intermedium, laxum, nigrum, rehmanni, rossicum, scandens.

synonyms

Cronartium asclepiadeum (Willdenow) Fries, 1815; ; C. gentianeum von Thümen, 1878.

hyperparasites

the aecia are parasitised by Cladosporium tenuissimum..

notes

in Arctic regions this species has a form the permanently lives in the aecia stage, without host alternation. The form has long been considered as an independent species, even genus, but a study by Kasanen has shown neither morphological nor genetic differences exist with C. flaccidum: Peridermium pini (Willdenow) Léveillé, 1826 = Cronartium pini (Willdenow) Jørstad, 1925 = Endocronartium pini (Willdenow) Hiratsuka, 1969./p>

references

Bahcecioglu & Kabaktepe (2012a), Blumer (1946a), Brandenburger (1985a: 22), Buhr (1965a), Dietrich (2016b), Doppelbaur & Dopelbaur (1968a), Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Gäumann (1959a), González-Fragoso (1925a), Henderson (2000a, 2004a), Jage, Klenke, Kruse oo (2016a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Jage, Scholler & Klenke (2010a), Kaitera & Hiltunen (2012a), Karadžić & Milijašević (2008a), Kasanen (2001a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a), Kruse (2014a), Llorens i Villagrasa (1984a), Ludwig (1974a), Maier, Begerow, Weiß & Oberwinkler (2003a), Marková & Urban (1988a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez, Jordá Gutiérrez ao (2010a), Moricca, Ragazzi, Mitchelson & Assante (2001a), Poelt & Zwetko (1997a), Preece & Hick (1994a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ruszkiewicz-Michalska (2006a), Scheuer & Bechter (2012a), Termorshuizen & Swertz (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Vanderweyen & Fraiture (2007a), Wilson & Henderson (1966a).

27/05/2017

pub 27.v.2017 · mod 10.viii.2017