Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Where can I find the old website Frequently Asked Question

The old website is available on https://bladmineerders.nl/html-site/index.htm. Please note that this website has not been maintained since 2017….

Agromyzidae parasite

Agromyzidae Mining flies Without exception Agromyzidae larvae live in green plant tissue. As an adaptation to this mode of life the females have a strongly sclerotised ovipositor, that enables them to deposit their eggs inside the plant tissue, rather than on top of it. Only about fifty percent of the…

Betula host plants

Betula birch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Betula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine ends in a round or oval excision => 2 1b blotch without a preceding corridor (or this corridor < 3 mm) => 6 1c blotch preceded by a corridor…

Alnus host plants

Alnus alder (For a dichotomous table for galls on Alnus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine, or a blotch without a long initial corridor => 2 1b mine begins as a narrow corridor, that may or may not widen further on; the corridor can…

Prunus host plants

Prunus cherry incl. Amygdalus, Armeniaca, Cerasus, Padus, Persica. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Prunus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b mine with an excision => 2 1c tentiform mine => 3 1d blotch without preceding corridor =>…

Quercus host plants

Quercus oak (For a dichotomous table for galls on Quercus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine ending with an excision => 2 1b blotch, may have a short, quickly widening preceding corridor => 7 1c blotch, preceded by a long, slender initial corridor => 15…

K (references) references

…de France 18(44): 90-97. Kan P & Limburg-Stirum B van, 2009a. Het mysterieuze leven van de essenpage. -Vlinders 3: 19-21. Kangas E, 1957a. Über die Larve, Puppe und die Biologie von Pissodes gyllenhali Gyll. (Col., Curculionidae). – Zeitschrift für angewandte Entomologie 41(2/3): 153-158. Kangas E & Rutanen I 1993a. Identification…

Malus host plants

Malus apple (For a dichotomous table for galls on Malus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b small blotch, eventually with a circular excision => 2 1c tentiform mine => 3 1d primary blotch without preceding corridor or excision =>…

Crataegus host plants

Crataegus hawthorn Incl. x Crataemespilus. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Crataegus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b round excisions, 3-4 mm diam.: Incurvaria masculella 1c tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2 1d small, < 1 cm,…

B (references) host plants, references

…biological control of weeds. – Proceedings of the 9th international Symposium on biological Control of Weeds (Moran VC & Hoffmann JH eds): 19-26. Boczki R, 2009a. Wiederfund für Nordrhein-Westfalen nach 75 Jahren: Der Lattich-Mönch Cucullia lactucae ([Dennis & Schiffermüller], 1775) im Hochsauerländer Schluchtgebirge (Lep., Noctuidae). – Melanargia 21(2): 83-87.v Bodei…

H (references) references, Uncategorized

…of Europe and in its native area of the Caucasus. – European Journal of Entomology 103: 397-395. Hantula J & Scholler M, 2013a Invasive alien species fact sheet: Melampsoridium hiratsukanum. – Online Database of the European Network on Invasive Alien Species: NOBANIS www.nobanis.org Haouas D, Baldizzone G, Hamdi A, Hafsi…

Medicago host plants

Medicago medick (For a dichotomous table for galls on Medicago by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b larva with feet and a chitinised head; mine never a gallery => 8 1c larva a maggot; mine a gallery, or blotch preceded by a…

P (references) references

…(Insecta: Lepidoptera). – Beiträge zur bayerischen Entomofaunistik 2: 141-153. Pröse H, 2006a. Neue Ergebnisse zur Faunistik der “Microlepidoptera” in Bayern; 5. Beitrag. – Beiträge zur bayerischen Entomofaunistik 8: 99-105. Pröse H, Kolbeck H & Segerer AH, 2003a. Addenda et Corrigenda zu Liste der bayerischen “Kleinschmetterlinge” 1999 und zu den bayerischen…

Cameraria ohridella parasite

…be particularly heavy after a rainy spring. See Freise & Heitland (1999a), Pschorn-Walcher (1994a) and Skuhravy (1999a) for the biology of this species. Heitland, Kopelke & Freise (2003a) summarise the research of possible control measures. When the density of mines becomes so large that they touch each other (meaning that…

Laeosopis roboris parasite

…on the leaves. host plants Oleaceae, oligophagous Fraxinus angustifolia; Phillyrea angustifolia, latifolia; Olea europaea. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). larva see Kan ao, Lepiforum. synonyms Laeosopis evippus (Hübner, 1793). references Dupont, Luquet, Demerges & Drouet (2013a), Kan & Kan-van Limburg-Stirum (2009a), Kan & van Limburg-Stirum (2009a), Lepiforum (2021), Marabuto (2018a)….

Chenopodium host plants

Chenopodium goosefoot Incl. Blitum, Chenopodiastrum, Lipandra. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Chenopodium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine completely within a leaf => 2 1b mine partly in petiole or stem => 21 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Symphytum host plants

Symphytum comfrey (For a dichotomous table for galls on Symphytum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2 1b corridor or blotch mine; larva mines from the inside => 3 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per…

Glechoma host plants

Glechoma ground-ivy Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, possibly preceded by a narrow corridor => 2 1b corridor, possibly locally widened => 5 1c fleck mine => 7 1d small full depth mines of undefinable, variable shape; the older larvae live free, either between spun leaves or as causers of…

Knautia host plants

Knautia field scabious (For a dichotomous table for galls on Kautia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a full depth corridor or blotch; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparency; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables…

Sorbus host plants

Sorbus mountain ash Incl. Aucuparia. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sorbus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small blotch mine, with an excision, not much smaller then the blotch itself: Incurvaria pectinea 1b primary blotch, without an excision => 2 1c tentiform mine =>…

Carex host plants

Carex sedge (For a dichotomous table for galls on Carex by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a oviposition spot covered by a shiny black drop of dried secretion => 2 1b no such drop => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Cotoneaster host plants

Cotoneaster cotoneaster Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2 1c small (max. 1 cm) tentiform or blotch mine => 8 1d blotch, > 1 cm, without an initial corridor => 15 1e corridor, > 1 cm, may be…

Lathyrus host plants

Lathyrus vetchling (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lathyrus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers In the wings of the stem and petioles mines can be found of Agromyza lathyri, A. varicornis and Liriomyza pisivora. 1a fleck mine: Coleophora coronillae (occurrence on Lathyrus uncertain) 1b blotch,…

Pyrus host plants

Pyrus pear Incl. x Sorbopyrus (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pyrus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b mine with an excision: Incurvaria pectinea 1c tentiform mine => 2 1d blotch, without a preceding corridor => 7 1e…

Practical introduction

Practical collecting and storing For collecting in the field little more is needed than a really good magnifying lens and a fair number of small plasic bags. It is a good idea to include a flower or another characteristic plant part along with the mine, to remember at home the…

G (references) references

…Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw.(Acari: Eriophyidae). In: The biology of gall-inducing arthropods, 1997a. Csóka Gy, Mattson WJ, Stone GN & Price PW, eds. – General technical Report NC-199: 131-135. Galko J, Dzurenko M, Ranger ChM. Kulfan J, Kula E, Nikolov Ch, Zúbrik M & Zach P, 2019a.. Distribution, habitat preference, and management…

Cynaeda gigantea parasite

…within Europe At one side France and Switzerland, at the other from Hungary and Romania to Crete (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva A picture on www.lepiforum.de shows a full grown, almost black, larva. synonyms Cynaeda mendicalis Lattin, 1951. references Hering (1957a), Kravchenko, Poltavsky, Segerer, ao (2020a), Scalercio, Ienco & Greco (2019a)….

Parectopa ononidis parasite

…LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe, excluding Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Golden or greenish yellow. pupa synonyms Euspilapteryx ononidis. notes The mine can have a deceiving similarity to the one of Agromyza nana. However, the mine that species contains…

Phytomyza rufipes parasite

Phytomyza rufipes Meigen, 1830 mine The mine begins somewhere in the leaf, generally at the lower surface, not far from the leaf margin. From there a corridor runs randomly, until it hits upon a vein. Thd corridor then follows this vein until it reaches the midrib. Then the larva starts…

Elachista albifrontella parasite

Elachista albifrontella (Hübner, 1817) white-headed dwarf Elymus repens, Nieuwendam; identification with much reservation! detail mine Full depth blotch, slightly inflated, descending from the leaf tip, occupying half or the entire width of the blade The mine first ascends for about 12 cm, then descends the same length along the midrib….

Mompha langiella parasite

…recorded (Phegea, 2010). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, but absent in parts of the Balkan peninsula and on the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larve pupa See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Anybia, Mompha…

To be a miner introduction

To be a miner To really understand the life of an animal, or even a plant, it is necessary to virtually put oneself into the position of that organism, in as much detail possible. It requires some phantasy, but is quite enlighting. narrowness Thereis little to be seen in a…

Leucoptera lustratella parasite

Leucoptera lustratella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) on Hypericum Hypericum perforatum, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Heusden-Zolder, Terril Lindeman, 1.viii.2015 © Carina Van Steenwinkel same mine in backlight Hypericum perforatum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine lighted from behind detail: individual frass grains are grey and rod-like a leaf may be completely mined…

Phyllonorycter parasite

Phyllonorycter pastorella op Salix babylonica (Amsterdam) Generally, Phyllonorycter-mines can only be identified reliably when the mine contains pupa, or has a old pupal skin attached to it. In most (all?) species the pupa, just before emergence, works itself half out of the mine through an opening that has made in…

Cocoon introduction

Cocoon cocoon In the pupal stage insect larvae are virtutally immovable and defenseless. Many species therefore make, before construct a protective cocoon before they undergo the moult that leads to the pupa or puparium. Some leaf miners too sometimes make a cocoon; not alwys within the mine, but when this…

Celypha woodiana parasite

Celypha woodiana (Barrett, 1882) mistletoe marble Viscum album, France, dép. Calvados, Beuvron-en-Auge © Ruben Meert mine with entrance opening and frass at the outside larva in the mine full grown larva mine In autumn the mine begins as a brown, narrow and inconspicuous, lower-surface corridor. The larva is capable of…

Dilophospora alopecuri parasite

…has a strongly deleterious effect on the nematodes. In some subtropical regions the nematodes also carry a poisonous bacterium, viz., Clavibacter toxicus. Some grasses, in particular Lolium rigidum, can become toxic to such an extent that massive cattle mortality may result. For this reason the particular grass was rigorously controlled,…

Brachycera parasite

Brachycera True flies In the adult insects the antenna has eight flagellomeres at most. The larvae, “maggots”, have no recognisable head. larvae As a matter of fact, the larvae are not headless: the head is strongly reduced and withdrawn into the thorax. The main remnant of the head that is…

Pupa introduction

Pupa One of the questions that is most often asked in keys to leaf miners is wether pupation os outside the mine or not. There are but a very few species that sometimes pupate within the mine, another time outside. To answer the question itmis advisalbe to collect ample material…

Elachista cinereopunctella parasite

Elachista cinereopunctella (Haworth, 1828) grey-spotted dwarf mine Mine generally descending from the leaf tip. The mine may occupy the space between leaf margin and midrib, but may also occupy the entire width of the leaf. Most frass accumulated in the oldest part of the mine. Pupation external; the pupa is…

Ulmus host plants

Ulmus elm (For a dichotomous table for galls on Ulmus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor mine => 2 1b blotch mine => 8 1c tentiform mine => 13 1d fleck mine => 16 1e mine ends in an oval excision => 18 1c galls,…

Tachyerges stigma parasite

…T. pseudostigma (Tempère, 1982). Information before that time should be used with caution. references Bachmaier (1965a), Caillol (1954a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1930a, 1957a), le Monnier (2003a), Morris (1993a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Roques (1998a), Scherf (1964a), Viramo (1962a), Vorst (2010a), Wanat (1987a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Larvae introduction

Larvae The larvae of the four main groups of leaf miners -Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera- generally are not difficult to tell apart Diptera Mining fly larvae always are maggots: more or less spindle-shaped, feet and eyeless beings without an apparant head. As a matter of fact, the head is…

fleck mine glossary

Full depth blotch, not containing frass, and invariably with one, more or less central, usually circular, hole. Made by a larva (usually a Coleophora that operates from the outside. The larva first bites the hole in the epidermis, then from that point it eats away as much leaf tissue as…

Predators introduction

…the larvae were eaten then by birds (Brower, 1934a). Especially tits are well known predators of miners (Ellis, 2000a; Hespenheide, 1991a; Owen, 1975a). A mine that has been handled by a bird has a characteristic V-shaped opening. Tischeria ekebladella op eik Especially in suburban situations bird predation on Phytomyza ilicis…

Diplotaxis host plants

Diplotaxis wall rocket (For a dichotomous table for galls on Diplotaxis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine either ends, or begins, in the stem, petiole or midrib => 2 1b mine at most on the midrib, or free in the leaf blade => 4 1c…

Cardamine host plants

Cardamine bitter-cress, cuckoo flower Incl. Dentaria. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Cardamine by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva in stem and petioles, sometimes making excursions into the leaf that start from the midrib => 2 1b larva not in stem or petiole =>…

Beta host plants

Beta beet See also Patellifolia. Beet miners are described in more detail by Skuhravy ao (1967a). (For a dichotomous table for galls on Beta by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1amine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot…

Amelanchier host plants

Amelanchier juneberry (For a dichotomous table for galls on Amelanchier by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b fleck mine => 2 1c blotch, without a trace of a preceding corridor => 4 1d corridor, may be widened at the end…

Moricandia host plants

Moricandia violet cabbage, purple mistress Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth, (almost) without frass, with an opening through which the larva has entered => 2 1b mine full depth, with clear amounts of frass, no recognisable opening: Ceutorhynchus minutus 1c mine lower- or upper-surface, with frass; no opening…

Lolium host plants

Lolium rye-grass (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lolium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with well recognisable feet and sclerotised head => 2 1b larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva whitish, unusually…

Atriplex host plants

Atriplex Orache Incl. Halimione, Obione. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b mine full depth; larvae with distinct, chitinised head => 5 1c mine upper or (less commonly) lower-surface; larva a maggot => 16 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a hole in…

Corylus host plants

Corylus hazel (For a dichotomous table for galls on Corylus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor => 2 1b blotch, in which eventually an excision is made that is hardly smaller than the blotch itself => 5 1c blotch without an excision, preceded by a…

Oxyria host plants

Oxyria mountain sorrel (For a dichotomous table for galls on Oxyria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine a large blotch, generally containing several larvae that spend all their life in the mine; larvae are maggots: Pegomya bicolor, haemorrhoum, solennis 1b mine small, usually containing a…

Elymus host plants

Elymus couch-grass incl. Agropyron, Elytrigia, Hordelymus, Leymus, Roegneria, Sitanion; Thinopyrum intermedium = Elymus hispidus = Elytrigia intermedia (For a dichotomous table for galls on Elymus s.l. by Hans Roskam click here) (For a dichotomous table for galls on Leymus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck…

Poa host plants

Poa meadow-grass Incl. Ochlopoa annua. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Poa by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora lixella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva with feet and chitinised head…

Angelica host plants

Angelica wild angelica incl. Archangelica, Ostericum. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short, clear, full depth corridor mines, usually several together in the axils of the lateral veins; larvae with distinct heads and feet; older larvae only with their front parts in the mine: Epermenia chaerophyllella 1b larger blotch or corridor…

Festuca host plants

Festuca fescue Incl. x Festulolium, Patzkea, Schedonorus (For a dichotomous table for galls on Festuca by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with thoracic feet and a chitinised head => 2 1b larva a maggot without feet or recognisable head => 8 1c galls, etc =>…

Populus host plants

Populus Poplar (For a dichotomous table for galls on Populus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine ends in a circular excision: Tachyerges decoratus 1b lower-surface tentiform mine => 2 1c corridor, not appreciably widened towards the end => 8 1d blotch, may be preceded by…

Dactylis host plants

Dactylis cock’s-foot Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a the larva mines from a transportable case, makes fleck mines => 2 1b the larve lives within the mine, doesn’t make fleck mines => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case bent behind the mouth: Coleophora lixella…

Hypochaeris host plants

Hypochaeris cat’s ear (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hypochaeris by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Crepis host plants

Crepis hawk’s-beard incl. Barkhausia. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Crepis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Agrostis host plants

…Liriomyza pusio 12c rear spiraculum with 12 or more papillae: Cerodontha flavocingulata 13a larva and puparium: on each segment a transverse row of spines, about as long as the width of the segment: Pseudonapomyza atra 13b zonder zulke stekels: Cerodontha atra * See also the key to grass-inhabiting Agromyza larvae….

Eupatorium host plants

Eupatorium hemp agrimony (For a dichotomous table for galls on Eupatorium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch mine, may be preceded by a corridor => 2 1b corridor mine => 6 1c fleck mine => 12 1d smalll, full depth mines of indefinite shape =>…

Heterarthrus vagans parasite

…Hartig (1939a), Hering (1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Humble (2010a), Liston (1995b, 2011a), Liston & Jacobs (2012a), Liston, Jacobs & Turrisi (2013a), Liston, Mutanen & Viitasaari (2019a), Liston & Späth (2005a), Looney, Smith, Collman, ao (2016a), Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), Maček (1999a, 2012c), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac…

Fagus host plants

Fagus beech (For a dichotomous table for galls on Fagus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, in which eventually an excision is made => 2 1b large blotch, preceded by a corridor that begins on the midrib: Orchestes fagi 1c large blotch without a preceding…

Hordeum host plants

Hordeum barley (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hordeum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a the larve mines from a transportable, helicoidal case, making fleck mines: Apterona helicinella 1b the larva mines from within => 2 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten per…

Inula host plants

Inula elecampane, irish fleabane, ploughman’s spikenard, golden samphire Incl. Dittrichia graveolens & viscosa; Limbarda crithmoides (For a dichotomous table for galls on Inula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a full depth corridor or blotch => 2 1b upper- or lower-surface corridor or blotch => 11 1c…

Mespilus host plants

Mespilus medlar The genus Mespilus currently is included in Crataegus. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Mespilus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine => 2 1b fleck mine => 4 1c corridor or blotch mine => 7 1d galls, etc => Tables for…

Cistus host plants

Cistus incl. Halimium. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2 1b no fleck mine, larva not in a case => 8 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a hole in the mine neatly circular; while feeding the larve attaches…

Acer host plants

Acer maple (For a dichotomous table for galls on Acer by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor mine => 2 1b blotch or tentiform mine, not ending in an excision => 6 1c small blotch, from which eventually an excision is made of almost equal size…

Puccinia hierochloina parasite

Puccinia hierochloina Klebahn, 1913 on ? Thalictrum gall not described. Only if the hostplant alternation is known, a specific identification is possible for aecia on Thalictrum. spermogonia, aecia Rancunlaceae, monophagous ? Thalictrum alpinum. Aecia-bearing plants have been found in the neighbourhood of grass infected by hierochloina. ​ on Hierochloe gall…

Lactuca host plants

Lactuca lettuce Incl. Cicerbita, Mulgedium, Mycelis. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lactuca by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Salix host plants

Salix sallow, willow (For a dichotomous table for galls on Salix by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine ends upon a circular excision: Tachyerges decoratus 1b tentifrom mine => 2 1c upper- or lower-surface blotch => 8 1d full depth blotch => 16 1e corridor =>…

Linaria host plants

Linaria toadflax Incl. Cymbalaria, Kickxia, Misopates. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Linaria by Hans Roskam click here) (For a dichotomous table for galls on Kickxia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; the larva mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 1b blotch…

Rorippa host plants

Rorippa yellow-cress Incl. Nasturtium, Sisymbrella, Watercress etc. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Rorippa by Hans Roskam click here) (For a dichotomous table for galls on Nasturtium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine either begins or ends in stem, petiole or midrib => 2…

Chaenomeles host plants

Chaenomeles japonica, flowering quince (For a dichotomous table for galls on Chaenomeles by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine => 2 1b primairy blotch mine, without preceding corridor => 4 1c corridor from start to end (may form a secondary blotch) => 6 1d corridor,…

Euura nigritarsis parasite

Euura nigritarsis Cameron, 1885 Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae on Salix Salix caprea © Roelof Jan Koop gall the catkin-buds are swollen and unusually firm. For the oviposition the wasp’s ovipositor has pierced through the base of petiole, often leaving a clear scar. Inside a single sawfly caterpillar. Often several buds of the…

V (references) references

…study of the Noctuidae of Čelarevo (Serbia). – Acta entomologica serbica 22: 41-89. Vajna L, 2011a. First report of Plasmopara obducens on impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) in Hungary. – New Disease Reports 24: 13-13. Vakula J, Zúbrik M, Galko J, Gubka A, Kunca A, Pavlík J & Nikolov C, 2016a. First…

Ectoedemia heringella parasite

…messaniella en Stigmella suberivora (Times online, 2009). The mines cannot be separated from those of E. haraldi and pseudoilicis. references Arenberger & Wimmer (1996a), Baldizzone & scalercio (2018a), Edmunds (2007a), Hering (1957a), Laštůvka & Laštuvka (1997a, 1998a), van Nieukerken (1985a, 1986a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2006a, 2010a), Pritchard (2005a),…

W (references) host plants, references

…Kaszyca N & Taszakowski A, 20018a. [Materials to the knowledge of planthoppers and leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha, Cicadomorpha) of the Eastern Beskids Mountains.] – Acta entomologica silesiana 26: (online 034): 1–9. Walczak M, Musik K & Mokrzycka A, 2012a. Japananus hyalinus (Osborn, 1900): a new leafhopper for Polish fauna (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha)….

A (references) references

…Arakelian G, 2007a. Olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina). Internet publication. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Microlepidoptera in Bayern 2010a. Neue Ergebnisse in der bayerischen Kleinschmetterlingsfaunistik 1 (Insecta, Lepidoptera). – Beiträge zur bayerischen Entomofaunistik 10: 13-20 Arbeitsgemeinschaft Microlepidoptera in Bayern 2011a. Neue Ergebnisse in der bayerischen Kleinschmetterlingsfaunistik 2 (Insecta, Lepidoptera). – Beiträge zur bayerischen Entomofaunistik 11:…

Cucullia celsiae parasite

Cucullia celsiae Herrich-Schäffer, 1850 on Scutellaria parasite Larvae freely on the inflorescence. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Scutellaria albida, columnae, cypria, rupestris subsp. parnassica. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). egg, larva, pupa see Lepidoptera and their ecology (www.pyrgus.de). synonyms Calocucullia celsiae. references Kravchenko, Fibiger, Muller & Ronkay (2005a)….

Puccinia athamantina parasite

…blackish brown, ultimately naked, pulverulent. Teliospores short-elliptic, two-celled, hardly constricted; wall thick with a dense pattern of deep pits; pedicel thin, ± hyaline, about as long as the spore. hostplants Apiaceae, narrowly oligophagous Athamanta cretensis, turbith & subsp. hungarica, vestina; Carum graecum (= Athamanta verticillata). synonyms Both the a href=”http://www.indexfungorum.org/names/Names.asp”>Index…

Monochroa arundinetella parasite

Monochroa arundinetella (Stainton, 1858) sedge neb mine Rather narrow, long, corridor, of which the course largely is dictated by the venation; the mine may change direction (up/down). The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation within the mine; pupa in a white cocoon, just above the waterline. Tabell…

Ochrodia subdiminutella parasite

Ochrodia subdiminutella (Stainton, 1867) Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae mine Short gallery, followed by a large, reticulate blotch, that may or may not contain frass. The larva can make several mines, and may spin leaves together. Pupation external. hostplants Zygophyllaceae, oligophagous Tribulus terrestris; Tetraena album, fontanesii. Outside Europe also Balanites aegytiaca and Zygophyllum…

Apteropeda orbiculata parasite

Apteropeda orbiculata (Marsham, 1802) Plantago major, Germany, Schwarzwald detail Cirsium arvense, Belgium, prov. Namur, Gembloux; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Verbascum lychnitis, Belgium, prov. Liège, Theux, Le Rocheux; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Stachys sylvatica, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, Ry de Pernelle: the opening at right shows that the larva there has started making…

Syringopais temperatella parasite

Syringopais temperatella (Lederer, 1855) Cyprus, Nikikleia © Ian Barton larva mine The mine mostly begins at the leaf-tip, and may occupy the entire width of the blade. Most frass in the lower part of the mine. hostplants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Hordeum; Triticum. In the Near East a serious pest on…

Ochrosis ventralis parasite

Ochrosis ventralis (Illiger, 1807) mine Narrow full depth corridor, with at least locally the frass in a very thin central line. The mine as a whole is rather long, but the larva may move to another leaf (either exteriorly or through the petiole) and make short corridors in individual leaves….

Elachista trapeziella parasite

Elachista trapeziella Stainton, 1849 scarce dwarf mine From autumn till early spring the larva makes a quite narrow corridor with a total length of 12-16 cm, essentially running parallel to the leaf venation; the corridor may change direction 2-3 times. Generally the corridor lies about halfway the length of the…

Gracillaria syringella parasite

…Hrubík (2009a) add Sambucus nigra, Symphoricarpos, and Viburnum. In most cases this concerns xenophagy, and the larvae will not complete their development; only the large number of Caprifoliaceae suggests that here a real host plant relation may exist. phenology Larvae in June and August-September (Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson, 1985a). BENELUX…

Pegomya flavifrons parasite

Pegomya flavifrons (Walker, 1849) Stellaria media, Nieuwendam Cerastium glomeratum, Nieuwendam Silene dioica, Winterswijk Silene vulgaris subsp. vulgaris, Belgium, prov. Liège, Angleur; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Stellaria holostea, Bunderbos: larva in the mine Stellaria holostea, Beuningen: start of the mine, with egg mine Each mine begins with one, rarely two, oval egg…

Perizoma incultaria parasite

…1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries. distribution within Europe From Germany and Poland to Spain, and from France to Italy and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2011); alpine species (Hering, 1957a). larva When the larvae is taken out of its mine it makes the characteristic geometer movements that…

Elachista bedellella parasite

Elachista bedellella (Sircom, 1848) grey dwarf mine Blotch in the leaf tip; the upper side is practically flat, the lower side can turn somewhat to purple. The larva may mine 2-3 leaves. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Arrhenatherum elatius; Avena; Festuca ovina, stricta subsp. sulcata; Helictochloa pratensis; Phleum; Poa nemoralis, trivialis….

Elachista rufocinerea parasite

Elachista rufocinerea (Haworth, 1828) red-brindled dwarf mine Flat, translucent mine that can either run or down; the width may vary too, can be as wide as the blade. Frass few, grey, dispersed. THe larva uses to make several mines. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Arrhenarherum elatius; Holcus mollis; Schedonorus arundinaceus. Traugott-Olsen…

Elachista gangabella parasite

Elachista gangabella Zeller, 1850 yellow-barred dwarf mine Mine transparant (therefore conspicuous), generally descending from the leaf tip. Over the entire length of the mine stretches a central silken tube, in which the larva can retreat and can move quickly up or down. The tube also contains the frass. The larva…

Apteropeda globosa parasite

Apteropeda globosa (Illiger, 1794) mine Rather long corridor winding through the leaf, regularly crossing itself. The corridor later widenes considerably. Frass normally in a narrow central line, but may also lie along the side, or be absent. The larva regularly leaves a mine and restarts elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine….

Trypeta immaculata parasite

Trypeta immaculata (Macquart, 1835) Pilosella officinarum, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel leaf lighted from behind mine The mine begins with a very narrow full depth corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Subsequently a broad corridor, or rather an elongated blotch, is made, often overlying the midrib; from…

Bucculatrix cristatella parasite

…(Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with exception of the Iberian and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva The mining larva is amber yellow (intestine greenish as usual), head and prothoracic shield brown; the chaetotaxy is described…

Contarinia scoparii parasite

Contarinia scoparii (Rübsaamen, 1889) on Cytisus Cytisus scoparius, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Arlon, Camp militaire de Lagland leg Sébastien Carbonnelle © Stéphane Claerebout opened gall with larva gall The terminal buds have turned into an ovoid unilocular gall of up to 3 mm. The gall can also consist of an elliptic…

Fenusa altenhoferi parasite

Fenusa altenhoferi (Liston, 1993) on Ulmus Ulmus minor, Duin- en Kruidberg, 2.vi.2005 larva ventral sternum prolegs, abd. 9 ventral view Ulmus laevis, Naardense bos, 21.vi.2007: prepupa mine Very transparent full depth botch with a yellow white larva. The mine can finally occupy a sizable part of the leaf. The mine…

Liriomyza ptarmicae parasite

Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925 on Achillea, Anthemis, Glebionis Achillea ptarmica, Belgium, prov. Namur, Philippeville, RN les Tournailles, 17.vii.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout Achillea millefolium, Bemelen Achillea ptarmica, Amstelveen, Schinkelbos mine Narrow brownish corridor, either upper- or lower-surface. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine. In small leaves…

Phytomyza arnicae parasite

Phytomyza arnicae Hering, 1925 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Upper-surface, rarely lower-surface, shallow, corridor, suddenly widening into a large blotch that may occupy almost the entire leaf, and may have some full-depth spots. Leaf around the mine sometimes with a red-violet discolouration. Frass in small, dispersed, granules. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants…

Plagiotrochus quercusilicis parasite

Plagiotrochus quercusilicis (Fabricius, 1798) on Quercus, agamous generation gall Fusiform to almost imperceptible, woody, multilocular swelling of the twigs, up to 1.5 x 3 cm in size; the individual cells measure 1×3.5 mm, parallel to the length of the twig. Often only the circular, 1 mm large exit holes (in…

Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi parasite

Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi (Ahlberg,1939) Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Chrysanthemum gall Small oval or conical galls of about 2 mm that are obliquely inserted on the leaf, stem, of involucre, often several together. Each contains a white or reddish orange larva. Heavly infested plants are stunted and malformed. In greenhouses a number of…

Puccinia hemerocallidis parasite

Puccinia hemerocallidis von Thümen, 1880 on Patrinia gall The host plant does not occur in Europe. spermogonia, aecia Valerianaceae, monophagous Patrinia. ​ on Hemerocallis gall uredinia hypophyllous, soon naked and then bright orange; they may cover almost the entire leaf. Spores 16-21 x 19-25 µm, finely echinulate with 5-6 indistinct…

Cheilosia semifasciata parasite

Cheilosia semifasciata (Becker, 1894) Sedum telephium, Diemen Sedum telephium, Bergen NH: exit slit at the leaf margin Sedum telephium, Nieuwendam: the damage to the plant can be quite severe Sedum telephium, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel: larva in a young mine (lighted from behind) larva in an…

Liriomyza cepae parasite

Liriomyza cepae (Hering, 1927) mine Generally the mine begins as a fine corridor of variable length. Later the larva lives within the tubular leaves. Frass, at least partly, in green thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Alliaceae, monophagous Allium cepa, fistulosum, victorialis. A pest on leek and onions (Darvas,…

Pucciniales parasite

Pucciniales Rust fungi Rust fungi form a large group of obligate parasites on plants. The have a complicated life cycle in which, in a fixed order, five types of spores are formed. In many species moreover host plant alternation takes place. Yet, many species exhibit an incomplete cycle, in which…

Location in the leaf introduction

Location in the leaf Obviously, the position of the mine in the leaf blade is primarily determined by the oviposition behaviour of the female insect. The oviposiiton site is quite constant in many cases. Often it is the leaf margin, or the egg is placed immediately next to the midrib….

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae parasite

Pseudomonas syringae van Hall, 1902 pv. syringae on Prunus gall the infection mostly starts on the flowers (to al lesser degree perhaps also the young foliage); initially they are symptomless, but under moist conditions they may collapse collectively. Via the dead flowers the bacterium may penetrate the fruit, but it…

Plant defence introduction

Plant defence leaf abscission Mining larvae perish when their leaf wilts or is absconded prermaturely. It has been found in several studies that mined leaves are earlier to fall than unmined ones, but is does not seem plausible that this is a defense mechanism of the plant (Faeth, Connor &…

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana parasite

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Saxesen, 1840) spruce-bud moth Abies grandis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Lompret: possibly a youth mine of ratzeburgiana © Stéphane Claerebout mine The young larva penetrates the top of just opening bud and feeds on the developing needles. While feeding the still young larva may create fleck mines in the…

Stigmella crataegella parasite

…Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), A & Z Laštuvka (1997a), Lhomme (1934c), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis (2014), van Nieukerken (1982a, 1986a, 2006a, 2021a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2004a, 2006a), Nowakowski (1954a), Robbins…

Chromatomyia asteris parasite

Chromatomyia asteris (Hendel, 1934) Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Initially lower-surface, later upper-surface corridor, not appreciably widening towards the end. Corridor often strongly contorted. Frass in rather coarse grains, irregularly scattered. Pupation in the mine. The puparium is white, its front spiracula penetrate the plant’s epidermis. host plants Narrowly monophagous Tripolium pannonicum…

Mompha raschkiella parasite

…Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean Islands and parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva pupa See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Lophoptilus, Tebenna, raschkiella. references Ahr (1966a), Baldizzone (2004a, 2008a), Beiger (1955a), Buhr (1935b,…

Mompha miscella parasite

Mompha miscella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) brown mompha Helianthemum apenninum, België, prov. Namen, Yvoir © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail Helianthemum nummularium, Pietersberg; herbarium material Helianthemum nummularium, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dinant, Anseremme © Jean-Yves Baugnée larvae, at the point of leaving its mine ….. …. and penetrating a new leaf Helianthemum nummularium,…

Lyonetia prunifoliella parasite

…of the pupa. synonyms Lyonetia speculella Clemens, 1862. notes Contrary to what almost is a rule for leaf mines, most prunifoliella mines are in the very youngest leaves. references Aarvik, Karsholt, Larsen & Schnack (1988a), Baryshnikova (2007a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Borkowski (2003a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1981a, 1992b), Ellis…

Chytridiales parasite

  Chytridiomycota: Chytridiales The zoospores (motile spores, bearing a flagellum) penetrate an epidermis cell of the host plant. Then follows a series of divisions, eventually filling the parasitised cell with a mass that functions as a sporangium. From there new zoospores are released, that infect new cells, and transform there…

Stigmina carpophila parasite

Stigmina carpophila (Léveillé) Ellis, 1959 on Prunus Prunus persica, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 16.vi.2019 © László Érsek first signs also lesions on on the shoots detail gumming also the fruits may be infected 8.viii.2019: shoot with old infection damaged fruit Prunus mahaleb, Velsen, lg. Velserbeek Prunus laurocerasus, Nieuwendam Prunus padus, Nieuwendam: a…

Phyllonorycter emberizaepenella parasite

…in July and September – October (Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson, 1985a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe Europe, except the the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009, A & Z Laštůvka,…

Ecology introduction

Ecology trends A general trend is that mines of Agromyzidae -by far the most important group of miners among the Diptera- mainly occur on herbaceous plants, while Lepidoptera miners in large majority are to be found on woody plants. Perhaps this preference among the Lepidoptera explains the observation by Klimesch…

Asphondylia dorycnii parasite

Asphondylia dorycnii (Müller, 1870) on Dorycnium Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Spanje, Huesca, Alcolea de Cinca © Jordi Montobbio galled pod gall Two generations: the first one in the swollen terminal buds of lateral shoots, the second in the galled pods. The first generation hibernates; larva solitary, without a recognisable head, pupation in…

Calepina host plants

Calepina (For a dichotomous table for galls on Calepina by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface (sometimes full depth in places); larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Potamogeton host plants

Potamogeton pondweed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with a distinct, chitinised, head capsule => 2 1b larva a virtually headless maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva with three pairs of thoracic feet => 3 2b larva with one pair of…

Loewiola centaureae parasite

Loewiola centaureae (Löw, 1875) on Centaurea Centaurea jacea, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, 29.vi.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel opened gall with yellow larva spatula tip of the spatula with adjacent papillae 25.v.2015 here also the gall itself is violet in colour 31.v.2014; underside of a leaf; one of the galls shows…

Rabdophaga nielsenii parasite

Rabdophaga nielsenii Kieffer, 1906 on Salix gall Larva in a 1 x 3 cm large cell in the woord and pith of a one-year old shoot. The wall of the cell is dark coloured, the pith is coloured orange over 2-3 cm At the outside sometimes a 3 x 6…

Micrurapteryx kollariella parasite

Micrurapteryx kollariella (Zeller, 1838) Cytisus scoparius, Belgium, prov. Limburg © Frank Van de Meutter mine The mine begins as a starlike, lobed blotch on top of the midrib. It develops into an upper-surface blotch that occupies almost the entire leaflet. The colour is light green at first, soon turning brown….

Phytomyza taraxaci parasite

Phytomyza taraxaci Hendel, 1927 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long corridor; the first part of the mine often for a large part lower-surface. Pupation outside the mine (Hering, 1957a). hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale phenology Larven in May-June and September-October (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2008)….

Shape: blotch mines introduction

Shape: blotch mines blotch mines When a larva has the opportunity to eat away the leaf tissue in all directions, the result is a more or less circular bladder, a blotch mine. However, a blotch may also result when the loops of a corridor mine are so strongly convoluted that…

Gilletteella cooleyi parasite

…(2011a), Béguinot (2006a,b, 2007b), Bellmann (2012a), Börner & Franz (1956a), Buhr (1965a), Carter (1971a), Chinery (2011a), Covassi & Binazzi (1981a), Cumming (1959a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Görür, Işik, Akyürek & Zeybekoğlu (2009a), Hellrigl (2004a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon & Schneider (2004a), Lampel & Meier (2003a),…

Key to the Euura species groups specials

Key to the species groups within the super-genus Euura Based on Liston, Heibo, Prous ao (2017a). 1a Gall closed => 2 1b Gall open => 4 2a Gall in a shoot, bud, petiole or midrib : amerinae group 2b Gall in/on the leaf disk => 3 3a Gall epiphyllous, often…

Phytomyza aconiti parasite

Phytomyza aconiti Hendel, 1920 Aconitum vulparia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ovifat © Jonas Mortelmans detail mine Large, greyish-brown, upper-surface blotch, mostly near the tip of a leaflet, without a preceding corridor. Primary feeding lines conspicuous. Several larvae share a mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in upper epidermis (Pakalniškis, 2004a)….

Ophiomyia beckeri parasite

Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923) Lapsana communis, Nieuwendam mine In Asteraceae the larva mostly lives as a borer in the midrib of the leaves. From there short corridors are made into the blade. Also a corridor can be made overlying the midrib. In Euphorbia a small mine is made in the…

Liriomyza pusilla parasite

Liriomyza pusilla (Meigen, 1830) Bellis perennis, Nieuwendam Solidago gigantea Germany (Baden-Württemberg): Baden-Weiler mine Long, upper-surface corridor, winding through the leaf and frequently crossing itself; in small leaves often a secondary blotch in the end. Frass in short strings and pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Bellidiastrum…

Golovinomyces asperifoliorum host plant genus

Golovinomyces asperifoliorum (Gréville) Braun & Shin, 2018 on Pulmonaria, Symphytum Symphytum officinale, Nieuwendam Pulmonaria officinalis, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt: the damage to the plant can be considerable Symphytum officinale, Nieuwendam: young and old cleistothecia germinating conidium upper cleistothecium and asci: Golovinomyces cynoglossi; lower cleistothecium, conidiophore, conidia and appressoria: G. asperifoliorum…

Coniosporium corticale parasite

Coniosporium corticale (Ellis & Everhart) Gregory & Waller, 1952 sooty bark disease of sycamore on Acer, etc. gal After an infection by way of a wound the fungus may live for a long time in the xylem, without causing apparent damage. However, in periods of drought stress an extensive stroma…

Liriomyza eupatorii parasite

Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873) Asteraceae Eupatorium cannabinum, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, Zeeploop, 17.vi.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Ham, de Rammelaars, 14.vi.2013 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: occupied mine Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Olen, 13.viii.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: two vacated mines Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov….

Phytomyza rapunculi parasite

Phytomyza rapunculi Hendel, 1927 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Very long, rather deep corridor, initially lower-surface, later upper-surface. In smaller leaves almost always a secondary blotch originates, that can occupy the entire leaf. Frass initially in pearl strings, later in scattered aggregations. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis. hostplants…

Stachys host plants

Stachys woundwort incl. Betonica. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Stachys by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface => 12 1c fleck mine => 16 1d galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Kaltenbachiella pallida parasite

…(1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a, 2011a), Heie (1980a), Hellrigl (2004a), Houard (1908a), Pérez Hidalgo & Umaran del Campo (2013a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Máca (2012a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto Nafría (2001a), Redfern & Shirley…

Cosmopterix lienigiella parasite

Cosmopterix lienigiella Zeller, 1846 fen cosmet Phragmites australis; coll Sjaak Koster mine At first a gallery, but soon widened to a broad blotch, entirely or partly running upwards, in the end half as wide as the leaf. The mine is widened without consideration for the length veins, making the mine…

Cameraria ohridella larva parasite

Cameraria ohridella Aesculus hippocastanum, Nieuwendam; head, dorsal and ventral, of the sap drinking stage The very first larval instar is rather squat. The next stage, dorsal… … and ventral. The larvae are described by Sefrová & Skuhravy (2000a). As in all Gracillariidae the demonstrate hypermetamorphosis, but in a way that…

Antispila treitschkiella parasite

…Nieukerken & Ellis (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a, 2005a), Kasy (1983a, 1987a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & van Frankenhuyzen (1999a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Lhomme (1934c), Kurz (2016a) , Kurz & Kurz (2007a), Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek,…

Digitivalva granitella parasite

Digitivalva granitella (Treitschke, 1833) Inula conyza, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais, carrières d’Asty-Moulin © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail mine The mine begins with a long and narrow corridor, that, according to Hering (1957a) originates in the midrib or leaf base. This continues into a large, full depth blotch from which almost all…

Leucoptera lotella parasite

Leucoptera lotella (Stainton, 1859) little bent-wing on Dorycnium, Lotus, Securigera Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Philippeville, RN les Tournailles, 17.vii.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout mine in backlight Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Liège: Ben-Ahin, Lovegnée-Bosquet © Jean-Yves Baugnée Lotus uliginosus, Belgium, prov. Brabant, Cortil-Noirmont © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind Lotus…

Fomoria deschkai parasite

Fomoria deschkai (Klimesch, 1978) Hypericum sp., Rhodes; uit Klimesch (1978b) Hypericum triquetrifolium, Rhodes; uit Klimesch (1978b) mine Egg at the leaf underside. The mine begins as a very narrow, mostly very tortuous corridor that is almost filled with frass. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch, with central deposition of…

Stigmella sorbi parasite

Stigmella sorbi (Stainton, 1861) barred rowan pigmy on Sorbus, etc. Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Rocherath, 23.vi.2014 © Carina Van Steenwinkel occupied mine vacated mine Sorbus aucuparia, Italy, Aosta; herbarium Ben van As Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium (from Wullaert, 2010c). Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon; © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Oviposition…

Elachista argentella parasite

…NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Grey green with a faint white dorsal line. Head pale brown; prothoracic shield brown, consisting of 4+4 small plates (Bland, 1996a). pupa Described…

Trifurcula cryptella parasite

Trifurcula cryptella (Stainton, 1856) wood lotus pigmy Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Gellik © Steve Wullaert cocoon – pupation is external Coronilla varia, France, dép. Savoie; from van Nieukerken (2007b) Lotus corniculatus, Losser; ex coll. Sjaak Koster mine Oviposition at the leaf underside. The mine begins as a long corridor…

Scolioneura vicina parasite

Scolioneura vicina Konow, 1894 on Betula Betula pendula, Hungary, Kimle, 27.v.2018 © László Érsek the frass of mining sawflies is dry and does not stick to the walls of the mine; it accumulates at the lowest point like grains of pepper in an envelope. larva, dorsal and ventral head and…

Mimeuria ulmiphila parasite

Mimeuria ulmiphila (del Guercio, 1917) maple leaf-nest aphid on Acer Acer campestre, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek infested shoot the damage may be considerable group of aphids aptere alate ant attendance to the colony fundatrix with progeny fundatrix, ventral view fundatrix, wool removed two fundatrices, with and without wool. gall…

Profenusa pygmaea parasite

…within Europe All of Europe, perhaps excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Fenusella pygmaea. references Altenhofer (2003a), Amsel & Hering (1931a), Beiger (1979a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Csóka (2003a), Drăghia (1968a, 1971a, 1972a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van…

Trifurcula eurema parasite

Trifurcula eurema (Tutt, 1899) field lotus pigmy Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Greece, nom. Fókis; from van Nieukerken (2007b) mine with cocoon mine Egg at the upperside or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a long narrow corridor with a linear frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch that…

Heterarthrus flavicollis parasite

Heterarthrus flavicollis (Gussakovskij, 1947) on norway maple Acer platanoides, Russia, Moscow region, Zhukovo village, 6.vii.2021 ​© Andrey Ponomarev detail of the still young mine larva dorsal, lateral, ventral Acer platanoides, Hungary, Budapest, Hűvösvölgy, 3.vi.2019 © László Érsek the mine in detail mine lighted from behind frass granules in the opened…

Fenusa pumila parasite

…1959a; Cheng & LeRoux, 1965a). phenology Mines between June and September, in 2-3 generations (Lindquist, 1959a; Cheng & LeRoux, 1965a). BENELUX BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a). LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with possible exception of the Balkan Peninsula…

Euura amerinae parasite

Euura amerinae (Linnaeus, 1758) on Salix Salix pentandra, Drenthe, Ansen © Ad Mol; from Mol (2013a) gall swelling of a green twig, 2-3 cm long, consisting of c. four cells, each cell with a single larva; the bark of older galls is fissured. Often the gall causes the shoot to…

Teucrium host plants

Teucrium germander (For a dichotomous table for galls on Teucrium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a lower-surface tentiform mine: Aspilapteryx limosella 1b fleck mine => 2 1c mine different => 7 1d galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case helicoidal => 3…

Isocolus rogenhoferi parasite

Isocolus rogenhoferi Wachtl, 1880 on Centaurea gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a) gall Unilocular, hard, shining, oval swelling of the base of a bract, c. 8 x 4.5 mm in size. Also an achene can develop into a similar gall. Univoltine, pupation and hibernation in the gall. host plants Asteraceae,…

Andricus testaceipes parasite

…& Quinlan (1963a), Houard (1908a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujiade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (1983a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2012a), Roskam (2009a),…

Phyllocnistis saligna parasite

…parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Described by Lüders (1900) and Grandi (1931a, 1933a). pupa notes The species is expanding. Huisman & Koster (1999a) still considered the species rather scarce, but already Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a) reported findings in urban situations. Now it is…

Euura scotaspis parasite

Euura scotaspis (Förster, 1854) on Salix Salix viminalis, Millingerwaard detail gall The solitary larva lives in the downwards rolled leaf margin, that has become a narrow tube. Only on the base of the larva the gall can be distinguished from those of E. anglica or piliserra; the identification of the…

Coleophoridae parasite

Coleophoridae (= Eupistidae) Coleophorid females don’t have an ovipositor; the egg is placed on the outside of a leaf. Coleophora laricella egg Prunus spinosa © Ben van As: species with a leaf case make their first case out of an oval excision from their youth mine. Here four of such…

Agromyza nana parasite

…characteristically squat larva Medicago sativa, België, prov. Luik, Flémalle-Haute © Jean-Yves Baugnée Medicago sativa, Belgium, prov. Liège, Flémalle-Haute © Jean-Yves Baugnée Melilotus cf officinalis, Amsterdam Noord, JH Vliegenbos: mine with pupa of parasitoid mine Broad and short hook-like upper-surface corridor, ending in a blotch in the centre of a leaflet….

Orthochaetes insignis parasite

Orthochaetes insignis (Aubé, 1863) Prunella vulgaris, Spain, prov. Asturias, Gijon © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail Umbilicus, Spain, Asturias, Gijón, Colina del Cuevo (Playa Serin) © Jean-Yyes Baugnée another mine living larva mine Rather narrow gallery, untidy and sometimes branched, usually starting from the base of the leaf, in particular the midrib….

Phyllactinia betulae parasite

Phyllactinia betulae (de Candolle) Fuss,1878 on Betula Betula pubescens, Amstelveen, Thijssepark: hypophyllous cleistothecium Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol, Buitengoor-Meergoor © Carina Van Steenwinkel same leaf, underside with cleistothecia cleistothecium, with aciculate appendages asci cushion of peniciillate cells on top of the cleistothecium penicillate cell Betula spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp,…

Erysiphe alphitoides parasite

Erysiphe alphitoides (Griffon & Maublanc) Braun & Takamatsu, 2000 on Quercus Quercus robur, Zwanenwater Quercus robur, Nieuwendam: cleistothecium, hand lens image cleistothecium appendage, tip ascus notes mycelium conspicuous, mainly epiphyllous, on often disfigured young leaves. Appressoria lobed, sometimes nipple-shaped or multilobed, solitary or paired. Conidia solitary, barrel-shaped, without fibrosin bodies….

Naohidemyces vacciniorum parasite

Naohidemyces vacciniorum (Schröter) Spooner, 1999 on Tsuga gall spermogonia and aecia known only from North America. spermogonia, aecia Pinaceae, monophagous Tsuga canadensis, caroliniana. ​ on Vaccinium Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Amstelveen, Thijssepark © Miriam Langeveld Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Amstelveen, Thijssepark underside of a single leaf, with many uredinia and the unavoidable Mycodiplosis larvae…

Ceutorhynchus chalibaeus parasite

…Ceutorhynchus moguntiacus Schultze, 1895; C. timidus Weise, 1883. references Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1971a, 1972a), Gültekin (2014a), Hering (1957a), Hinz & Diaconu (2015a), Houard (1908a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Curculionidae parasite

Curculionidae Weevils The head, elongated into a rostrum, and the geniculate antennae of the adult beetles are sufficiently characteristic. The larvae, almost without exception phytophagous, don’t have thoracic legs; often they are strongly curved. Also the adults are plant feeders, often a bit less selectively in comparison with their larvae….

Isochnus sequensi parasite

…Kvičala (1938a), Maček (1999a), le Monnier (2003a), Nowakowski (1954a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh & Eschem (2017a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Trägårdh (1910a), Vidal (1988a), Vorst (2010a), Yates & Hodge (2000a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a), Zlobin (1986b), Zoerner (1969a, 1970a)….

Argopus ahrensii parasite

…(Beenen & Winkelman, 1993a); listed as Dutch in the Fauna Europaea (2007) but that is improbable. LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007) distribution within Europe From Italy and Austria to the Balkan and the Ukraine (Warchalowski, 2003a). Fauna Europaea (2007) also records the species from Germany and the Netherlands. larva…

Orthochaetes setiger parasite

…(1933a, 1956a, 1964a), Dieckmann (1986a), Haase (1942a), (Heijerman, 1993a), Hering (1925a, 1928a, 1930a, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Maček (1999a), Mifsud & Colonnelli (2010a, Ostojá-Starzewski (2002a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Ugarte San Vicente (2005a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Gracillariidae parasite

The Gracillariidae form one of Europe’s largest families of Microlepidoptera (“micromoths”). Europe counts about 200 species of them (Kuznetsov, 1990a; Parenti, 2000a). The larvae of all species live as miners, at least during their first instars. The females don’t have an ovipositor; the eggs are cemented to the leaf. The…

Cronartium flaccidum parasite

Cronartium flaccidum (Albertini & Schweinitz) Winter, 1880 on Pinus gall large swellings, 10-20 cm long of the younger branches, sometimes as thick as the branch itself, with large groups leaf-like, orange-yellow aecia, up to 7 mm large. The mycelium in the branches is systemic and lives for many years. spermogonia,…

Pseudoidium pedaliacearum parasite

Pseudoidium pedaliacearum (Shin) Shin, 2012 on ? Ibicella, Sesamen gall mycelium amphigenous, greyish white, thin, effuse. Appressoria more or less strongly lobed, single or paired. Conidia solitary, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Conidiophore comparatively short. Cleistothecia unknown. hostplants ? Martyniaceae, Pedaliaceae ? Ibicella lutea; Sesamum indicum. notes The species is described…

Lepidapion argentatum parasite

Lepidapion argentatum (Gerstäcker, 1854) on Adenocarpus, Genista gall larva or pupa in a swelling of the stem. However, the larva may also develop within a pod, without causing any gallig. host plants Fabaceae, oligophagous Adenocarpus complictus; Genista anglica, monspessulana, umbellata. synonyms Apion argentatum. references Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1909a),…

Melampsora populnea parasite

Melampsora populnea (Persoon) Karsten, 1879 on Larix, Pinus Papaveraceae gall Aecia 1 mm, often confluent, yellow-orange, without a peridium. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, Papaveraceae, Pinaceae, polyphagous Chelidonium majus; Corydalis cava & subsp. marschalliana, intermedia, solida; Larix decidua, kaempferi, sibirica; Mercurialis annua, perennis; Papaver dubium; Pinus brutia, halpenenis, mugo, nigra & subsp….

Golovinomyces cucurbitacearum parasite

Golovinomyces cucurbitacearum (Zheng & Chen) Vakalounakis & Klironomou, 2001 on Cucurbitaceae gall mycelium amphigenous, white. Appressoria nipple-shaped, often indistinct. Conidia in short chains, without fibrosin bodies, ± ovoid. Foot-cell of the conidiophore straight. Cleistothecia are only rarely found. They contain 5-15 asci with 2 spores. Appendages numerous, on and below…

Acrolepia autumnitella parasite

…2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2008). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007). distribution within Europe Almost entire Europe, possibly absent from Ireland and the southern Balkan (Agassiz, 1996a; Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva pupa Illustrated by Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). cocoon synonyms Acrolepia, Digitivalva pygmaeana…

Rhopobota myrtillana parasite

Rhopobota myrtillana (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845) bilberry bell mine Tiny full depth blotch or broad corridor, practically without frass. The larvae soon leave their mines, and continue feeding at first in a web, later among spun leaves. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Vaccinium, myrtillus, uliginosum, vitis-idaea. Mainly on V. uliginosum (Hering,…

Bassia host plants

Bassia smotherweed, burningbush, ragweed Incl. Echinopsilon, Kochia, Maireana. Maireana ciliata (Kochia ciliata) is an Australian species that has been introduced into Spain. Dichotomous table for leafminers (For a dichotomous table for galls on Bassia by Hans Roskam click here) 1a larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines, without…

Cydonia host plants

Cydonia quince (For a dichotomous table for galls on Cydonia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaf: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b tentiform mine => 2 1c fleck mine; larva mines from a portable case => 6 1d corridor or blotch => 9 1e galls,…

Lepidoptera parasite

Lepidoptera Butterflies and moths As an order within the insects Lepidoptera are characterised by their specialised feeding apparatus (but a few primitive famimilies still have biting mouthparts) and scale-covered wings. Metamorphosis is complete. The larvae (caterpillars) have chewing mouthparts and are, almost without exception, vegetarians. There are in principle three…

Agrimonia host plants

Agrimonia agrimony Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small blotch with an excision of 2 mm: Incurvaria praelatella 1b blotch mine, without an excision; if there is a preceding corridor it is broad, and not longer than the blotch => 2 1c corridor, often strongly widenend in the end => 6…

Carpinus host plants

Carpinus hornbeam (For a dichotomous table for galls on Carpinus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor mine => 2 1b blotch mine, from which in the end a circular excision is made, almost as large as the blotch itself => 6 1c blotch without excision;…

Fragaria host plants

Fragaria strawberry (For a dichotomous table for galls on Fragaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tiny blotch, eventually with an excision of about 2 mm: Incurvaria praelatella 1b blotch, without an excision; if there is a preceding corridor this is wide and not longer than…

Potentilla host plants

Potentilla cinquefoil Incl. Argentina anserina. Also Duchesnea indica, the mock strawberry, is currently included in Potentilla. See also Comarum and Drymocallis. For Potentilla fruticosa see Dasiphora. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Potentilla by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, no trace of a preceding…

Erysiphe mori parasite

Erysiphe mori (Miyake) Braun & Takamitsu, 2000 Fungi, Ascomycota, Leotiomycetes, Erysiphales, Erysiphaceae on Morus gall mycelium amphigenous, mainly epiphyllous, effuse, almost persistent. Appressoria lobed to multilobled, single or paired. Conidia formed solitary, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Foot cell of conidiophore curved at the base. Cleistothecia with 3-7 asci, containing 4-5…

Vicia host plants

Vicia Vetch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Vicia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine => 2 1b blotch, or something between blotch and corridor => 3 1c slender corridor from start to end => 12 1d galls, etc => Tables for all…

Astragalus host plants

Astragalus milk-vetch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Astragalus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva lives free, or in a silken tube or between spun leaves => 2 1b fleck mine (full depth, no frass, with a hole) => 5 1c corridor or blotch…

Ectoedemia occultella parasite

…Houtman & Kabos (1982a), van Frankenhyzen & de Vries (1979a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1985a), Klimesch (1950c, 1958c), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kozlov & Kullberg (2006a), Kozlov, van Nieukerken, Zverev & Zvereva…

Galega host plants

Galega goat’s rue, french lilac, italian fitch, professor-weed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora vicinella 1b gallery or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larvae with distinct head and feet; older larvae live free among spun leaves => 3 2b…

Erysiphe pulchra parasite

Erysiphe pulchra (Cooke & Peck) Braun & Takamatsu, 2000 on Cornus notes mycelium amphigenous, often also on the shoots, dense, often persistent. Conidia solitary, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Cleistothecia with 3-5 asci that contain 4-8 spores. Generally 8-16 appendages, attached to the equator. They are 1-2 x as long as…

Anthyllis host plants

Anthyllis kidney-vetch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Anthyllis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: mine without frass, with an opening that has given access to the larva => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Spinacia host plants

Spinacia spinach (For a dichotomous table for galls on Spinacia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1ablotch mine, preceded or not by an initial corridor => 2 1b corridor mine from start to end => 7 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2amine…

Secale host plants

Secale rye (For a dichotomous table for galls on Secale by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a at the start of the mine (not infrequently within a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell; larva: mandible with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola 1b no egg shell visible;…

Dianthus host plants

Dianthus pink, carnation (For a dichotomous table for galls on Dianthus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a the larva lives within the mine => 2 1b the larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines => 8 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites…

Setaria host plants

Setaria bristle-grass (For a dichotomous table for galls on Setaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a at the start of the mine (often inside a leaf sheath) at the outside an egg shell; larva: mandible with 1 tooth: Hydrellia griseola 1b no egg shell visible; mandible…

Hieracium host plants

Hieracium hawkweed Incl. Pilosella, that presently is considered a genus of its own. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hieracium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small upper-surface reddish wart (< 1 cm), an epidermal blotch below: Cystiphora sanguinea 1b fleck mine => 2 1c…

Aposeris host plants

Aposeris (For a dichotomous table for galls on Aposeris by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes setiger 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten per soort 2a mine…

Serratula host plants

Serratula saw-wort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Serratula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b no fleck mine => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case bivalved => 3 2b case trivalved => 4…

Lapsana host plants

Lapsana nipplewort = Lampsana (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lapsana by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Sonchus host plants

Sonchus milk-thistle, sow-thistle Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a narrow and long corridor; larva a maggot: Trypeta immaculata 2b mine wider or shorter, or a…

Tussilago host plants

Tussilago coltsfoot Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 8 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine not larger than 1 square cm, often in numbers => 3 2b…

Petasites host plants

Petasites butterbur (For a dichotomous table for galls on Petasites by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Homogyne host plants

Homogyne purple colt’s-foot (For a dichotomous table for galls on Homogyne by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine associated with a silken tube at the outside; larva with thoracic feet and a recognisable head => 2 1b mine without a silken tube; larva a maggot =>…

Erigeron host plants

Erigeron fleabane incl. Conyza, Stenactis. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Erigeron by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a upper- or lower-surface gallery or blotch; larva a maggot => 2 1b full depth gallery or blotch; larva with chitinised head => 8 1c galls, etc. =>…

Aster host plants

Aster Incl. Bellidiastrum, Eurybia, Galatella, Oclemena, Symphyotrichum, Tripolium. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Aster by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine: Aristaea pavoniella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c fleck mine => 24 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Santolina host plants

Santolina lavender cotton, holy flax Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine a corridor, with black frass grains; larva a maggot: Chromatomyia cf syngenesiae 1b mine a more or less blotchy fleck mine, (almost) without frass; larva with feet and a chitinised head => 2 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor…

Saponaria host plants

Saponaria soapwort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Saponaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1c larva lives in a transportable case, makes fleck mines => 2 1a larva not only mines the leaves but also bores in the stem, causing the top of the plant…

Artemisia host plants

Artemisia mugwort, wormwood Incl. Seriphidium. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Artemisia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine centered over the midrib => 2 1b mine independent of the midrib => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine…

Achillea host plants

Achillea sneezewort, yarrow, milfoil Incl. Diotis, Otanthus, Ptarmica. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Achillea by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 9 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case helicoidal; holes…

Holcus host plants

Holcus yorkshire fog, creeping soft-grass Dichotomous table for leafminers 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1a fleck mine, larva mines from a transportable case => 17 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine (Elachistidae) => 3…

Bromus host plants

Bromus brome incl. Anisantha, Bromopsis. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case resembles a grass spikelet => 3 2b case consists of a number of leaf fragments placed one behind…

Phalaris host plants

Phalaris canary grass Incl. Phalaroides. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Phalaris by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow corridor segments the frass in a more or less narrow central line => 2 1b larva a maggot; in narrow segments…

Seseli host plants

Seseli moon carrot incl. Libanotis. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine < 1 cm, full depth, often in numbers together in a leaf axil; larvae, with distinct feet and chitinised head, later live free and cause extensive window feeding => 2 1b ine > 1 cm, not full depth; larva…

Levisticum host plants

Levisticum lovage Dichotomous table for leafminers 1amine < 1 cm, full depth, often in large numbers together in a leaf axil; larvae, with distinct feet and chitinised head, later live free and cause extensive window feeding: Epermenia chaerophyllella 1bmine > 1 cm, not full depth; larva a maggot => 2…

Milium host plants

Milium millet Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine => 2 1b larva a maggot; pupation within or outside the mine => 6 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mines small, of indefinite shape, wthout frass; older…

Phaseolus host plants

Phaseolus bean (For a dichotomous table for galls on Phaseolus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a puparium in the mine, in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola 1b before pupation the larva leaves the mine through a semicircular exit slit => 2 1c galls, etc…

Triticum host plants

Triticum wheat Incl. Triticale. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine: Elachista albifrontella, E. freyerella 1b mine upper-surface; larva a maggot; pupation within or outside the mine => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Silene host plants

Silene catchfly, campion Incl. Atocion, Cucubalus, Lychnis (ragged robin, catchfly), Melandrium, Viscaria. Heliospermum quadrifidum sensu Hegi => Silene pusilla. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sileme by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine entirely full depth (no fleck mine) => 2 1b mine at least…

Lotus host plants

Lotus birdsfoot-trefoil Incl. Tetragonolobus Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, without initial corridor => 2 1b corridor from start to end => 4 1c corridor that suddenly widens into a clear blotch => 6 1d tentiform mine => 10 1d fleck mine => 11 1e galls, etc => Tables for…

Rubus host plants

Rubus bramble (For a dichotomous table for galls on Rubus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a more or less widened corridor => 2 1b small blotch with a violin-shaped excision of ca. 2 mm: Incurvaria praelatella 1c opaque blotch with finely wrinkled epidermis; mine without frass…

Melilotus host plants

Melilotus melilot (For a dichotomous table for galls on Melilotus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a strongly inflated tentiform mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 3 1c fleck mine; larve mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all…

Hydrellia griseola parasite

Hydrellia griseola (Fallén, 1913) Glyceria fluitans, Diemen, park Spoorzicht mine Irregular mine, locally shallow, elsewhere much deeper, giving it a mottled appearance. In broadleaved plants the mine often begins as a blotch with stellate extensions, but sometimes as a very fine, shallow corridor. In grasses the mine often begins in…

Brassica host plants

Brassica cabbage, turnip, mustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Brassica by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine begins or ends in the stem, petiole or midrib => 2 1b mine at most on the midrib, otherwise free in the leaf => 8 1c galls,…

Agromyza alnibetulae parasite

Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931 Betula pubescens, Maarn Betula pubescens, Hilversum mine An unusually long, upper-surface corridor that widens only little and winds freely through the leaf. Frass in two neat rows. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit (always?) in the lower epidermis. hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula pendula, pubescens. phenology Mines…

Erysimum host plants

Erysimum wallflower Incl. Cheiranthus. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Erysimum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva mines from a transportable case, makes fleck mines => 2 1b larva mines from the inside; no fleck mines => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for…

Hirschfeldia host plants

Hirschfeldia hoary mustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hirschfeldia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a whitish or mottled, irregular blotch overlying the midrib => 2 1b upper- or lower-surface corridor => 3 1c full depth corridor or blotch (not associated with the leaf venation)…

Puccinia sileris parasite

Puccinia sileris Voss, 1876 on Laser gall No host plant alternation. Spermogonia epiphyllous, on dark spots. Aecia at the corresponding underside, pustular, opening by a pore without a peridium. Uredinia hypophyllous, cinnamon-coloured, on tiny spots. Telia similar, dark brown. Teliospores two-celled, ovoid, without papillae; wall of uniform thickness, finely verrucose;…

Chromatomyia fuscula parasite

Chromatomyia fuscula (Zetterstedt, 1838) mine Whitish, upper-surface, descending corridor, about halfway the blade. Frass in distinct black grains that are lying further apart than their diameter. Pupation in the mine; front spiracula penetrate the plant epidermis. host plants Poaceae, broadly polyphagous Alopecurus pratensis; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avena sativa; Avenula pubescens; Bromopsis…

Sinapis host plants

Sinapis mustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sinapis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, not widening into a blotch => 2 1b blotch; may be preceded by a corridor => 8 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor…

Biscutella host plants

Biscutella Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface (small patches may be full depth); larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a small blotch, < 1 cm; larva lives later…

Alliaria host plants

Alliaria Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, vanishing into the midrib => 2 1b corridor or blotch, not ending in the midrib => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva a maggot: Phytomyza rufipes 2b larva with sclerotised head: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus 3a mine full…

Bembecia megillaeformis parasite

Bembecia megillaeformis (Hübner, 1813) on Colutea, Cytisus, Genista parasite The larva bores in the roots. host plants Fabaceae, oligophagous Colutea arborescens; Cytisus hirsutus, procumbens, ratisbonensis; Genista tinctoria. Rarely Astragalus glycyphyllos. phenology The larva lives for two years, in the first year without apparent damage to the host plant. In the…

Isatis host plants

Isatis woad (For a dichotomous table for galls on Isatis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chirinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 7 1c fleck mine; larva mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona helicinella…

Phytomyza veronicicola parasite

Phytomyza veronicicola Hering, 1925 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Upper-surface corridor, without association with the leaf margin. First part of the mine more or less straight. The following part consists of a densely wound corridor, often forming a secondary blotch. The final section again is more or less straight, and ends upon…

Capparis host plants

Capparis caper bush (For a dichotomous table for galls on Capparis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth, sometimes very small; larva with thoracic feet and a sclerotised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface, never strikingly small; larva a maggot => 4…

Elachista eleochariella parasite

Elachista eleochariella Stainton, 1851 small bog dwarf mine Mine upper-surface, starting a few cm under the tip of the leaf. A corridor first runs upwards, then doubles, widening all the while. The final part takes half the width of the leaf. The complete corridor is c. 6 cm long; except…

Puccinia kummeri parasite

Puccinia kummeri Gäumann, 1942 on petasites gall Apart from the host plant not distinguishable from Puccinia poarum. spermogonia, aecia Asteraceae, monophagous Petasites albus, hybridus, paradoxus. ​ gall uredinia mostly epiphyllous, yellow, almost without paraphyses; urediniospores with 6-7 indistinct pores. Telia dark brown, epiphyllous, divided into compartments by rows of brown…

Fenusa dohrnii parasite

…larvae may be found as late as November. BENELUX BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a). LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with possible exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Fenusa dohrni. notes The egg is deposited…

Puccinia holcicola parasite

Puccinia holcicola Guyot, 1951 on Holcus gall Host alternation not known, only uredinia and telia. Uredinia very small (< 0.5 mm), amphigenous, brownish, pulverulent; spores 21-25 x 24-29 µm. Telia numerous, amphigenous, blackish brown, long covered by the epidermis, without paraphyses. Teliospores without exception 2-celled, clavate, 18-26 x 44-65 µm;…

Epilobium host plants

Epilobium willow-herb (For a dichotomous table for galls on Epilobium and Chamerion by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers See also the key for Chamerion. 1a larva in June-August => 2 1b larva in March-May => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Cerodontha subgenera specials

Key to the subgenera of the genus Cerodontha (Agromyzidae) An extensive monograph of the European species, that devotes much attention to the larvae and puparia, was published by Nowakowski (1973a). The species live as miners on monocotyledons of the families Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae and Iridaceae. The key below to the…

Avenula host plants

Avenula oat-grass Incl. Avenastrum, Avenochloa, Helictochloa, Helictotrichon. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Avenula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva in a transportable case: Coleophora lixella 1b gallery or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Cholodkovskya viridula parasite

Cholodkovskya viridula (Cholodkovsky, 1911) on Larix gall Closely related with Ch. viridana. No host plant alternation, and without an alate phase. hostplants Pinaceae, narrowly monophagous Larix sibirica. notes Species from northern Russia. references Albrecht (2017a), Blackman & Eastop (2017), Lampel & Meier (2003a)….

Aphrastasia pectinatae parasite

…Pinaceae, monophagous Abies alba, amabilis, balsamea, concolor, fraseri, grandis, koreana, lasiocarpa, nordmanniana, procera, sibirica, veichtii. notes Species from Fennoscandia, but also Poland and Romania. synonyms Adelges pectinatae; ? Buchneria pectinatae (Nördlinger). references Albrecht (2017a), Blackman & Eastop (2017), Börner & Franz (1956a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Görür, Işik,

Puccinia agrostidis parasite

Puccinia agrostidis Plowright,1890 on Aquilegia Aquilegia vulgaris, from González Fragoso (1924a): section through an uredinium, with many paraphyses sticking out gall spermogonia amphigenous. Aecia hypophyllous, cupulate, in ± round groups. spermogonia, aecia Rancunlaceae, monophagous Aquilegia alpina, atrata, dichroa, einseleana, glandulosa, nigricans, pyrenaica, viscosa, vulgaris. ​ on Agrostis Agrostis castellana, from…

Puccinia bistortae parasite

Puccinia bistortae (Strauss) de Candolle, 1815 on Apiaceae gall Spermogonia amphigenous, honey coloured. Aecia hypohpyllous, deeply immersed, on yellow galled spots, pustulate, bright yellow without a peridium. The spores are released by a pore. spermogonia, aecia Apiaceae, oligophagous Angelica sylvestris; Carum carvi; Chaerophyllum hirsutum; Conopodium majus; Ligusticum mutellina; Meum athamanticum;…

Puccinia carthami parasite

Puccinia carthami Corda, 1840 on Carthamus gall No host plant alternation. Spermogonia amphigenous on somewhat discoloured leaf spots. Aecia are not formed. Uredinia brown, long covered by the epidermis; initially around the spermogonia, later mainly hypophyllous, not inducing leaf spots; also near the root collar of seedlings; urediniospores 16-23 x…

Contarinia variabilis parasite

Contarinia variabilis Rübsaamen, 1917 on Rumex gall The larvae live between the fruit valves, without signs of galling; the larvae are able to jump. hostplants Polygonaceae, monophagous Rumex crispus, scutatus. notes Probably not distinguishable from Contarinia scutati without breeding. references Buhr (1965a), Gagné (2010a), Gagné & Jaschhof (2014a), Harris (2003a),…

Puccinia graminis parasite

Puccinia graminis Persoon, 1794 on Berberis Berberis vulgaris, Austria, Tyrol, Rauth; © Arnold Grosscurt aecia at the underside of the leaf Berberis vulgaris, Germany, Bavaria; © Arnold Grosscurt spermogonia, aecia Berberidaceae, oligophagous Berberis vulgaris; Mahonia aquifolum, bealei. ​ on Poaceae Lolium perenne, Nieuwendam urediniospores and paraphyses twice the same urediniospore…

Zeugophora parasite

genus Zeugophora Populus nigra, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 21.v.2018 © László Érsek another specimen this mine is unusually transparent . . . . . . enabling to see the frass pattern Populus nigra, Duin en Kruidberg two oviposition scars (they are not always are positioned marginally!) Four Zeugophora species are known from…

Asphondylia punica parasite

Asphondylia punica Marchal, 1897 on Atriplex gall (from Houard, 1908a) gall The leaves of the stem tip are densely, imbricately, compressed. The stem inside is stunted and swollen to a very hard, fusiform gall that bears a number of protuberances, each containing a gall chamber. Larva solitary, orange. host plants…

Antirrhinum host plants

Antirrhinum snapdragon (For a dichotomous table for galls on Antirrhinum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine centered over the midrib => 2 1b a corridor, not associated with the midrib => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a pinnately branched…

Erysiphe syringae parasite

Erysiphe syringae Schweinitz, 1834 on Oleacea gall Mycelium amphigenous, persistent, in dense white spots. Conidia solitary, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Cleistothecia, only rarely formed, with 3-8 asci, containing 5-7 spores. Appendages 3-16, equatorial, 1-2 x the diameter; they are stiff, entirely or largely hyaline, with maximally 2, basal septa. At…

Ononis host plants

Ononis restharrow (For a dichotomous table for galls on Ononis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a lower-surface tentiform mine => 2 1b fleck mine => 3 1c mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 6 1d mine upper and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 7…

Sauterina hofmanniella parasite

Sauterina hofmanniella (Schleich, 1867) Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae mine Strongly contracted lower-surface tentiform mine; the lower epidermis often torn. Upper surface mottled, because much tissue has been removed there. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Lathyrus linifolius, niger, tuberosus. Also on other, unspecified, Fabaceae (Baldizzone, 2004a). phenology Larvae in July (Bengtsson…

Amsinckia host plants

Amsinckia fiddleneck Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a large brown blotch: cf. Agromyza abiens 1b galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species Steven IJland sent me dried material that he had collected near the Hague in mid May. The mine was a brown blotch of ca. 4 cm without…

Phyllonorycter sagitella parasite

…Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kvičala (1938a), A & Z Laštůvka (2014a), Lhomme (1934d), Maček (1999a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Plóciennik, Pawlikiewicz & Jaworski (2011a), De Prins (1998a, 2007a), Robbins (1991a), Schmid (2019a), Schütze (1931a), Simpson (1996a), Stammer (2016a), Starý (1930a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a),…

Centaurium host plants

Centaurium centaury (For a dichotomous table for galls on Centaurium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1b mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Gentiana host plants

Gentiana gentian Incl. Gentianella, Gentianopsis. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Gentiana by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with thoracic feet and a well visible head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot, without feet and apparently headless…

Lamium host plants

Lamium dead-nettle incl. Galeobdolon, Lamiastrum (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lamium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- or lower-surface; feeding lines sometimes visible; larva a maggot => 2 1b mine full depth; never feeding lines; larva with chitinised head => 10 1c…

Lycopus host plants

Lycopus gipsywort Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine, the larva mines from a transportable case => 2 1b gallery or blotch mine; the larva mines from within => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a brownish black sheath case: Coleophora albitarsella 2b composite leaf…

Dicheirinia maderensis parasite

Dicheirinia maderensis Gjaerum, 1982 Fungi, Basidiomycota, Pucciniomycetes, Pucciniales on Genista gall only uredinia and telia (known?). Uredinia amphigenous, dark brown, without paraphyses; urediniospores short-elliptic, brown, echinulate, with 3(4) equatorial spores. Telia amphigenous, brownish black, soon naked, pulverulent, without paraphyses. Teliospores one-celled, oval, (dark) brown, remotely verrose, two together on a…

Phyllonorycter anderidae parasite

Phyllonorycter anderidae (Fletcher, 1885) small birch midget Betula pubescens, upperside © Rob Edmunds, UK underside Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel mine Small lower-surface tentiform mine; epidermis pale green, rather weakly folded. The pupa lies without a cocoon in the mine. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula…

Mentha host plants

Mentha mint (For a dichotomous table for galls on Mentha by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a blackish brown case: Coleophora albitarsella 1b fine gallery, descending, via the petiole, down the stem: Glaucolepis saturejae 1c gallery or blotch => 2 1d…

Lunaria host plants

Lunaria honesty (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lunaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- and/or lower-surface; larva a maggot: Scaptomyza flava 1b mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Barbarea host plants

Barbarea Yellow Rocket Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a stem borer, rarely penetrating into petiole and midrib, with a isolated excursions into the leaf blade: Psylliodes napi 1b real leafminer => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head =>…

Armoracia host plants

Armoracia (For a dichotomous table for galls on Armoracia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva…

Arabidopsis host plants

Arabidopsis rock cress Incl. Cardaminopsis. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Arabidopsis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a large parts of the mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1b mine full depth throughout; larva with chitinised head => 4 1c galls, etc….

Alyssum host plants

Alyssum Incl. Hormathophylla, Odontarrhena, Ptilotrichum; see also Alyssoides, Aubrieta, Aurinia, Berteroa, Lobularia. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Alyssum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c…

F (references) references

…Biologie, Verbreitung und Systematik des Komplexes von Heterogynis paradoxa Rambur, 1837 mit Beschreibung von Heterogynis yerayi sp. n. aus dem Kantabrischen Gebirge, Spanien (Lepidoptera: Zygaenoidea, Heterogynidae). – Nachrichten des entomologischen Vereins Apollo [2] 32(1/2): 9–24. Freina JJ de, 2012a Heterogynidae auf dem Balkan, mit Beschreibung von Heterogynis sondereggeri sp. n….

C (references) references

…rastlin, Zreče, 8-10. marec 2005: 371-375. Ćelik T, 2012a. Large heath, Coenonympha tullia (Müller, 1764) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) is not extinct in Slovenia. – Acta entomologica slovenica 20(1): 45-58. Čelik T, 2013a. Oviposition preferences of a threatened butterfly Leptidea morsei (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) at the western border of its range. – Journal…

R (references) references

…bugs of Europe (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera). – Zootaxa 1827: 1–44. Rabitsch W & Frieß Th, 2011a. Stephanitis takeyai Drake & Maa, 1955 (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in Österreich festgestellt. – Beiträge zur Entomofaunistik 12: 150-152. Rabl Ch & Rabl D, 2015a. Die Einwanderung von Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) nach Österreich….

Elatobium abietinum parasite

Elatobium abietinum (Walker, 1849) green spruce aphid on Picea, etc. Abies alba, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints. gall De aphids sit in small groups on the older needles. De needles turn yellow and drop prematurely. Especially in the sitka spruce this may lead to serious defoliation. The…

Depth of the mine introduction

Depth of the mine Miners can utilise the full thickness of the leaf, or limit themselves to just one of the layers of a leaf. This has everything to do with leaf anatomy. The illustration below shows a transverse section though a typical leaf, that of Beech (after Strasburger, 1958)….

Eriophyes distinguendus parasite

…dulcis, padus. synonyms Eriophyes paderineus Nalepa, 1909. references Béguinot (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Coulianos & Karlsson (2014a), Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka (2007a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Vaněčková-Skuhravá (1996a), Weidner (1954a)….

Eriophyes junipereti parasite

Eriophyes junipereti Keifer, 1960 on Juniperus gall the mites are vagrants. At high densities the growth of the youngest shoots may be inhibited. host plants Cupressaceae, monophagous Juniperus communis. references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Prunella host plants

Prunella selfheal Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor and/or blotch => 2 1b fleck mine => 5 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a long, narrow, hardly widening corridor, abruptly changing into a blotch (the corridor may be overrun by the blotch, but is usually recognisable…

Fungi introduction

Traditionally rust and smut fungi (Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina) are considered gall causers, but only as far as they cause conspicuous swellings of plant parts. By this limitation an arbitrary division is created in the rusts, that does no justice to their biological importance. Even more arbitrary is the admission of…

Leipothrix taraxaci parasite

Leipothrix taraxaci (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Taraxacum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn unevenly brownish. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale. synonyms Epitrimerus taraxaci. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović (1998a),…

Eriophyes parviflorae parasite

Eriophyes parviflorae Rainiss, 1940 Acari, Eriophyidae on Silene gall all flower parts within the calyce have turned leaflike or are greened. hostplants Caryophyllaceae, narrowly monophagous Silene “parviflora”. Silene parviflora is an ambigous name; according to the Euro+Med PlantBase (2014) it may refer to either Silene borysthenica or cretica. notes species…

Introduction introduction

Introduction Living plants are to food of an endless variety of organisms. When this concerns vertebrate animals this can be called macro-herbivory, and there usually hardly exists a recognisable relation between plant and grazer. This is different for the innumerable small organisms (insects, mites, nematodes, fungi etc.) the feed and…

Epitrimerus succisae parasite

Epitrimerus succisae (Roivainen, 1947) on Succisa gall the mites are hypophyllous vagrants. At high densities the underside of the leaves becomes irregular, the leaves turn pale, eventually show russeting. host plants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Succisa pratensis. synonyms Leipothrix succisae. references Buhr (1965a), Farkas (1965a), Petanović & Rector (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a),…

Frass introduction

Frass The most characteristic result of the presence of the larve in the mine are its excrements. Only in old, long vacated mines rain may have washed out the frass; the mines then generally look whitish. And of course, there is a rather small number of mines from which the…

Epitrimerus gibbosus parasite

Epitrimerus gibbosus (Nalepa, 1892) on Rubus mite, dorsal view (from Gol, Sadeghi Namaghi & Xue) Rubus fruticosus, Vorden: infested leaf felt, seen from above felt, from the side Rubus fruticosus, Stokkum © Arnold Grosscurt: the erineum may be either epiphyllous or hypophyllous host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus apricus, axillaris, bifrons,…

systemic glossary

Most fungal infection are local. However, in some species the mycelium pervades the entire plant body. This has important biological implications: the fungus may be dispersed by infected seed, and the fungus may hibernate in the below-grond pats of the plant….

Shape introduction

Shape corridor mines When a larve eats onty the leaf tissue right in front of its head the result is a narrow tunnel. In extreme caes, when the larva makes no lateral head movements, the tunnel remains just wide enough to accomodate the growing larva. Mines that remain that narrow…

polyphagous glossary

Living on two or more plant genera belonging to different families. If these families are closely related, one can speak of “narrow polyphagous”, in the opposite case of “broad polyphagous”….

green island glossary

An autumn phenomenon. The presence of an occupied mine in a dying leaf can block the yellowing process. The tissue around the mine keeps its original green colour, even when the leaf already has fallen to the ground….

Pentamerus septemcarinatus parasite

Pentamerus septemcarinatus (Liro, 1941) Acari, Eriophyidae on Frangula gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may show irregular greyish green spots. hostplants Rhamnaceae, monophagous Frangula alnus (= Rhamnus frangula); Rhamnus cathartica. synonyms Epitrimerus septemcarinatus. references Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a), Farkas…

Epitrimerus alinae parasite

Epitrimerus alinae Liro, 1941 Acari, Eriophyidae on Leucanthemum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brown. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Leucanthemum vulgare. references Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a). 25/11/2014…

case glossary

Transportable, tubular or rarely helicoidal structure, made of plant material, silk, rarely detritus, in which a larve lives and walks around, and from which it may make a fleck mine. Most often made byColeophoridae larvae….

ascogenous cell glossary

Ascomycota: a cell out of which later an ascus may develop. In Protomyces they are embedded in the galled host tissue. They have a double wall, the outer one conspicuously thickened….

aecium glossary

(pl aecia). The second stage in the life history of rust fungi, Pucciniales. Puccinia poarum: underside of a leaf with aecia characteristically, the spores are produced in a chain only under exceptionally quiet circumstances a picture like this can develop…

Ectoedemia albifasciella Uncategorized

Ectoedemia albifasciella Overproduction of eggs? Sometimes an excessive number of eggs is deposited on a small number of leaves. By far most of the resulting larvae perish. Quercus robur, Hoog Soeren Of the four larvae on this picture only the lowest, largest, is still alive. The number of these failed…

parasitoid glossary

Many insects place their egg in or on the egg or larva of their prey; the larva that emerges slowly devours the host larva. To call this behaviour parasitic is not justified, because real parasites, like fleas or lice, need to keep their host alive, rather than to kill it….

albifasciella special specials

Overproduction of eggs in Ectoedemia albifasciella Overproduction of eggs? Sometimes an excessive number of eggs is deposited on a small number of leaves. By far most of the resulting larvae perish. Quercus robur, Hoog Soeren Of the four larvae on this picture only the lowest, largest, is still alive. The…

Epitrimerus chaerophylli parasite

Epitrimerus chaerophylli Boczek, 1964 on Chaerophyllum gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. host plants Apiaceae, monophagous Chaerophyllum aromaticum, hirsutum references Boczek (1964a), Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Epitrimerus violarius parasite

Epitrimerus violarius Liro, 1941 on Viola gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown. hostp lants Viola, monophagous Viola canina & subsp. ruppii, mirabilis, riviniana, uliginosa. references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a)….

Pseudomines introduction

Pseudomines In the field it sometimes is not easy at all to distinguish real mines from other damage to the leaves. The variation in these ‘pseudomines’ is endless, but two types can fairly easily be singled out. window feeding Window feeding means that a larva has been eating away all…

Epitrimerus convallariae parasite

Epitrimerus convallariae Liro, 1943 on Convallaria gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may get brownish spots. host plants Asparagaceae, monophagous Convallaria majalis. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1950a, 1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

oviposition scar glossary

In cases where the egg is deposited within the plant tissue, this is done either by means of an ovipositor, or by biting a hole in the leaf (mostly a thick vein). This causes a wound reaction of the plant, that may remain long after the mine has been vacated….

Epitrimerus farinosus parasite

Epitrimerus farinosus Roivainen, 1950 Acari, Eriophyidae on Primula gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn yellow. hostplants Primulaceae, monophagous Primula farinosa. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1950a). 13/11/2014…

feeding punctures glossary

Pin-sized puncture made by an agromyzid female with her ovipositor in the surface of leaf. She subsequently drinks from the extruding sap. Males, not having an ovipositor, drink from the punctures that the females have made. A single female can make many tens of punctures in a leaf. When Agromyzidae…

monophagous glossary

Living on a single plant genus. If this species contains, within the distributional area of the parasite, many species, while the parasite lives on just one or a few of them, one can call the parasite “narrowly monophagous”….

Epitrimerus jaceae parasite

Epitrimerus jaceae Liro, 1943 polyphagous gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may dry and turn brown. host plants polyphagous Centaurea jacea, scabiosa, stoebe subsp. australis; Primula veris. Less often: Campanula persicifolia; Origanum vulgare; Plantago lanceolata; Potentilla erecta, reptans; Prunella…

Epitrimerus longitarsus parasite

Epitrimerus longitarsus (Nalepa, 1897) Acari, Eriophyidae on Alnus gall over considerable, vaguely delimited parts the leaf is somewhat bulging upwards, somewhat pale or brownish; at the underside gallmites are visible. hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus. notes These symptoms can be caused by several species of gall midges that, possibly only facultatively,…

sclerotium glossary

(pl sclerotia). A hard, dry of fungal tissue that is resistant to unfavourable conditions and may remain in a resting state for an extended period….

Epitrimerus rivalis parasite

Epitrimerus rivalis Roivainen, 1947 Acari, Eriophyidae on Geum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brownish. At high densities the leaf may turn yellowish-brown. hostplants Rosaceae, narrowly monophagous Geum rivale. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a, 1951a)….

Origanum host plants

Origanum marjoram Incl. Majorana (For a dichotomous table for galls on Origanum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor and/or blotch => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a brownish black sheath case: Coleophora albitarsella 2b…

Prays oleae parasite

Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) small olive ermel on Olea Phillyrea angustifolia, France, Corse, Paslasca © Stéphane Claerebout mine, lighted from behind Olea europaea, Greece, Lesbos, Agiásos underside mine Initially the larva makes an upper-surface, short, narrow corridor. Later, in early spring, it may abandon this mine and make elsewhere on…

Phyllocoptes euphorbiae parasite

Phyllocoptes euphorbiae Farkas, 1962 Acari, Eriophyidae on Euphorbia gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may curl and roll in. hostplants Euphorbiaceae, monophagous Euphorbia cyparissias, salicifolia. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski…

Stenoptilia zophodactylus parasite

Stenoptilia zophodactylus (Duponchel, 1840) dowdy plume Gentiana sp. Amstelveen mine Full depth irregular blotch that may occupy an entire leaf. Frass in numerous, dispersed, brown grains. Some larvae remain in the mine until shortly before pupation, others leave the mine in an early stage and feed externally on the flower…

Epiblema scutulana parasite

Epiblema scutulana (Denis & Schffermüller, 1775) thistle bell on Asteraceae gall larvae (caterpillars, with yellowish brown head) bore in the stem and underground parts. They hibernate in the upper section of their gallery and pupate there in spring. The plant can show a local swelling or shortening of the internodes….

Cochylis nana parasite

Cochylis nana (Haworth, 1811) birch conch on Betula gall the larva, a caterpillar, lives during the summer in a female catkin, that may become somewhat disfigured; in autumn pupation follows in a bark fissure. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula pendula, pubescens. larva Boy dirty yellowish-white; head brown; prothoracic plate brownish,…

Trisetacus ehmanni parasite

Trisetacus ehmanni Keifer, 1963 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheaths at the base of the needles and also free on the needles. At higher densities this can result in chlorosis, twisting and shortening of the needles, and repeated attacks may lead to twisting of the branches. hostplants…

Argyroploce lediana parasite

Argyroploce lediana (Linnaeus, 1758) on Rhododendron gall the larva lives among the flowers and young leaves but prior to the hibernation, bores into a young shoot where some swelling may occur. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Rhododendron tomenentosum (= Ledum palustre). larva, pupa Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni,…

Coptotriche gaunacella parasite

Coptotriche gaunacella (Duponchel, 1843) grey carl on Prunus Prunus cerasus, Belgium, prov. Liège, Huy © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind, with larva mine Upper-surface blotch. The inner wall is lined with much silk, giving the mine a white colour. The silk also causes the mine to contract, pulling the…

Coptotriche angusticollella parasite

…writes that the larva hibernates in the mine, and pupates only in spring. BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, but is missing in Ireland, and rare or absent in the Balkan Peninsula…

Paranthrene tabaniformis parasite

Paranthrene tabaniformis (Rottemburg, 1775) on Populus gall the larva tunnels during two years in the wood of 3-6 years old trees; in not too thick branches or suckers this may result in a recognisable swelling. Oten in old galls, like those of Saperda populnea. Pupation the gallery, not in a…

Glaucolepis teucriella parasite

Glaucolepis teucriella (Chrétien, 1914) mine Corridor, widening into a blotch that may occupy the entire leaf. By way of the petiole the larva can move to the opposite leaf. Pupation external. hostplants Lamiaceae, monophagous Teucrium chamaedrys. phenology Probably two generations, with larvae in October – April and in July. distribution…

Tegoprionus dentatus parasite

Tegoprionus dentatus (Nalepa, 1894) on Galium mite, lateral and dorsal view; scale bar 20 µm (from Chetverikov ao) gall the mites are vagrants in the inflorescence; at high densities this may become disfigured. host plants Rubiaceae, monophagous Galium aparine, verum. Roivainen (1951a) cited the species also from Pimpinella saxifraga, but…

Trisetacus juniperinus parasite

Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa, 1911) on Juniperus Juniperus communis (from Houard, 1908a) gall Shoot tip gall. The final internodes are strongly shortened and the upper needles are swollen and widened at their base. The result is a globular gall. Also lower on the shoot a number of needles may basally swollen….

Protomycopsis leontodontis parasite

Protomycopsis leontodontis Büren, 1922 on Leontodon, Scorzoneroides gall roundish thickened spots at the underside of the leaf; also fusiform swellings of the midrib. They are witish and somewhat glassy at first, later almost dark brown; the surrounding leaf may turn red. Within the leaf tissue dark brown fungal spores are…

Trifurcula anthyllidella parasite

Trifurcula anthyllidella Klimesch, 1975 Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Anthyllis cytisoides, Spain, prov. Cádiz; from van Nieukerken (2007b) Anthyllis cytisoides, Spain, prov. Málaga; from van Nieukerken (2007b) Anthyllis cytisoides; from Klimesch (1975a). mine Oviposition at the leaf upper side, on the disc or on the midrib. From there runs a narrow, upper-surface corridor…

Stigmella trimaculella parasite

…(1071a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hartig (1939a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1923a), Huber (1969a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1983a), Klimesch (1936a, 1950c, 1978b), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de…

Stigmella tormentillella parasite

Stigmella tormentillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) on Potentilla Potentilla aurea (left), P. crantzii, Austria, 1750 and 1800 m, resp.; from Klimesch (1981a) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a corridor that considerably widens in the end, and may occupy an entire leaf segment. Frass initially in an…

Stigmella stelviana parasite

Stigmella stelviana (Weber, 1938) Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Potentilla grandiflora, Austria, 2200 m; from Klimesch (1981a) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a corridor that strongly widens in the end, and may occupy an entire leaf segment; when the leaf is too small the larva may move…

Taphrina sadebeckii parasite

Taphrina sadebeckii Johanson, 1886 on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Naardermeer Alnus glutinosa, Leiden Alnus glutinosa, Nieuwendam; upper side of the leaf underside asci, strong magnification (lighted from below) Alnus glutinosa, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Tongerlo, Engelse Kamp © Carina Van Steenwinkel detail; the mealy appearance of the galls indicates that the fungus…

Epinotia bilunana parasite

Epinotia bilunana (Haworth, 1811) crescent bell on Betula gall the larva, a caterpillar, lives during the summer in a female catkin, that may become somewhat disfigured, and finally is eaten out completely. The larve hibernates in the catkin and in spring pupates either there, or in the litter. host plants…

Prays fraxinella parasite

…(Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All Europe, except the Mediterranean islands and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva pupa Illustrated and described by Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Prays curtisella (Donovan, 1793). references Agassiz (1996), Baldizzone (2004a),…

Phyllocoptes farkasi parasite

Phyllocoptes farkasi Boczek, 1969 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheats at the base of the needles. At high densities some discolouration of the needles may occur. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus jeffreyi, nigra, sylvestris. references Farkas (1965a), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski &…

Platyphytoptus sabinianae parasite

Platyphytoptus sabinianae Keifer, 1938 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheath around the needle bases, causing chlorotic twisted needles. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus mugo, nigra, sylvestris. references Denizhan, Monfreda, de Lillo & Çobanoğlu (2015a), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Pye (2012a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek…

Phyllocoptes oxycocci parasite

Phyllocoptes oxycocci Roivainen, 1947 on Vaccinium gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may turn spoon-like and corrugated. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium oxycoccos, uliginosum. references Buhr (1965a), Davis, Flechtmann, Boczek & Barké (1982a), Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a)….

Pulmonaria host plants

Pulmonaria lungwort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pulmonaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella 1b blotch, at least locally full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head: Dialectica imperialella 1c mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1d…

Anchusa host plants

Anchusaalkanet, bugloss (For a dichotomous table for galls on Anchusa by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case: Coleophora pennella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine lower- or upper-surface;…

Erophaca host plants

Erophaca Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch mine, that may fill a complete leaflet; larva a caterpillar: Leucoptera astragali 1b galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Colutea host plants

Colutea bladder senna (For a dichotomous table for galls on Colutea by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora colutella 1b gallery => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor from start to end, winding freely through the leaflet;…

Phyllocoptes vaccinii parasite

Phyllocoptes vaccinii (Flögel & Goosman, 1933) on Vaccinium Vaccinium myrtillus, Frace, dépt. Ardennes, Gué d’Hossus, RN Trou blanc © Stéphane Claerebout detail Vaccinium myrtillus, Boswachterij Nunspeet © Hans Jonkman another image infested shoots wither and die off gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may brown,…

Phyllocoptes vitisidaeae parasite

Phyllocoptes vitisidaeae Roivainen, 1951 on Vaccinium gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may turn spoon-like and corrugated. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium vitis-idaea. references Buhr (1965a), Davis, Flechtmann, Boczek & Barké (1982a), Roivainen (1951a)….

Rhinophytoptus platani parasite

Rhinophytoptus platani Boczek & Shi, 1995 Acari, Diptilomiopidae on Platanus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may show light, brown spots. The mites also live in the buds, and disturb their unfolding. hostplants Platanaceae, monophagous Platanus x hispanica. references Skoracka,…

Coleophora limoniella parasite

Coleophora limoniella (Stainton, 1884) silver-streaked case-bearer on Limonium Limonium vulgare, Belgium, prov. West Flanders, het Zwin © Stéphane Claerebout: feeding traces seed case on an old inflorescence another image parasite The egg is deposited on a flower. The larva eats the seeds of the developing fruit, then makes its first…

Jurinea host plants

Jurinea (For a dichotomous table for galls on Jurinea by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b no fleck mine => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a composite leaf case: Coleophora serratulella 2b spathulate leaf case: Coleophora…

Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer, 1940 on Ficus mite, lateral (from Keifer, 1939b) gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities a mosaic of yellowish discolourations, and malformation of the leaf may occur. host plants Moraceae, monophagous Ficus carica. The discovery by Petanović on Medicago sativa…

Portulaca host plants

Portulaca purslane, pigweed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- and/or lower-surface => 2 1b mine essentially full depth, transparant: Hypurus bertrandi 1c the larva mines from a transportable case: Coleophora texanella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a narrow corridor, continued in a blotch; larva…

Moehringia host plants

Moehringia three-nerved sandwort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Moehringia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora chalcogrammella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine begins near an under-surface egg shell (the…

Shevtchenkella ligustri parasite

Shevtchenkella ligustri (Farkas, 1963) on Ligustrum gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities light, local discolouration may occur. host plants Oleaceae, monophagous Ligustrum ovalifolium, vulgare. synonyms Tegonotus ligustri; T. ignavus Boczek, 1964. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović…

Tegonotus scoticus parasite

Tegonotus scoticus Roivainen, 1950 Acari, Eriophyidae on Ligusticum Ligusticum scothicum: normal and galled leaflets; from Roivainen (1950a). gall the leaves are disfigured; also the inflorescence may be disfigured, and the leaves greened. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Ligusticum mutellina, scothicum. synonyms Epitrimerus scoticus. references Buhr (1964b), Farkas (1965a), Roivaianen (1950a). 31/10/2014…

Ochsenheimeria vacculella parasite

Ochsenheimeria vacculella Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1842 cereal stem-moth mine Not described. The first instar lave mines in a leaf; after that it lives as a stem borer. hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous Agropyron cristatum; Bromopsis erecta, inermis; Elymus caninus; Elytrigia repens; Lolium; Phleum pratense; Poa; Schedonorus pratensis; Secale cereale; Triticum aestivum. Can…

Diptacus gigantorhynchus parasite

Diptacus gigantorhynchus (Nalepa, 1892) on Prunus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities discolouration of the leaves may occur. Often occurs together with Aculus fockeui. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus laevigata; Cydonia oblonga; Malus domestica, sylvestris; Prunus avium, cerasus, domestica & subsp. insititia, spinosa;…

Agromyza reptans parasite

Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823 mine Full depth (unusual for an agromyzid) corridor that mostly starts near the leaf margin, and never begins with a series in close, “intestine-like” curves. Further on the corridor strongly widens, and usually remains close to the leaf margin. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass…

Rhopalosiphum maidis parasite

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856 corn leaf aphid on Poaceae parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, oval, yellowish green dark olive green or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax, with short dark siphunculi. They live on the young leaves. host plants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Arundo donax; Avena fatua, sativa; Cenchrus ciliaris; Ceratochloa cathartica;…

Nepticulidae parasite

Nepticulidae Neps A good field character of mines of this family is that they start at a semiglobular, shining, black egg shell. The hatching larva bores itself into the leaf tissue immediately below the egg, at the same time depositing the contents of the embryonal gut into the emptied shell,…

Acaricalus trinotus parasite

Acaricalus trinotus (Nalepa, 1892) on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Cadzand © Arnold Grosscurt Alnus glutinosa, Dronten: underside of the leaf; © Arnold Grosscurt hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus glutinosa, incana. synonym Acaphylla, Epitrimerus, trinotus. notes These symptoms can be caused by several species of gall midges that, possibly only facultatively, and maybe…

Acalitus brevitarsus parasite

Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001a, 2012a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Markovskaja (2013a), Nalepa (1919a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka (2007a, 2010a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a, 1951a, 1953a), Roskam (2009a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Stănescu…

Tylenchida parasite

Nematoda, Tylenchida The species of this order have a stylet in their buccal cavity that can be projected outwards and forwards….

Symphyta parasite

Symphyta Sawflies The two blades of the ovipositor, which is a common character of all Hymenoptera, are modified here into two saw blades, which are used by the female to cut a wound in a plant’s issue and deposit an egg. Often the plant reacts by the formation of callus,…

Psilidae Uncategorized

Psilidae The larvae are generally borers in stems and roots. sometimes a larva from there may stray into a leaf, as a facultative miner. references De Bruyn (1991a), Mansard-Veken (1999a), Richards & Davies (1977a). 26/11/2014…

Noctuidae parasite

Noctuidae Owlets An enormous moth family. Quite some species live as borers in stems and rootstocks, and a few of them start these activities with a mine in the leaves, before descending deeper into the plant (Godfrey, 1987a). The larva may have either 3 or 4 pairs of abdominal prolegs;…

Calepitrimerus armatus parasite

Calepitrimerus armatus (Canestrini, 1890) on Crataegus gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brownish. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus macrocarpa, monogyna, rhipidophylla. synonyms Epitrimerus armatus. references Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Houard (1908a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Ripka (2007a,…

Lestidae parasite

Lestidae A family of the Zygoptera. Some species oviposit on branches above a of water. To that end an incision is made in the bark, which may result in an oviposition scar. 05/12/2014…

Aceria anserina parasite

Aceria anserina (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Argentina gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn distinctly brown. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Argentina anserina (= Potentilla a.). synonyms Eriophyes, Vasates, anserinus. references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a), Skoracka,…

Ephydridae Uncategorized

Ephydridae A large family of medium-sized grey flies. Most species live near fresh or salt water. There is a large variety of life styles among the larvae. All species of the extensive genus Hydrellia are miners of (semi) aquatic plants, mainly grasses and Potamogetonaceae (Deonier, 1998a). The most important species…

Ascomycota parasite

Ascomycota The hyphae (“fungus threads”) of Ascomycota are compartmentalised by septs. Moreover the hyphae can form a dense three-dimensional lattice that in form and structure resembles the parenchyma of plants. This enables these fungi to form three-dimensional structures, for instance in connection with the reproduction. Both sexual and asexual reproduction…

Stigmella ruficapitella parasite

…can be identified on the base of the mine (Erik van Nieukerken in litt.) references Amsel & Hering (1931a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Beiger (1979a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a, 1972b), Buhr (1936a, 1964a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), J Černý (2001a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Emmet…

Cacyreus marshalli parasite

…pupa see Lepiforum. references Baquero, Moraza, Ariño & Jordana (2011a), Battisti, Vodă, Gabaglio, ao (2019a), Dupont, Luquet, Demerges & Drouet (2013a), Gascoigne-Pees, Hall & Russell (2002a), Hrnčić, Radonjić & Perović (2017a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Lepiforum (2021), Vegliante & Zilli (2007a), Verovnik, Polak & Seljak (2011a), Wiemers, Acosta-Fernández & Larsen (2013a)….

Calepitrimerus baileyi parasite

Calepitrimerus baileyi Keifer, 1938 on Malus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Malus domestica, sylvestris. references Denizhan (2011a), Denizhan, Monfreda, de Lillo & Çobanoğlu (2015a), Geçer & Denizhan (2015a), Lotfollahi, Irani-Nejad & de Lillo (2014b),…

Carcharodus alceae parasite

Carcharodus alceae (Esper, 1780) mallow skipper on Malva, etc. parasite Larvae in a folded leaf segment; in larger leaves a segment is cut loose. host plants Malvaceae, oligophagous Abutilon theophrasti; Alcea rosea, setosa; Althaea officinalis; Hibiscus; Malva alcea, moschata, neglecta, sylvestria, thuringiaca; Malvella sherardiana. It has been found in Israel…

Aglaope infausta parasite

Aglaope infausta (Linnaeus, 1767) on Prunus, etc. parasite Larvae freely on the leaves. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous Amelanchier ovalis; Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, avium, domestica, dulcis, mahaleb, persica, spinosa; Pyracantha coccinea; Pyrus communis; Sorbus aria. Occasionally Rhamnus cathartica distribution within Europe PESI (2021). larva, pupa see Fänger &…

Ips acuminatus parasite

Ips acuminatus (Gyllenhal, 1827) on Pinus, etc. parasite Larvae and adults in the bark; polygamous species. Generally in downed trees, but may occur in healthy trees that then may be killed. host plants Pinaceae, oligophagous Abies; Picea abies; Pinus nigra, sylvestris, uncinata. phenology Bivoltine. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references…

Aceria alpestris parasite

Aceria alpestris (Nalepa, 1892) on Rhododendron, Rhodothamnus Rhododendron ferrugineum, galls; at top left also a gall of Exobasidium rhododendri (from Houard, 1909a) gall the leaves are rolled upwards towards the midrib into a narrow tube; they are light-coloured and densely hairy with short, unicellular hairs. Also the development of the…

Aceria galiobia parasite

Aceria galiobia (Canestrini, 1891) on Galium Galium verum, galls (from Houard, 1909a) Galium verum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Pondrome © Jean-Yves Baugnée Galium mollugo, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ben-Ahin, Lovegnée-Bosquet, 4.x.2011 © Jean-Yves Baugnée: old gall Galium mollugo, Germany, Bavaria, Trauchgau: the gall may consist also of a galled leaf © Arnold…

Orthotomicus erosus parasite

Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston, 1857) mediterranean pine engraver on Pinus parasite Mainly in dead wood, but also capable to infest live trees that are stressed by drought etc. The females gnaw a gallery in the bark (in the phloem) and deposit individual eggs; the larvae make their individual gallery in the…

Amauromyza gyrans parasite

Amauromyza gyrans (Fallén, 1823) Campanula rotundifolia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Angleur, Ourthe © Jean-Yves Baugnée Campanula trachelium, Germany, Baden-Württemberg: Baden-Weiler (herbarium specimen) Campanula rapunculus, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark mine Upper-surface blotch, preceded by a very short corridor. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit…

Anthocoptes rubicolens parasite

Anthocoptes rubicolens on Rubus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities some discolouration may occur. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus laciniatus. synonyms Eriophyes rubicolens. references Roivainen (1953a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Vaněčková-Skuhravá (1996a)….

Calepitrimerus achilleae parasite

Calepitrimerus achilleae Roivainen, 1950 on Achillea gall the mites live as vagrants on the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown and disfigured. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Achillea millefolium. synonyms Epitrimerus achilleae. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Roivainen…

Anthocoptes eupatorii parasite

Anthocoptes eupatorii Roivainen, 1951 on Eupatorium gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown, especially at the underside, and the margins may roll in; such plants remain sterile. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Eupatorium cannabinum. references Boczek & Petanović…

Aculus pteleaevagrans parasite

Aculus pteleaevagrans Boczek, 1964 Acari, Eriophyidae on Ptelea gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Rutaceae, monophagous Ptelea trifoliata. references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) 23/11/2014…

Aculus martialis parasite

Aculus martialis (Liro, 1941) on Viburnum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside, mainly of the younger leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn lightly brown. host plants Adoxaceae, monophagous Viburnum opulus. synonyms Vasates martialis. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus latus parasite

Aculus latus (Nalepa, 1891) Acari, Eriophyidae on Veronica gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the underside of the leaves may turn violet. Hellrigl describes this species as an inquiline of Aceria anceps. hostplants Plantaginaceae, monophagous Veronica chamaedrys, longifolia. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Vasates,…

Aculus hyperici parasite

Aculus hyperici (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Hypericum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brownish. hostplants Hypericacae, monophagous Hypericum hirsutum, maculatum, perforatum. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Vasates, hyperici. references Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a),…

Aculus eurynotus parasite

Aculus eurynotus (Nalepa, 1894) on Daucus, Torilis gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Daucus carota; Torilis arvensis, japonica. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Tetra, Vasates, eurynotus. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Houard (1909a), Petanović (1998a), Ripka (2007a),…

Aculus epiphyllus parasite

Aculus epiphyllus (Nalepa, 1892) on Fraxinus Fraxinus ornus, Bulgaria, Varna © Stéphane Claerebout detail of the underside gall At one side, epiphyllous, irregular, yellowish pustules, 1-2 mm high, hollow below. But the mite can also induce hypophyllous, rust-coloured erinea, mainly along the midrib of the leaflets; they consist of multicellular,…

Aceria gilloglii parasite

Aceria gilloglii Keifer, 1963 on bamboo gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves and in the leaf sheaths; at high densities a weak witches’ broom may be formed. host plants Poaceae: Bambusoideae, oligophagous Pleioblastus fortunei; Pseudosasa disticha. notes In the UK found in a botanical garden….

Aculus aucupariae parasite

Aculus aucupariae (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Sorbus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Sorbus aucuparia. synonyms Phyllocoptes. Vasates, aucupariae. references Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Roivainen (1947a), Skoracka,…

Aculus argenteae parasite

Aculus argenteae (Farkas, 1963) on Tilae gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves, possibly causing mild russeting at high densities. hostplants Malvaceae, narrowly monophagous Tilia tomentosa. references Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Ripka (2007a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a)….

Aculodes holcusi parasite

Aculodes holcusi Skoracka, 2004 on grasses gall the mites live free at the upper side of the leaves, mainly near the tip; the leaves can become discoloured. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Aegilops cylindrica; Holcus mollis; Hordeum brevisubulatum. references Kiedrowicz, Rector, Denizhan ao (2014a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria tenuis parasite

…George, Giot & Romain (2018a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Farkas (1965a), Houard (1908a), Jaap (1918a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Koops (2013a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a, 1951a), Roskam (2009a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Stănescu (2009a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Weidner (1954a)….

Aceria sheldoni parasite

Aceria sheldoni (Ewing, 1937) Acari, Eriophyidae on Citrus gall the mites primarily live within the buds and cause serious malformations, both in the leaves as as in the flowers and developing fruits. Also excessive bud formation may occur, resulting in the formation of witches’ brooms. hostplants Rutaceae, monophagous Citrus. serious…

Aceria pistaciae parasite

Aceria pistaciae (Nalepa, 1899) on Pistacia Pistacia terebinthus, galls (from Houard, 1909a) Pistacia terebinthus, France, dép. Bouches-du-Rhône, Les Baux-de-Provence, ii.2003 @ Sébastien Carbonelle: old vegetative gall gall the inflorescence turns into a compact witches’ broom; may also develop from vegetative buds. host plants Anacardiaceae, monophagous Pistacia atlantica, lentiscus, terebinthus, vera….

Aceria macrocheluserinea parasite

Aceria macrocheluserinea (Trotter, 1902) on Acer Acer campestre, Hardenberg © Arnold Grosscurt Acer campestre, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Strongly infested leaves curl in; the gall may then extend also to the upperside. Acer campestre, Nieuwendam: the hairs of the erineum are mushroom-shaped. four hairs host plants Sapindaceae,…

Aceria kuko parasite

Aceria kuko (Kishida, 1927) goji berry gall mite on Capsicum, Lycium, Solanum Lycium barbarum, Hungary, Budapest. 8.ix.2014 © László Érsek upperside galls underside galls older galls burst open Lycium barbarum, Hungary, Budapest, 11.vi.2018 © László Érsek: section mites Lycium barbarum; uit PlantDirect gall numerous amphigenous hard pustules on the leaves:…

Xyleborus dispar parasite

Xyleborus dispar (Fabricius, 1792) broad-leaved pinhole borer on woody plants Schematic array of the gallery system (from Lombardero, 1996a) parasite Ambrosia beetle, also capable to infect healthy trees. host plants polyphagous Abies; Acer campestre, negundo; Actinidia chinensis; Aesculus hippocastanum; Alnus glutinosa, incana; Betula pendula, pubescens; Carpinus betulus; Castanea dentata, sativa;…

Parahypopta caestrum parasite

Parahypopta caestrum (Hübner, 1808) on Asparagus parasite Ovipisition in the soil near a plant. Larvae bore in the underground parts, laer also in the stengels. A lava may need several plants. host plants Asparagaceae, monophagous Asparagus acutifolius, albus, maritimus, officinalis. phenology Uivoltine; the larva hibernates in a silken tube in…

Schizaphis jaroslavi parasite

Schizaphis jaroslavi (Mordvilko, 1921) on Calamagrostis parasite Apterae ± 2 mm, pale green to yellow green with a darker green median stripe and dark tips to siphunculi, slightly wax-powdered. hostplants Poaceae, ? monophagous Calamagrostis epigeios. Blackman & Eastop list more species (other genera), but add that this may be connected…

Cecidophyopsis grossulariae parasite

Cecidophyopsis grossulariae (Collinge, 1907) Acari, Eriophyidae on Ribes gall the mites cause deep, hairy cavities at the underside of the vein axils; the leaves become distorted and discoloured. They hibernate in the outer layers of axillary buds, which may damage the enclosed flower primordia. hostplants Grossulariaceae, monophagous Ribes uva-crispa. R….

Trialeurodes ricini parasite

Trialeurodes ricini (Misra, 1924) castor whitefly polyphagous puparium (from Hernández-Suárez ao) parasite Puparia pale, oval; along the margin many isolated wax threads that sometimes point up, but mostly to the side. host plants Abelmoschus esculentus; Amaranthus; Cucurbita maxima; Gossypium hirsutum; Hibiscus cannabinus; Ipomoea batatas; Ricinus communis. Mainly on Ricinus communis,…

Teleiopsis diffinis parasite

Teleiopsis diffinis (Haworth, 1828) large groundling on Rumex mijn The young larva makes a slender sinuous gallery with only here and there some frass. Sometimes the mine is widened near the leaf margin into a blotch. The larva may make several mines. Older larvae live free at the underside of…

Corythucha arcuata parasite

…in Europe and expanding its are from Italy over southern and central Europe. The damage may be considerable (Simov ao). references Braggion (2013a), Chireceanu, Teodoru & Chiriloaie (2017a), Dobreva, Simov, Georgiev ao (2013a), Forster, Giacalone, Moretti ao (2005a), Kovács, Nagy, Radócz & Szarukán (2020a), Küçükbasmaci (2014a), Rabitsch (2008a), Simov, Grozeva,…

Leucaspis lowi parasite

Leucaspis lowi (Colvée, 1882) on Pinus The three Leucaspis-soorten: from left to right: L. pini, pusilla, lowi (from Isaia & Manea). parasite Scales up to 2 mm long, on the upper side of the young needles. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus brutia, halepensis, mugo, nigra & subsp. pallasiana, pinaster, pinea,…

Leucaspis pusilla parasite

Leucaspis pusilla Löw, 1883 on Cedrus, Pinus The three Leucaspis-soorten: from left to right: L. pini, pusilla, lowi (from Isaia & Manea). parasite Scales at the upper side of the young needles. Often confused with Leuasis pini, but the female shield is wider, “mussel-shaped”. host plants Pinaceae, oligofaag Cedrus atlantica,libani;…

Parlatoria oleae parasite

Parlatoria oleae (Colvée, 1880) olive scale polyphagous on shrubs and trees Olea europaea © Mourad Louadfel, Homemade, Bugwood.org Mahonia spec. © United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org; the smaller elongated scales are male tests parasite Scales on all parts of the plant. When…

Aproceros leucopoda parasite

Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi, 1939 zigzag elm sawfly on Ulmus Ulmus spec., Hungary, Halászi, 13.v.2019 © László Érsek: feeding pattern young larva, feeding head and thorax, lateral view cocoon detail larva, dissected out of the cocoon above 27.vii.2019, feeding pattern Ulmus spec. © Tineke Cramer, Leersum: feeding pattern (from Mol &…

Adelges funitectus parasite

Adelges funitectus (Dreyfus, 1888) on Picea host plants Picea abies, orientalis. synonyms The name “A. funitectus” cannot be associated with a known species, it is a “nomen dubium” (Aphid Species File, 2018). references Houard (1908a)….

Delia coarctata parasite

Delia coarctata (Fallén,1825) wheat bulb fly on grasses cephalic skeleton (from Dušek) puparium parasite Oviposition in the soil. The larvae bore in the culm of grasses; one larva can destroy several culms. Pupation and hibernation in the soil. hostplants Poaceae, oligofaag Dactylis; Elymus; Hordeum; Lolium; Ochlopoa annua; Phleum; Secale cereale;…

Temnocerus nanus parasite

…top of the shoot as food. host plants Betulaceae, Salicaceae, restricted polyphagous Alnus; Betula; Salix caprea, cinerea, repens, viminalis. phenology Hibernation as mature larva in the soil. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Pselaphorhynchites nanus. references Alonso Zarazaga (1983a), Dieckmann(1974a), Reinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Melanagromyza aeneoventris parasite

…hun eigen diameter gescheiden, voorzien van een centrale gechitiniseerde stekel, die gaaf kan zijn maar ook stomp en rafelig, omgeven door 14-18 goed gedifferentieerde papillen. puparium Puparium yellowish white to pale straw coloured. Rear spiracula chitinised, solid black, separated by their own diameter, bearing 14-18 well-differentiated papillae in an incomplete…

Trifurcula trasaghica parasite

Trifurcula trasaghica A & Z Laštůvka, 2005 on Cytisus mine (from Laštůvka & Laštůvka) parasite The larva lives as a borer, making a spiral, gradually widening, gallery around the pith. The stem can become somewhat swollen, like galled. hostplants Fabaceae, narrowly monophagous Cytisus decumbens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references…

Coleophora niveiciliella parasite

Coleophora niveiciliella Hofmann, 1877 on ? Lavandula case (from Baldizzone, 1988b) parasite Of this species a case is known, but there is no further information about its biology. Based on the synonymy with C. maneella its host plant is “probably Lavandula spica“. According to thr Euro+Med PlantBase (2018) this can…

Coleophora virgaureae parasite

Coleophora virgaureae Stainton, 1857 golden-rod case-bearer on Galatella, Solidago, (Tripolium) case (from Patzak, 1974a) parasite The larva in a 5-6 mm long, trivalved, dark brown cylindrical silken case with a mouth angle of 40°-70°. The larvae feed upon the fruits. As the picture above shows, fragments of the pappus are…

Coleophora obscenella parasite

Coleophora obscenella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 on Aster parasite The larva in a 5-6 mm long, trivalved, dark brown cylindrical silken case with a mouth angle of 40°-70°. The larvae feed upon the fruits. Emmet ao write that in the case fragments of the pappus are incorporated. It is not clear whether…

Coleophora semicinerea parasite

Coleophora semicinerea Staudinger, 1859 on Fabaceae Colutea arborescens (from Baldizzone, 1989c) Anthyllis vulneraria, zak Malta © Michael Zerafa case on Lotus edulis. opened pod Tripodion tetraphyllum with larva feeding on a seed (from Nel, 1994b) parasite The young larva devores the ovary of a flower, then uses the calyx (or,…

Macrosiphum centranthi parasite

Macrosiphum centranthi Theobald, 1915 on Centranthus, Valeriana parasite Apterae 2-4 mm, whitish green, yellowish green or green with darker green spinal stripe, and femora and siphunculi darker towards apices. The eyes are dark brown (not red as in M. euphorbiae, that may occur on the same plant). On leaves and…

Coccidae parasite

soft scales Coccidae often resemble Diaspididae, but the dorsal shield of the female in Coccidae forms an integral part of her dorsum. The shield may be smooth, but may also be filamentous or powdery. Some species make a large ovisac out of wax threads, mostly behind the female, sometimes ±…

Cleopomiarus micros parasite

…co-occur a viable population may survive (Szwaj ao). distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva, pupa Described in detail by Szwaj ea. references Benedikt, Borovec, Fremuth ao (2010a), Bosmans (2012a), Caldara & Legalov (2016a), Delbol (2013a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Szwaj, Łętowski & Pawlęga (2018a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Lixus subtilis parasite

…takes place, A slender fusiform gall may develop. host plants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Amaranthus retroflexus; Atriplex sagittata; Beta vulgaris; Chenopodium album, vulvaria; Spinacia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Dieckmann (1983a), Gültekin (2007a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Stejskal (2004b), Stejskal & Trnka (2013a), Volovnik (2007a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Loxocera sylvatica parasite

Loxocera sylvatica Meigen, 1826 on Luzula parasite The larva bores in the stem, is capable to move to a new stem; pupation internal. host plants Juncaceae, monophagous Luzula pilosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). puparium See Bland & Rotheray. references Bland & Rotheray (2002a)….

Cydia fagiglandana parasite

Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller, 1841) large beech piercer, intermediate chestnut moth on Fagus, Quercus, etc. parasite The larva bores in a fruit, teat gradually becomes packed with frass; if the fruit turns out too small, the larva may move to another fruit/ host plants (Betulaceae), Fagaceae, ± oligophagous Castanea sativa; Corylus…

Calepitrimerus russoi parasite

Calepitrimerus russoi di Stefano, 1966 Acari, Eriophyidae on Laurus gall reddish brown discolouration of the leaves as a result of the cell-piercing acivity of the free-living mites. Heavy infestation may lead to black spots at the underside of the leaves and ultimately leaf drop. hostplants Lauraceae, monophagous Laurus nobilis. references…

Thrips angusticeps parasite

Thrips angusticeps Uzel, 1895 field thrips, cabbage thrips on herbs parasite Larvae and adults among the youngest leaves; the shoot tips and inflorescences become malformed and wither; the entire plant mey become stunted. host plants polyphagous Beta; Citrus sinensis; Convolvulus; Linum usitatissimum; Pisum sativum; Quercus; Sinapis; Triticum aestivum; Vicia sativa….

Cochylis epilinana parasite

Cochylis epilinana Duponchel, 1842 on Linum parasite Larvae bore in the green fruits. host plants Linaceae, monophagous Linum campanulatum, catharticum, narbonense, usitatissimum. Klimesch writes that the moth has been bred from the fruits of Asphodelus “microcarpus”; this cannot possibly the same species. Also the attributions of Solidago and Cephalaria leucantha…

Eccopisa effractella parasite

Eccopisa effractella Zeller, 1848 royal knot-horn detritus feeder parasite Observations by Ruben Meert have demonstrated that the larva can fulfill its entire development on dead organic material; als reared from galls on oak and willow. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references Andreev (2005a), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Graf, Jacobasch,…

Gypsonoma sociana parasite

Gypsonoma sociana (Haworth, 1811) white cloaked shoot on Populus, (Salix) parasite In late summer the larva lives as a borer in a young shoot, of which the distal part may die off. After the hibernation the larva bores in a swelling bud; the infection then is recognisable by frass that…

Pammene argyrana parasite

…plate two-coloured; prnacula brown, prominent. pupa See Patočka & Turčáni. synonyms Pammene costipunctana auct. references Aarvik (1992a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Deutsch (2012a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), de Jong & Beeke (1956a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a)….

Thrips viminalis parasite

Thrips viminalis Uzel, 1895 on Salix parasite Thrips in the buds and very young leaves. Suction damage may result in malformations of the developing leaves. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Salix purpurea, x fragilis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Buhr (1965a), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Kobro (2003a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin…

Caudospora taleola parasite

Caudospora taleola (Fries) Starbäck, 1899 on Quercus parasite A saprotroph or weak pathogen of oaks, which can cause canker diseases. Generally found on dead branches. That the species would cause cankerous malformations on green twigs, as stated by Buhr, probably is exceptional. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus. distribution within Europe…

Cintractia baccata parasite

Cintractia baccata (Wallroth) von Sydow, 1924 on Carex This name cannot be interpreted, because in the original publication the name of the host Carex is not indicated with sufficient precision. The name is a synonym of eiter Anthracoidea arenariae or A. caryophylleae. references Buhr (1964b), Roskam (2019a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a),…

Lixus elegantulus parasite

…congruence in supposed host plant and the systematic affinity it might be guessed that the larvae live and pupate in the root. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous ? Scorzoneroides autumnalis. Feeding adults observed at Chondrilla juncea; Crepis distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Dieckmann (1983a), Stejskal & Trnka (2013a), Volovnik (2013a)….

Celypha striana parasite

Celypha striana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) barred marble on Taraxacum parasite Initially the larva lives under a web at the outside of the taproot; later it lives within. It may cause the death of the plant. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale. The occurrence on Plantago lanceolata need further confirmation….

Trisetacus relocatus parasite

Trisetacus relocatus Bagnyuk & Shevchenko, 1982 on Picea parasite The mites live under the scapes of fresh buds; this may disturb the development of the shoot. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Picea abies. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Lewandowski, Skoracka, Szydło ao (2014a)….

Acaphylla theae parasite

Acaphylla theae (Watt, 1898) on Camellia parasite Mites live as vagrants at the undersides of the leaves. At high densities bronzing may occur. host plants Theaceae, monophagous Camellia japonica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Acaphylla steinwedeni Keifer, 1943. references Han, Zuo, Xue & Hong (2014), Mansilla Vázquez, Pérez Otero,…

Cosmopterix pararufella parasite

Cosmopterix pararufella Riedl, 1976 leaf midrib miner on sugarcane mine Eggs one by one at the upper side of the midrib. The mine is a gradually widening gallery in them midrib that may be become sufficiently weakened as transversely snap the leaf. Pupation within the mine; before a circular, silk-covered…

Caryocolum fraternella parasite

Caryocolum fraternella (Douglas, 1851) mouse-ear groundling on Cerastium, Stellaria parasite The larva bores inn a young shoot, that shows “gall-like growth” (Bland ao). The larva may handle several shoots. host plants Caryophyllaceae, oligophagous Cerastium arvense, fontanum & subsp. vulgare; Stellaria alsine, graminea, holostea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Gnorimoschema…

pseudo-Bucculatrix mine specials

An unusual cause of death of a Stigmella-larva: a “pseudo-Bucculatrix” mine Normally a mining larva doesn’t only eat the tissue right in front: it also eats with its head a bit to the side, causing the corridor to become wider than the larva itself. In some species the corridor may…

Sphenoptera jugoslavica parasite

Sphenoptera jugoslavica Obenberger, 1926 bronze knapweed root borer on knapweed parasite The larvae bore in the taproot, that may become swollen gall-like. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Centaurea diffusa, stoebe. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Müller (1989a), Panin, Săvulecu & Ruicănescu (2015a), Sakalian (2003a)….

Anthonomus rectirostris parasite

…only able to deposit an egg in the flesh of the fruit when the fruit has been punctured by the female beetle. references Delbol (2013a), Dieckman (1968a, 1988a), Lechapt (2015a), Morris, Mendel, Barclay ao (2017a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Stigmella samiatella parasite

Stigmella samiatella (Zeller, 1839) chestnut pigmy on Castanea, Quercus Castanea sativa, Tilburg, de Kaaistoep, 19.ix.2020 © Paul van Wielink Castanea sativa, Bergen op Zoom, 31.vii.2012 (egg at the underside, exit slit at upper side of the leaf) Quercus robur, Naardensebos, 11.viii.2002 mine Oviposition mostly at the leaf underside, almost always…

Callyntrotus lonicerae parasite

Callyntrotus lonicerae Roivainen, 1951 Acari, Eriophyidae on Lonicera gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Lonicera xylosteum. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a). 25/11/2014…

Stigmella rhamnella parasite

…also Estonia; not in the southern Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Green; see the description by Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a). synonyms Stigmella rhamnipumilae Klimesch, 1950. references Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Corley (2005a), Corley, Nunes, Rosete & Ferreira (2019a), Drăghia (1968a), Gustafsson (1981b), Gustafsson &…

Dasineura erigerontis parasite

Dasineura erigerontis Rübsaamen, 1912 on Erigeron Erigeron acris, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais, Asty-Moulin © Jean-Yves Baugnée another specimen gall the larvae are red. hostplants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Erigeron acris. larva Spatula variable; the incision between the lobes sometimes rather deep, sometimes missing altogether (Rübsaamen, 1912e). inquilines Prodiplosis rhenana. references Buhr…

Rabdophaga strobilina parasite

Rabdophaga strobilina (Bremi, 1847) on Salix Salix purpurea, Belgiium, prov. Hainaut, Virelles © Sébastien Carbonnelle old, opened gall with three cocoons gall This species is closely related to Rabdophaga rosaria, and often confused and even synonymised with that species. In fact, it is an inquiline of rosaria. The presence of…

Hemitrichapion reflexum parasite

…shortened and unusually dense. Inside a single weevil larva or pupa. host plants Fabaceae, monophagous Onobrychis arenaria, montana, viciifolia. synonyms Apion, Eutrichapion, reflexum. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Rabdophaga heterobia parasite

Rabdophaga heterobia (Loew, 1850) on Salix Salix triandra, Dronten, 12.viii.2018 © Arnold Grosscurt bud gall another specimen opened gall Salix triandra, Wedde (Gr), 11.vi.2017 © Arnold Grosscurt detail Salix triandra, female catkin, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek part of the fruitlets is disfigured, yellowed, swollen larvae in the galls opened…

Rabdophaga giraudiana parasite

Rabdophaga giraudiana Kieffer, 1898 on Populus gall Inconspicuous elongated swelling of young twigs. Under the bark live numerous orange larvae, each in its own cell. Univoltine, pupation within the gall. After the midges have emerged the gall has numerous fine holes. Because of the numerous gall chambers local rotting may…

Pumilomyia protrahenda parasite

Pumilomyia protrahenda Stefani, 1919 on Artemisia gall small, irregular pustules on the leaves, petioles and stems, each with a single larva. At high densities the plants may become stunted. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Artemisia arborescens. synonyms Rhopalomyia protrahenda. references Cerasa (2015a), Gagné & Jaschhof (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Skuhravá &…

Planetella cornifex parasite

Planetella cornifex (Kieffer, 1898) on Carex Carex pallescens (from Houard, 1908a). gall basal, often subterraneous buds are changed into a horn-shaped gall. Also a bud that has resulted in a shoot may be galled into an onion-shaped structure, in which the shoot is included. Larva solitary. hostplants Cyperaceae, monophagous Carex…

Mayetiola schoberi parasite

Mayetiola schoberi Barnes, 1958 on Poa gall The basal part of the stem is more or less swollen. Between the leaf sheath and the stem live here a variable number of white larvae, each in an oval shallow depression of the stem. Pupation within the gal, in a brown puparium….

Hesperorrhynchus hesperus parasite

Hesperorrhynchus hesperus (Wollaston, 1864) Aichryson dichotomum; from Hering (1927a) mine Long and narrow, now and then branching corridors that remain narrow till their very end; mined leaves are easily shed. The larva can migrate through the stem to a new leaf. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Crassulaceae, monophagous Aichryson dichotomum….

Janetia nervicola parasite

Janetia nervicola (Kieffer, 1909) on Quercus gall Fusiform, 3-4 mm long lateral broadening of the midrib, less often a lateral vein, often several, one behind the other. At maturity a lateral split opens, enabling the single white larva to leave the gall for pupation. hostplants Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous Quercus cerris,…

Jaapiella dittrichi parasite

Jaapiella dittrichi (Rübsaamen, 1895) on Seseli, Silaum Seseli libanotis, France, dépt. Ardennes, Givet, lieu-dit “Fort Condé” © Sébastien Carbonnelle detail Silaum silaus, Frakrijk, dép. Nord, Condé sur l’Escaut © Sébastien Carbonnelle the growth severely be disturbed galled parts die off gall The leaf veins are swollen, and the lamina between…

Galiomyza morio parasite

Galiomyza morio (Brischke, 1880) Rubia peregrina, Spain, Asturias, Gijón, Rio Ñora; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Galium odoratum, Duitland (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler another specimen mine Long, upper-surface , gradully widening, corridor, in the end often forming a secondary blotch. The corridor regularly crosses itself. Frass in irregular grains or short strings. Pupation outside…

Dasineura turionum parasite

Dasineura turionum (Kieffer & Trotter, 1904) on Asparagus gall The phyllodia at the tip of a still very young shoot are swollen and deformed, and enclose several red larvae. Als the stem itself may be swollen and contorted, while a larve is lying behind each of the phyllodia. Bivoltine, pupation…

Dasineura mali parasite

…(1948b), Béguinot (2006a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1965a), Burton, Carbonnelle, Ellis & Schneider (2019a), Carbonnelle, George, Giot & Romain (2018a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Hellrigl (2006a), Ilie & Marinescu (201a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Mirumian (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam…

Dasineura ericaescopariae parasite

Dasineura ericaescopariae (Dufour, 1837) on Erica Erica scoparia, gall (from Houard, 1909a) Erica scoparia, Spain, Barcelona, El Brull © Jordi Montobbio another specimen the shoot can grow through the gall; this seems to show a start gall Conspicuous, large galls at the end of shoots, consisting of a large number…

Rhopalomyia millefolii parasite

…in the capitula. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Achillea ageratum, arabica, clavennae, clusiana, crithmifolia, millefolium, nobilis & subsp. neilreichii, ochroleuca, ptarmica, seidlii. references Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Harris (2008b), Houard (1909a), Kieffer (1901b), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lehmann &…

Dasineura capsulae parasite

Dasineura capsulae Kieffer, 1901 on Euphorbia Euphorbia esula, Hungary, Halászi © László Érsek two galled fruits opened gall larvae gall The fruit is somewhat enlarged, disfigured, ending in an acute, frequently oblique, point. Also the upper leaves of a stem may fuse into a pyriform gall of about 1 cm…

Contarinia tremulae parasite

Contarinia tremulae Kieffer, 1909 on Populus Populus tremula, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt detail with larva taken out gall The larva can jump; even when mature it is white; the apex of the spatula is hardly indented. Pupation in the ground. host plants Salicaceae, narrowly monophagous Populus tremula. references Barnes (1951a),…

Contarinia symphyti parasite

Contarinia symphyti Kieffer, 1909 on Symphytum gall The flower buds are lightly swollen at their base; they do not open. The larva can jump. hostplants Boraginaceae, monophagous Symphytum officinale. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Kieffer (1909a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a)….

Hylobius transversovittatus parasite

…up to 2 cm large swelling. host plants Lythraceae, monophagous Lythrum salicaria. references Balalaikins & Bukejs (2012b), Behne (1981a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dieckmann (1962a), Péricart (1960a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Reimann (2013a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Wilson, Schwarzlaender, Blossey & Bell Randall (2004a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Contarinia scabiosae parasite

Contarinia scabiosae Kieffer, 1898 on Scabiosa gall The flowers are swollen and remain closed. In each galled flower a single larva, that can jump. hostplants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Scabiosa columbaria. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1909a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a),…

Contarinia quercina parasite

Contarinia quercina (Rübsaamen, 1890) on Quercus gall The larvae live in the bursting buds, causing heavy damage to de developing foliage, with as a result an inrregular rosette of malformed leaves. There are two generations; especially the second one, that attacks the lammas shoot, has a heavy impact. The larvae…

Contarinia melanocera parasite

Contarinia melanocera Kieffer, 1904 on Genista galls (from Houard, 1909a) gall Fusiform,fleshy swelling of the tip of a stem. It contains usually several gall chambers, each with one yellowish larva that can jump. Univoltine, pupation and hibernation in the soil. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Genista corsica, depressa, germanica, tinctoria. synonyms Janetiella…

Contarinia heraclei parasite

…(2012a), Buhr (1964b), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Hansen, Hattendorf, Wittenberg, Reznik, Nielsen, Ravn & Nentwig (2006a), Mirumian (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2005b, 2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Skuhravá,…

Contarinia fagi parasite

Contarinia fagi Rübsaamen, 1921 on Fagus Fagus sylvatica, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, 29.vi.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel another example of a malformed young leaf larvae mouth cone and tip of the spatula spatula and adjacent papillae gall The yellowish white, jumping larvae live in the breaking buds. The young leaves…

Contarinia coryli parasite

Contarinia coryli (Kaltenbach, 1859) on Corylus Corylus avellana, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman: the galled catkins are strongly swollen and the scales are enlarged. the base of the scales is browned by the external digestion of the larvae the larvae are gregarious Corylus avellana, België, prov Namen, Nismes, RN les…

Asphondylia sarothamni parasite

…references Béguinot (2001c, 2006a,c, 2007b), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Harris (2002a), Houard (1909a), Kieffer (1890a, 1891a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001b), Möhn (1955a), Parnell (1964a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a),…

Hypurus bertrandi parasite

Hypurus bertrandi (Perris, 1852) from Hoffmann & Tempère (1944a) mine Narrow, irregular, full depth gallery the quickly widens into a large, full depth blotch. The larva can mine several leaves. Pupation external. host plants Portulacaceae, monophagous Portulaca oleracea. phenology Larvae in July and September (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from…

Trypeta zoe parasite

…Aartsen & Smit, 2002a); rare (Wakkie, 1994a). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with possible exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva puparium synonyms Forellia zoe; Trypeta zoe artemisicola Hendel. references van Aartsen & Smit (2002a), Ahr (1966a), Baugnée (2006a, 2009a), Beiger (1955a,…

Tephritis arnicae parasite

Tephritis arnicae (Linnaeus, 1758) on Asteraceae gall larva or pupa in the receptacle of a not or hardly galled flower head. The larva may also cause a conspicuous, unilateral, bladderlike, smooth-walled, unilocular stem gall. The larva, a maggot, pupates in the gall. hostplants Asteraceae, oligophagous Arnica montana; Doronicum austriacum, grandiflorum,…

Ceutorhynchus pectoralis parasite

…to Romania and Bulgaria (Fauna Europaea, 2010). references Buhr (1964b), Clayhills (2011a), Cunev (2013a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1962a., 1971a, 1972a), Hering (1957a), Hoffmann (1954a), Houard (1908a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Rhopalomyia tripleurospermi parasite

…Tripleurospermum inodorum. notes Deployed in the biological controlof the hostplant, that has escaped in many parts of the world and turned into a noxious weed. references Gagné (2010a), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2000a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2008a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Jørgensen (2006a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Skrzypczyńska & Szadziewski (2008a) [Poland]. 02/02/2017…

Inuromaesa maura parasite

Inuromaesa maura (Frauenfeld, 1857) on Inula gall larva or puparium in the receptacle that may be unilaterally thickened, in any case is hard, but, even in the end, not lignified. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Inula britannica, ensifolia, hirta, oculus-christi, salicina. larva, pupium Larvae and puparia with black posterior end. synonyms Euribia,…

Andricus singularis parasite

Andricus singularis Mayr, 1870 on Quercus Quercus cerris, gall (from Houard, 1908a). Quercus ilex, gall (from Houard, 1908a). gall A terminal or lateral bud is transformed into a green, thick-walled, pyriform gall of up to 8 mm length; on the gall some malformed leaves, or even anthers. In the gall…

Euura collactanea parasite

…Eupontania, Pontania, collactanea; Eupontania collactanea rosmarinifoliae Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2006; Pontania vacciniella (Cameron, 1876). note Member of the Euura viminalis species group. references Bellmann (2012a), Beneš (2015a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Buhr (1965a).Chevin (1975a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Kopelke (1999a), Liston (2003a,…

Blennocampa phyllocolpa parasite

…(2009a, 2012a), Hoop (1983a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Macek (2012c), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Stănescu (2009a),…

Blasticotoma filiceti parasite

Blasticotoma filiceti Klug, 1834 mine The mine, actually a larval cell, consists of a short corridor in the rachis, barely 2 cm in length -hardly longer than the larva itself-, usually at about a decimeter above the ground. The mine has an opening at the level of the rear end…

Synophrus politus parasite

Synophrus politus Hartig, 1843 on Quercus Quercus suber, young and mature gall (from Houard, 1908a) gall More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size, often broadly attached to the shoot. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick…

Agrilus biguttatus parasite

…“D”. larva see Bilý. references Arnáiz Ruiz & Bercedo Páramo (2005b), Bilý (1999a), Buhr (1965a), Evangelista & Cristiano (2013a), Fiala (2017a), Moraal (1997a), Moraal & Hilszczanski (2000a), Murria Beltrán & Murria Beltrán (2005a), Panin, Săvulecu & Ruicănescu (2015a), Sakalian (2003a), Škorpík, Křivan & Kraus (2011a), Verdugo (2005a), Verdugo Páez (2002a)….

Phanacis taraxaci parasite

Phanacis taraxaci (Ashmead, 1897) dandelion gall wasp on Taraxacum Taraxacum officinale, France, dép. Nord, Trélon © Sébastien Carbonnelle transverse section through the gall larva gall 2-4 mm large, hard, unilocular swellings of the midrib, smooth and often red in colour. Often they are aggregated, into masses of upto 3 cm…

Dryocosmus kuriphilus parasite

Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu, 1951 oriental chestnut gall wasp on Castanea Castanea sativa, France, Brittony, Arradon, 18-24.vi.2018 © Arnold Grosscurt larvae in their individual cells larva with ecto-parasitoid Castanea sativa, France, Département de l’Aisne, Villers-Cotterêts, Forêt Domaniale de Retz © Stéphane Claerebout: bud gall leaf gall, upperside underside opened gall with…

Chilaspis nitida parasite

Chilaspis nitida (Giraud, 1859) on Quercus, agamous generation Quercus cerris gall (from Houard, 1908a) Quercus cerris, Rotterdam-Schiebroek, 12.x.2017 © Ruud & Betty Middelkoop: locally the species can be very numerous a single gall in the autumn the galls drop from the leaves opened gall larva gall gall attached at one…

Aulacidea pilosellae parasite

…references Bellmann (2012a), Bowdrey (2009a), Buhr (1964a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Hellrigl (2009a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Jennings (2014b), Koops (2013a), Melika (2006a), Nieves-Aldrey (2001a, 2004a), Nieves-Aldrey & Askew (2002a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a). Tomasi (2012a, 2014a)….

Aulacidea hieracii parasite

Aulacidea hieracii (Bouché, 1834) on Hieracium, Schlagintweitia Hieracium spec., Italy, Valle d’Aosta, Ville sur Sarre, 1300 m, 28.vii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld the suppression of the stem above the gall is virtually complete here. Hieracium spec. © Roelof Jan Koops Hieracium lachenalii subsp. cruentifolium, Helenaveen, Broemeerbos Hieracium spec., Reusel Hiercium umbellatum,…

Aphelonyx persica parasite

Aphelonyx persica Melika, Stone, Sadeghy & Pujade-Villar, 2004 on Quercus gall up to 15 mm large, almost perfectly globular bud gal, mainly on lateral buds of young shoots; sometimes several close together. They are greyish brown, with a slightly irregular, even at maturity velvety pubescent surface. The gall is hollow;…

Brachiodontus alpinus parasite

Brachiodontus alpinus (Hampe, 1867) mine Untidy, sometimes branching, full depth corridor with irregular sides; sometimes several mines in a leaf. The larva may change mine. Pupation outside the leaf. hostplants Primulaceae, monophagous Soldanella alpina. phenology Larvae in August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009a)….

Andricus sternlichti parasite

Andricus sternlichti Bellido, Pujade-Villar & Melika, 2003 on Quercus Quercus cf. ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis, Greece, Lesbos, Vrisa, 4.iv.2019 © Cor Zonneveld another image Greece, Lesbos, Andissa, 30.iii.2019; the galls were > 35 and extremely hard detail, with exuvium gall globular, monolocular gall, derived from a terminal or lateral bud, with…

Andricus quercuscalicis parasite

…Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kofler & Zwander (2009a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Marković (2014a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Pellizzari (2010a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roques, Cleary, Matsiakh…

Stefaniella trinacriae parasite

Stefaniella trinacriae de Stefani, 1900 on Atriplex Atriplex halimus, France, Camargue, La Capelière © Sébastien Carbonnelle three more specimens the gall may occur in the inflorescence as well gall up to 2 cm large, fusiform, plurilocular swelling of the stem. Larvae solitary, yellowish white. Bivoltine, pupation in the gall. host…

Andricus quadrilineatus parasite

…still young references Andersen & Fjellberg (1977a), Béguinot (2000b, 2006a), Bellmann (2012a), Blanes-Dalmau, Caballero-López & Pujade-Villar (2017a), Buhr (1965a), Chinery (2011a), Cogolludo (1921a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin…

Andricus foecundatrix parasite

…Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin &a Aniotsbehere (1997a), Deckert & Deckert (2016a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Karaca & Katılmış (2020a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a),…

Rhytidodus decimusquartus parasite

Rhytidodus decimusquartus (Schrank, 1776) on Populus gall oviposition in young shoots and especially petioles may lead to conspicuous deformations. Larvae and adults free on the leaves. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Populus nigra. phenology Multivoltine; hibernation in different stages, dependent on the population. synonyms Idiocerus decimusquartus. references Baugnée (2003c), Buhr (1965a),…

Planchonia fimbriata parasite

Planchonia fimbriata (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834) polyphagous gall first green, later brown, fusiform swelling of a higher part of the stem; the gall may still bear leaves. hostplants Anthyllis cytisoides, terniflora; Coronilla valentina subsp. glauca; Hedera helix; Hippocrepis emerus; Pittosporum tobira. notes the species is not listed in the Fauna…

Phorodon cannabis parasite

Phorodon cannabis Passerini, 1860 cannabis apid on Cannabis gall Apterae 2-3 mm, shining yellowish green, often with three green length lines. At the underside of the leaves and in the inflorescence. The inflorescence becomes somewhat disfigured; the flowers may be greened and seed set diminished. Eggs are deposited on the…

Mindarus abietinus parasite

Mindarus abietinus Koch, 1857 balsam twig-aphid on Abies Abies balsamea, United States © Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Abies sp., England © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall The needles at the top of a shoot are somewhat shortened, curved, and pale. The shoot may become curved or…

Laingia psammae parasite

Laingia psammae Theobald, 1922 marram-flower aphid on Poaceae (Cyperaceae) from Wieckzorek (2010a) Calamagrostis epigejos, Belgium, prov. Namur, Romedenne © Sébastien Carbonnelle aphid Arrhenatherum elatius, Polen, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonnelle the elongated aphids gall the aphids are unusually elongated, greyish green or dirty yellow, 2-3 mm long. No host plant alternation,…

Ceutorhynchus erysimi parasite

…2009). references Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1971a, 1972a), Dieckmann & Herger (1985a), Günthart (1949a), Hering (1957a), Hoebeke & Griffin (2015a), Nilsson (2005a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Sanz Benito, García-Ocejo Izquierdo & de los Mozos Pascua (1996a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Aploneura lentisci parasite

Aploneura lentisci (Passerini, 1856) mealy grass root aphid on Pistacia, primary host plant Pistacia lentiscus, France, Corsica, Belgodère, plage de Lozari © Stéphane Claerebout opened gall aphid Pistacia lentiscus, Greece, Lesbos, Krátigos Pistacia lentiscus, Spanje, Nerja: opened gall © Arnold Grosscurt old gall Several of these galls occurred in a…

Aphis pollinaria parasite

Aphis pollinaria (Börner, 1952) on Epilobium gall aphids in the stem tips, 1.5-2 mm, reddish brown with a dorsal wax-pattern. host plants Onagraceae, monophagous Epilobium obscurum, palustre, parviflorum. notes This species may also occur in mixed colonies with Aphis epilobii. references Blackman & Eastop (2014), Buhr (1964b), Tomasi (2014a), Wojciechowski,…

Acyrthosiphon pisum parasite

Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776) pea aphid on Fabaceae Lathyrus odoratus, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints Pisum sativum, Hungary, Jánossomorja, 18.v.2018 © László Érsek: aptera with larvae aptera immature alate parasitised aptera Cytisus scoparius, Germany, Harz, Wildemann © Hans Jonkman gall conspicuous are the long and very thin…

Ceutorhynchus minutus parasite

…Gültekin (2014a), Günthart (1949a), Hartig (1939a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1921a, 1923a, 1924a, 1930a, 1957a), Houard (1908a), Huber (1969a), Lechapt (2015a), Maček (1999a), Michalska (1970a), Nowakowski (1954a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Skala & Zavřel (1945a), Sønderup (1949a), Starý (1930a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Wachtliella ericina parasite

Wachtliella ericina (Löw, 1885) on Erica Erica arborea, gall (from Houard, 1909a) Erica arborea, France, Corsica, Evisa, castel de Vergio © Stéphane Claerebout Erica arborea, Spain, Girona, Roses © Jordi Montobbio. Contrary to Myricomyia mediterranea, on the same host plant, the galls are longer than the leaves. Erica arborea, Spain,…

Tricholaba trifolii parasite

Tricholaba trifolii Rübsaamen, 1917 on Trifolium gall A lealet is folded over the midrib, and contains 1-2 yellow or pale orange larvae, that can jump. Pupation in the ground. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Trifolium medium, pratense, repens. larva spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a) anal segment (from Nijveldt, 1963a) synonyms Tricholaba…

Rhagoletis alternata parasite

Rhagoletis alternata (Fallén, 1814) on Rosa gall the larvae tunnel in the fleshy wall of the hip, that thereby may become malformed or shriveled. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rosa acicularis, albertii, canina, rugosa, spinosissima, villosa. synonyms Spilographa alternata. notes See also Carpomya schineri with a similar biology. references Balduf (1959a),…

Euleia separata parasite

Euleia separata (Becker, 1908) mine Large full depth blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines. The larva can make several mines. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Apiaceae, oligophagous Anthriscus caucalis; Apium graveolens; Berula erecta. phenology Larvae from March on in several generations (Hering, 1957a). distribution within Europe Canary Islands…

Fenella minuta parasite

Fenella minuta (Dalhbom, 1835) Geranium pusillum, Amstelveen, Schinkelbos detail start of the mine Geranium pyrenaicum, Nieuwendam: the mined leaf segment curls inwards and turns red mine Very transparent mine near the leaf margin, containing abundant frass. The mine begins at a conspicuous oviposition scar. The larva can leave its mine…

Liriomyza hieracii parasite

Liriomyza hieracii (Kaltenbach, 1862) mine Primary upper-surface blotch. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Hieracium laevigatum, lachenalii & subsp. cruentifolium, murorum, sparsum. BENELUX BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE Accepted by Beuk (2002a) on the basis of a reference by Kabos (1971a) of blotch mines of L. hieracii…

Phytomyza actaeae parasite

Phytomyza actaeae Hendel, 1922 on Actaea Actaea spicata, GD Luxembourg, Hollenfels © Sébastien Carbonnelle young mine and feeding punctures mine Large upper-surface, greyish-green, later brownish, blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass in irregularly dispersed granules. According to Hering (1957a), pupation takes…

Pseudorchestes pratensis parasite

…situations with an extremely heavy grazing pressure (Morris, 1993a). references Buhr (1933a), Caillol (1954a), Forbicioni, Abbazzi, Bellò ao (2019a), Heeger (1858a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1923a, 1930a, 1957a), Kleine (1924/25a), le Monnier (2003a), Morris (1993a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Ophiomyia pulicaria parasite

Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830) Taraxacum officinale, Nieuwendam detail mine Broad corridor overlying the midrib, with short excursion into the blade, mainly in its basal part. Frass concentrated in the basal part of the mine, corridors almost free from frass. Pupation in the mine, also in the basal part. host plants…

Ophiomyia pinguis parasite

Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820) mine Little branched corridors, radiating from the leaf base, often deep in the plant tissue. The larva can migrate from one leaf to the other through the petioles. Frass concentrated in the lowest, basal part of the mine; there also the pupation takes place. hostplants Asteraceae,…

Ophiomyia cunctata parasite

Ophiomyia cunctata (Hendel, 1920) Taraxacum officinale, Nieuwendam Lapsana communis, Rhenen mine The mine begins as a very narrow, upper- or lower-surface corridor, somewhere in the blade. When this hits a thick vein the larva uses this to descend towards the midrib. From that moment the lave lives in the hollow…

Stenocarus ruficornis parasite

…Stenocarus fuliginosus Marsham, 1802. references Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1957a), Maček (1999a), Mifsud & Colonnelli (2010a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Sert (2009a), Stüben (2017a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Napomyza lateralis parasite

Napomyza lateralis (Fallén, 1823) polyphagous gall the larva, a typical agromyzid maggot, primarily is a stem borer, but can also often be found in the receptacle of Asteraceae. host plants polyphagous, with a preference for Asteraceae Achillea ptarmica; Anethum graveolens; Anthemis; Anthriscus sylvestris; Bellis; Bidens cernuus; Calendula; Carduus pycnocephalus; Centaurea;…

Napomyza cichorii parasite

…Europe Probably entire Europe, with possible exception of Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva Described by de Meijere (1926a, as N. lateralis). The remarkable brownish-black rear spiraculum has 20-24 papillae in a narrow ellipse; mandible with 2 teeth of unequal size. puparium White, slender (Spencer, 1976b). synonyms…

Napomyza bellidis parasite

Napomyza bellidis Griffiths, 1967 mine Most of the time the larva lives in the midrib of the rosette leaves. Now and then short excursions are made into the blade. At first they are pale green, later they are almost full depth and whitish, and quite conspicuous. They do not contain…

Liriomyza sativae parasite

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938 mine Corridor, freely winding through the leaf. Frass in strings. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Strongly polyphagous Chrysanthemum; Lycopersicon esculentum……… In temperate regions only in greenhouses. distribution within Europe Tropical species; not yet recorded in Europe (EPPO, 2004a; Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva Orange yellow; rear spiraculum…

Tachyerges salicis parasite

…(1933a, 1964a), Caillol (1954a), Dieckmann & Herger (1985a), Drăghia (1972a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1930a, 1957a), Kleine (1924/1925a), Maček (1999a), Michalska (1972a), le Monnier (2003a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Roques (1998a), Scherf (1964a), Sønderup (1949a), Ugarte San Vicente (2005a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a), Zoerner (1970a)….

Trachys pumilus parasite

…considers pumilus a good species, but does not exclude that it might occur on Phlomis crinita and purpurea in the Balkan. Other authors consider scrobiculatus and pumilus synonymous (and in that case pumilus were the valid name and has the species a distribution from Spain and Crete up to Norway)….

Liriomyza huidobrensis parasite

…adult flies in a nature reserve. Among others Dempewolf (2004a), Parella & Bethke (1984a), Prando & da Cruz (1986a) and Spencer (1973b) give details on the biology and control of this species. references Anagnou–Veroniki, Papaioannou–Souliotis, Karanstasi & Giannopolitis (2008a), Andersen (2016a), Benavent, Martínez, Moreno & Jiménez (2004a), Černý, Andrade, Gonçalves…

Liriomyza flaveola host plant species, parasite

Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823) Schedonorus giganteus, Susteren Bromopsis erecta, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Narrow corridor from start to end, whitish, upper- or lower-surface, generally running downwards. Mine often along the leaf margin. Frass in distinct grains of regular size, alternating along the sides of the corridor….

Phytomyza aposeridis parasite

Phytomyza aposeridis Groschke, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Initially a very fine, upper- or lower-surface corridor. It comntinues in an exceptionally long, finally rather broad, upper-surface corridor. The corridor can be branched; the sides are irregularly scalloped. Often the corridor follows the leaf margin for some distance. Frass in tiny, scarce,…

Liriomyza eupatorii larva parasite

Liriomyza eupatorii Eupatorium cannabinum, Lettele “head” and rear end front and rear spiraculum, lateral front and rear spiracula, dorsal mandibles and mouth field fronatally e field with fine spinulatiion the spinulation is very fine This larva had dorsolaterally on one of the first abdominal segments a pair of ring-shaped marks….

Agromyza flaviceps parasite

Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823 Humulus lupulus, Duin en Kruidberg mine Upper-surface corridor, widening to the end, but never becoming a primary blotch, and only rarely a secondary one. Sides irregularly eaten out. No association with the leaf venation. Frass in a diffuse, central, green band. After a shower or two…

Liriomyza dendranthemae parasite

Liriomyza dendranthemae Nowakowski, 1975 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long, upper-surface, gradually widening corridor, usually forming a secondary blotch that can occupy a large part of the leaf. Frass in long thread fragments or pearl chains alternating along the sides of the mine. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in the lower…

Liriomyza congesta parasite

Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903) Vicia sepium, Susteren Vicia hirsuta, Diemer bos Colutea arborescens, Belgium, prov. Haiaut, Tournai, RN de la Carrière de l’Orient © Stéphane Claerout Trifolium repens, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman Trifolium pratense, Zeewolde, Harderbos © Hans Jonkman: young mines in senescent leaves a mine like this can…

Liriomyza clarae parasite

Liriomyza clarae Beiger, 1972 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Deep blotch, that may occupy the while leaf, inluding the petiole; possibly the larva migrates to another leaf via the petiole. Frass in dark green clumps or strings. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in upper epidermis. hostplants Saxifragaceae, narrowly monophagous Saxifraga carpatica….

Hexomyza simplex parasite

Hexomyza simplex (Loew, 1869) mine Oviposition in the rind of the stem, just above the ground. A corridor from there runs upwards for about 30 cm, then reverts and descends to about ground level. Pupation in the mine, just below the epidermis. Usually several mines on one plant; the plant…

Chromatomyia soldanellae parasite

Chromatomyia soldanellae (Starý, 1950) on Soldanella Soldanella alpina, Italy, Little St Bernard pass, 2200 m, 1.viii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld mine Mine upper-surface: a narrow corridor, continued into a blotch that in the end may occupy almost an entire leaf. Frass in the blotch in several coarse grains. Pupation now within,…

Chromatomyia saxifragae parasite

Chromatomyia saxifragae (Hering, 1924) Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Broad, tortuous corridor, usually upper-surface. The corridor may run several times through the leaf, crossing itself, and create a secondary blotch. Frass grains in groups along the sides of the corridor. Pupation mostly within the mine, in which case the front spiracula penetrate…

Chromatomyia ramosa parasite

Chromatomyia ramosa (Hendel, 1923) on Caprifoliaceae Knautia arvensis, Germany, Schwarzwald, Rohrhardsberg, 24.viii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld Succisa pratensis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Matange-la-Grande, lieu-dit “Champ du Tir” © Stéphane Claerebout detail Dipsacus pilosus, Nieuwendam mine The larvae essentially is a borer in the midrib, but makes from there narrow corridors into…

Agromyza phragmitidis larva parasite

Agromyza phragmitidis Agromyza phragmitidis, Nieuwendam ‘head’ and rear end Amsterdam, Nederhorst den Berg: front spiraculum lateral; rear spiracula, dorsal Amsterdam, Nederhorst den Berg: mandibles, mouth field The larva is described by Griffiths (1963a) and de Meijere (1925a). The rear arms of the cephalic skeleton quite weakly chitinised. Mandibles with 2,…

Chromatomyia aprilina parasite

Chromatomyia aprilina (Goureau, 1851) on Lonicera Lonicera periclymenum, Duin en Kruidberg, 13.ix.2001 Lonicera periclymenum, Durgerdam, 30.vi.2005: midrib, left part untouched, right part mined out; the mined part looks much more fuzzy; it does contain frass, but this is only visible after the midrib has been split lengthwise Lonicera xylosteum, Vreeland,…

Cerodontha suturalis parasite

Cerodontha suturalis (Hendel, 1931) on Bolboschoenus, Carex Carex arenaria, Zandvoort a single leaf mine Upper-surface, interparenchymatous (therefore yellowish) corridor in the middle part of the leaf. The mine starts not far from the leaf tip, descends, and changes direction at least twice. Often in the end the corridor occupies the…

Cerodontha staryi parasite

Cerodontha staryi (Starý, 1930) mine Mine upper-surface, sometimes locally interparenchymatous, in the basal half of the leaf. The mine is more or less a a corridor (but may sometimes occupy the entire width of the leaf), doubles at least twice, and often ends in the leaf sheath. All frass in…

Aulagromyza caraganae parasite

Aulagromyza caraganae (Rohdendorf-Holmanová, 1959) on Caragana Caragana arborescens, Belarus, Grodno region, Svislach © Fedor Sautkin same mine, lighted from behind vacated upper-surface mine, with exit slit same mine, lighted from behind mine broad compactly wound gallery, soon gradually widening into a large white blotch; mostly the entire mine is lower-side,…

Phytomyza anemones parasite

Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925 On Anemone from Hering (1957a) Anemone nemorosa, eastern Denemark © Simon Haarder mine fairly transparent, upper-surface, gradually widening gallery, forming a secondary blotch near the end. Primary and secondary feeding lines present in fresh mines. Frass in isolated grains of increasing size. Pupation now inside, then…

Protopirapion atratulum host plants, parasite

…Krátký & Schön (2016a), Braunert (2017a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Schröder & Zwölfer (1970a), Ugarte San Vicente (2005a), Velázquez de Castro, Alonso Zarazaga & Outerelo (1990a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Stigmella pallidiciliella parasite

Stigmella pallidiciliella Klimesch, 1946 mine Oviposition at the upperside, next to the midrib. The larva at first makes a long corridor along the midrib, with an often interrupted frass line that leaves a clear zone at either side. The mine develops into a broad elongate blotch that in narrow leaves…

Xeniomyza ilicitensis parasite

Xeniomyza ilicitensis de Meijere, 1934 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Very narrow gallery, especially its first part strongly spiralled, not longer than 1 mm. The larva can migrate to another leaf by way of the rind of the stem. Frass in indistinct grains. Pupation external. hostplants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Salicornia; Suaeda maritima, vera….

Acidia cognata parasite

Acidia cognata (Wiedemann, 1817) on Homogyne, Petasites, Tussilago Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dourbes, Montagne aux Buis © Carina Van Steenwinkel Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel mine lighted from behind larva in the mine Tussilago farfara, Schinkelbos: primary and secondary…

Acanthiophilus helianthi parasite

Acanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi, 1794) capsule fly on thistles gall One or more larvae feed on the developing achenes causing some malformation of the flower head. Pupation within the flower head; the puparium is shining black. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Amberboa moschata; Atractylis carduus; Carlina vulgaris; Carduus argentatus, nutans, personata; Carthamus…

Cheilosia fasciata parasite

Cheilosia fasciata Schiner & Egger, 1853 Allium ursinum, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 28.iv.2018 © László Érsek in the mine the larva lies in deliquescent frass larvae larva, dorsal larva, lateral “head”, lateral larve, ventraal detail of the ventral spiracula, ventral Allium ursinum, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Bomal-sur-Ourthe © Jean-Yves Baugnée larva Allium ursinum,…

Hydrellia nigricans parasite

Hydrellia nigricans (Stenhammer, 1844) Diptera, Ephydridae mine Verty fine gallery that spirals around the base of the leaf; the part of the leaf above turns yellow or red. The larva can kae several mines. Pupation within the mine. hostplants Juncaceae, monophagous Juncus articulatus, bufonius. phenology Larvae in June. BENELUX Not…

Hydrellia albifrons parasite

Hydrellia albifrons (Fallén, 1813) Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Broad upper suface corridors, sometimes almost a blotch. The larva can leave its mine and restart elsewehere. Frass hardly discernable. Pupation witihn the mine. hostplants Hydrocharitaceae, monophagous Hydrocharis morsus-ranae. In the botanical garden of Berlin also found on the extra-European Potamogeton drucei. phenology…

Anthomyza collini parasite

Anthomyza collini Andersson, 1976 on Phragmites, etc. gall inquiline of Lipara lucens, but the larva may also live independently, living in the leaf sheaths and in the galls of Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis. host plants narrowly polyphagous Calamagrostis canescens; Carex nigra, vesicaria; Leersia oryzoides; Phragmites australis. references Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a),…

Pegomya terebrans parasite

Pegomya terebrans (Rondani, 1866) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine The full grrown mine is an upper-surface elongate blotch overlying the midrib, quite homogenous in depth, and very irregular in shape. Equally irregular branches radiate into the leaf. Frass in very numerous, extremely small granules that form a shadow line along the midrib,…

Pegomya seitenstettensis parasite

Pegomya seitenstettensis (Strobl, 1880) mine Corridor, widening into a full depth blotch. At the start of the corridor a lower-surface elliptic egg shell. The larva is capable of leaving its mine and making a new blotch mine elsewhere. Frass in the corridor in a central line, in the blotch as…

Melanobaris laticollis parasite

…sinuata; Raphanus sativus; Sisymbrium. larva See Urban. synonyms Baris laticollis. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Houard (1908a), Lechapt (2015a), Lessieur, Dauphin, Labatut & Lacombe (2017a), Morris (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Stüben (2017a), Urban (1914a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a) ….

Delia seideli parasite

Delia seideli (Hering, 1925) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine Uknown. hostplants Boraginaceae Borago officinalis. distribution within Europe Described from Poland, Sudetes Mountains. synonyms Hylemia, Phorbia seideli. The species cannot be interpreted, because the type mateiral cannot be found, and is probably lost (Pont & Ackland, 2009a). references Hering (1925b, 1957a), Pont &…

Delia platura parasite

Delia platura (Meigen, 1826) seedcorn maggot polyphagous cephalic skeleton of 3rd instar larva (from Dušek) puparium mine The larva primarily lives as a borer in the stem and petioles, but is able to make corridor-like excursions into the blade. Perhaps the mine can be distinguished from those of Botanophila fugax…

Delia florilega parasite

Delia florilega (Zetterstedt, 1845) mine Primarily a borer in the stem and petiole, but the larva can make corridor-like excursions into the blade. Perhaps the mines can be distinguished from those of Botanophila fugax by Delia mines harbouring several larvae, Botanophila mines just one (Robbins, 1991a). Neither larvae nor mines…

Delia coronariae parasite

Delia coronariae (Hendel, 1925) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine Large, largely upper- or lower-surface blotch with numerous, large, greenish black frass grains. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation external. hostplants Caryophyllaceae, oligophagous ? Cerastium semidecandrum; Silene flos-cuculi; Stellaria alsine. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea,…

Botanophila fugax parasite

Botanophila fugax (Meigen, 1926) mine Elongated-oval eggs are deposited at either side of the leaf. They have irregularly keeled ribs running from one pole to the other (Miles, 1952a, 1953a). The larva primarily lives as a borer in stem and petioles, but is capable of making corridor-like excursions in the…

Pseudonapomyza spinosa parasite

Pseudonapomyza spinosa Spencer, 1973 mine Blotch, usually in the leaf tip. Because often several larvae live together, the blotch can be quite extensive. Pupation external. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Brachiaria; Eleusine indica; Hordeum vulgare; Triticum aestivum. distribution within Europe Spain, Greece, Thrace (Černý & Merz, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva…

Phytomyza bupleuri parasite

Phytomyza bupleuri Hering, 1963 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine The initial part of the mine is a short lower-surface corridor. The is followed by an upper-surface corridor, mostly starting near the leaf tip and descending towards the base, widening quickly and strongly. The corridor lies in loops, and may form a secondary…

Orchestes fagi parasite

…in April-May (Scherf, 1964a). BENELUX BE recorded (Curculionidae.be, 2010). NE recorded (Heijerman, 1993a) LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007). distribution within Europe From Norway, Ireland and France eastwards till Poland, the Balkan Peninsula and Italy. larva synonyms Rhynchaenus, Euthoron, fagi notes In the Netherlands rather common. At times a mass-outbreak…

Phytomyza spinaciae parasite

Phytomyza spinaciae Hendel, 1935 on Cirsium, etc. Cirsium arvense, England, Norfolk, Mileham, 2.vi.2020 © Rob Edmunds undersides of leaves, with puparia detail puparium, ventaal lateral Cirsium arvense, Nieuwendam.7.vi.2002 puparium in the mine; transverse section through the inter- parenchymatous mine Cirsium arvense, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos, 4.x.2015 © Hans Jonkman unusually heavy occupation…

Phytomyza solidaginis parasite

Phytomyza solidaginis Hendel, 1920 Diptera, Agromyzidae Solidago virgaurea, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Montauban: parasitised mine mine Upper surface corridor, 6-9 cm in length, densely wound, easily confluent into a secondary blotch. Frass unusual, in more or less connected strings at either side of the corridor. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit…

Phytomyza seseleos parasite

Phytomyza seseleos Hering, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Quite shallow, therefore greenish, corridor mine. Frass initially in pearl chains, later in coarse grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Seseli libanotis. phenology Larvae in July-August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna…

Phytomyza rhodopaea parasite

Phytomyza rhodopaea Beiger, 1979 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine “Larva forming an upper surface blotch-mine with fine herring-bone pattern [secondary feeding lines?], placed on the top part of the leaf-blade. The mine is greenish with darker grains and strips of frass. Pupation externally.” hostplants Boraginaceae, monophagous Symphytum ottomanum. phenology Larvae in the…

Phytomyza rhodiolae parasite

Phytomyza rhodiolae Griffiths, 1976 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long gallery that winds freely through the leaf, sometimes crossing itself and sometimes forming a secondary blotch (also because more than one mine may be present in a leaf). Frass in discrete grains. Mines mainly in the younger leaves. Pupation sometimes outside the…

Phytomyza ranunculivora parasite

Phytomyza ranunculivora Hering, 1932 Ranunculus repens, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler same mine, frass pattern mine Long, upper-surface corridor with the frass in relatively large, widely dispersed fragments. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly oligophagous Ficaria verna; Ranunculus aconitifolius, acris, breyninus, flammula, lanuginosus, lingua, montanus,…

Phytomyza ranunculi parasite

Phytomyza ranunculi (von Paula Schrank, 1803) on Ranunculus etc. Ficaria verna, Epen, Heimansgroeve, 17.iv.2019 © Cor Zonneveld Ranunculus repens, Arnhem Ranunculus repens, Amstelveen: detail Ranunculus repens, lg. Tongeren © Hans Jonkman mine Rather long, somewhat untidy, upper-surface corridor. Frass in many small grains that are close together of form pearl…

Phytomyza obscura parasite

Phytomyza obscura Hendel, 1920 on Clinopodium Clinopodium menthifolium, France, dép. Haute-Marne, Auberive © Jean Béguinot: vacated mines mine The mine, that may be upper- or lower-surface, generally starts with a tight spiral. Its loops are so tight that the leaf tissue dies off and turns red; nevertheless the corridor remains…

Phytomyza montana parasite

Phytomyza montana Groschke, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Exceptionally long, upper-surface corridor, very narrow at first, gradually widening. In the end the corridor may traverse a large leaf, crossing itsself now and then. Frass very variable, either in pearl chains of tiny granules or in large, widely dispersed grains. Pupation outside…

Phytomyza lappae host plants, parasite

Phytomyza lappae Goureau, 1851 Arctium sp., Nieuwendam Arctium sp., Hilversum, Zwarte Berg: frass pattern Arctium spec., Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 1.vi.2018 © László Érsek larva in the mine larva, ventral mine Long, little widening corridor. The first part is contorted, and its very first stretch is lower-surface; all other parts are upper-surface….

Phytomyza hendeli parasite

Phytomyza hendeli Hering, 1923 on Anemonastrum, Anemone from Hering (1957a) Anemone nemorosa, Denmark, Geelskov © Morten Kofoed-Hansen gallery section of the mine larva (rear end); also a part is visible of the very beginning of the gallery mine Narrow upper-surface corridor, often following the leaf margin. Frass initially in strings,…

Phytomyza elsae parasite

Phytomyza elsae Hendel, 1927 on Buplerum Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, lieu-dit “Roche Albéric”, 24.vi.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout detail Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, Viroinval detail Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, prov Namur, Viroinval, Nismes © Stéphane Claerebout mine Entirely upper-surface corridor. The corridor is winding, often forming a secondary blotch. Frass in…

Phytomyza chaerophylliana parasite

Phytomyza chaerophylliana Hering, 1931 mine Indistinguishable from the mine of Ph. chaerophylli. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Chaerophyllum temulum. phenology Larvae in June – July (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Germany, Poland, Czechia, Italy (Fauna Europaea, 2009). notes Because neither larva nor…

Xiphinema diversicaudatum parasite

Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) polyphagous gall Longidoridae are comparatively large nematodes, free living in the soils, that attack plant roots. This may lead to the formation of conspicuous, massive swellings. Some species also act as vectors of plant virus. host plants strongly polyphagous, cited, for instance, from: Cucumis sativus, Fragaria,…

Cornutrypeta spinifrons parasite

Cornutrypeta spinifrons (Schroeder, 1913) Solidago virgaurea, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler mine Broad corridor overlying the midrib. The mine has a number of side branches that distally widen strongly, and may coalesce. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous. hostplants Asteraceae, oligophagous Aster; Senecio ovatus; Solidago virgaurea. Maček (1999a) adds Callistephus chinensis…

Paralongidorus maximus parasite

Paralongidorus maximus (Bütschli, 1874) polyphagous gall Longidoridae are comparatively large nematodes, free living in the soils, that attack plant roots. This may lead to the formation of conspicuous, massive swellings. Some species also act as vectors of plant virus. host plants strongly polyphagous, cited, for instance, from: Allium; Beta vulgaris;…

Cameraria gaultheriella parasite

Cameraria gaultheriella (Walsingham, 1889) Gaultheria shallon, Oldenzaal (intercepted introduction) © Steven IJland Gaultheria shallon, Leiden (intercepted introduction), mine, lighted from behind, with larva; © Erik van Nieukerken detail Gaultheria shallon, Amersfoort (intercepted introduction) © Willem Oosterhof: clearly a living, healthy larva (December, 2015) mine Short gallery, quickly but gradually widening…

Glyphipterix umbilici parasite

Glyphipterix umbilici Hering, 1927 mine Initially a branching corridor with a broad, central green frass line; in the end a full depth blotch; pupation outside the mine. The larva can leave its mine and restart elsewhere. host plants Crassulaceae, monophagous Umbilicus rupestris. phenology Larvae in February, April (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX…

Aspilapteryx multipunctella parasite

Aspilapteryx multipunctella Chrétien, 1916 Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae Plantago arborescens, Teneriffa; from Klimesch (1979a) mine The young larva spins 2-3 young leaves together, and mines them out completely. The older larva lives free in the centre of a bundle of leaves of the tip of a shoot, that are spun together. The…

Caloptilia coruscans parasite

…plant belonging to an unrelated family (Myricaceae). Indeed is coruscans used presently as a biological control agent of M. faya in the island of Hawaii, where the plant is an invasive pest. However, there is some doubt if one and the same moth species is involved (Leen & Markin, 1996a);…

Caloptilia flava parasite

Caloptilia flava (Staudinger, 1871) mine Oviposition at the underside of a leaflet. From there runs a narrow, shallow corridor that may be so strongly contorted as to suggest a secondary blotch. This is continued into a lower-surface tentiform mine of 6-9 mm long, with a longitudinal fold, that causes the…

Caloptilia populetorum parasite

…2005a). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Whitish, head light brown; pronotum without black markings (Brown, 1947a). pupa Described by Patočka & Zach (1995a) and…

Calybites phasianipennella parasite

Calybites phasianipennella (Hübner, 1813) little slender on Persicaria, etc. Persicaria maculosa, Leersum, 8.ix.2020 © Ben van As mine and leaf roll Lysimachia vulgaris, Poland, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonelle: mine and leaf roll cocoon, taken out of the leaf roll pupa Lysimachia vulgaris, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Sampont; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Rumex…

Uromyces graminis parasite

Uromyces graminis (Niesl) Dietel, 1892 on Apiaceae gall Spermogonia between the aecia, eventually honey-coloured. Aecia mostly hypophyllous, on strongly swollen parts of the leaf; they appear as warts, with the peridium extending through an apical pore. Spores pale yellow, thick-walled (up to 3 µm), very densely fine-verruculose, with 3-6 pores…

Uromyces laburni parasite

Uromyces laburni (de Candolle) Otth, 1864 on Euphorbia gall see Aecidium euphorbiae. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, narrowly monophagous Euphorbia cyparissias, nicaeensis. ​ on Laburnum Laburnum watereri, Hungary, Budapest, arboretum, 31.vii.2019 © László Érsek underside of a leaf with uredinia uredinia 15.x.2019, three months later uredinia and telia gall Uredinia amphigenous; spores…

Puccinia lagenophorae parasite

Puccinia lagenophorae Cooke, 1884 on Asteraceae, Senecioneae Senecio vulgaris, Belgium, Liège, det. Arthur Vanderweyen © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail Senecio vulgaris, Nieuwendam: the peridium is but weakly developed aeciospores are formed in chains; once free their shape becomes more rounded gall No host plant alternation, no spermogonia or uredinia. Telia are…

Puccinia komarovii parasite

…glanduliferae, collected by them in the Himalaya, that is strictly associated with I. glandulifera. The variety may possibly de deployed in the control of this highly invasive species. references Afshan, Khalid & Niazi (2012a), Beenken & Senn-Irlet (2016a), Brandenburger (1985a), Buhr (1964b), Gäumann (1959a), Hafellner (1980a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao…

Puccinia aegopodii parasite

…& Ellis (1997a), Gäumann (1959a), González Fragoso (1924a), Henderson (2000a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Jage, Scholler & Klenke (2010a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Koops (2013a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a), Kruse (2014a, 2019a), Kruse & Jage (2014a), Maier, Wingfield, Mennicken & Wingfield (2007a), Mułenko, Sałata & Wołczańska (1995a), Negrean…

Endophyllum sempervivi parasite

Endophyllum sempervivi (Albertini & Schweinitz) de Bary, 1863 on Sempervivum Sempervivum tectorum, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ferrières, 20.iv.2012 © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail with telia (here as small pits) Sempervivum spec., Italy, Aosta, vii.2013 © Ben van As Aeonium spec., Canary IsLlands, Tenerife, RN Teno, 9.ii.2020 © Sébastien Carbonelle detail gall Endophyllum…

Parornix devoniella parasite

…LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Europe, excluding the Balkan and the Mediterranean Islands (Corely ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva pupa synonyms Ornix devoniella; Ornix, Parornix avellanella (Stainton, 1854); Parornix cotoneastri (Caradja, 1920). notes When the mine of Phyllonorycter coryli lies close to the leaf margin, it…

Parornix petiolella parasite

Parornix petiolella (Frey, 1863) on Malus Malus domestica, Hungary, Kimle © László Érsek: rather young mine older, but not yet strongly contracted mine frass heaped together mine Upper-surface, epidermal, white-silvery blotch that may contract the leaf so strongly that all that is visible is a white line. The older larva…

Phyllocnistis citrella parasite

Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, 1856 citrus leaf-miner Citrus sp; © Wijnand Burggraaf-Barendregt Citrus sp., Peru, Lima © Chris Snyers mine Long epidermal corridor with a well-marked central frass line. Mine mostly lower-surface, less often upper-surface, and rarely on the rind of the developing fruit. Pupation, like in all Phyllocnistis species, in…

Digitivalva orientella parasite

Digitivalva orientella (Klimesch, 1956) Lepidoptera, Glyphipterigidae mine Undescribed, probably similar to the mine of D. granitella. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Inula germanica. In the older literature “Inula” can also refer to Dittrichia and Pulicaria. distribution within Europe Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Ukaine, Southern Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009). references Gaedike & Baldizzone (2008a)…

Acrolepiopsis vesperella parasite

…the pupation occurs in a net-like cocoon (Klimesch, 1983a). host plants Dioscoreaceae, Smilacaceae; narrowly polyphagous Dioscorea communis; Smilax aspera, canariensis. phenology Larvae in March (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe From Germany to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the Balkan; also…

Phyllocnistis unipunctella larva parasite

Phyllocnistis unipunctella Populus x canadensis, Nieuwendam: larva; the larva is dead – living larvae are strongly hyaline head and abdomen end, dorsal The full grown larva is remarkably slender, legless, hyaline; in the third instar often with a large roundish black spot on the pronotum (see the note on the…

Monochroa rumicetella parasite

Monochroa rumicetella (Hoffmann, 1868) mine Large full depth blotch, that in R. acetosella may occupy almost the entire leaf. In R. acetosella the frass is concentrated in the leaf tip, in R. acetosa on the midrib. Pupation external (Hering, 1957a). host plants Polygonaceae, monophagous Rumex acetosa, acetosella. Mainly on R….

Elachista scirpi parasite

Elachista scirpi Stainton, 1887 saltern dwarf mine The mine begins as a narrow corridor, somewhere halfway the leaf; it ascends towards the tip, doubles, and descends to about the starting point. Meanwhile the corridor has widened to about half the width of the leaf. Most frass is accumulated as an…

Elachista subalbidella parasite

Elachista subalbidella Schläger, 1847 buff dwarf mine Mine fairly translucent. It starts as a narrow corridor, running towards the leaf tip, but this almost invariably is overrun be a later, broad, descending corridor. The centre of the mine contains a vertical tube made of loose silk, in which the larva…

Tilletia brachypodii-ramosi parasite

Tilletia brachypodii-ramosi Zogg, 1967 on Brachypodium gall long, swollen, brown striae on the leaves, covered by the epidermis; when this splits open a blackish-brown, fetid, powdery mass of spores is released. The spores measure 18-23 µm; their surface is deeply reticulate, while the top of the ridges is acute (contrary…

Stephensia cedronellae parasite

Stephensia cedronellae (Walsingham, 1908) Lepidoptera, Elachistidae Bystropogon plumosus & Cedronella canariensis; from Hering (1927a) mine Narrow gallery, often following the leaf margin for some distance, ending in a large full depth blotch. Some silk is layed in the blotch, causing it to pucker slightly. In the corridor the frass is…

Paracrania chrysolepidella parasite

Paracrania chrysolepidella (Zeller, 1851) small hazel purple Carpinus betulus, Valkenburg, St. Jansbosch © Maarten Immerzeel” occupied mine larva in the mine larva Corylus avellana, Epen © Arnold Wijker Corylus avellana, Belgium, prov. Namur, Doische, Matagne-la-Grande, RN des Hurées © Stéphane Claerebout Corylus avellana, Belgium, prov. Namur, Rochefort, Ri d’Howisse ©…

Aproaerema anthyllidella parasite

Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hübner, 1813) vetch sober Medicago cf lupulina, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Chimai: young, still mining larva © Steve Wullaert mine Larvae in a small full depth blotch, often with extensions. Frass concentrated in one corner of the mine. The mining activities may cause the leaf to roll inwards. Older…

Exobasidium juelianum parasite

Exobasidium juelianum Nannfeldt, 1981 dwarfling redleaf on Vaccinium gall the entire plant is dwarfed and unusually strong branched, the leaves are reduced. The plant may be lined with a pale pink hymenium. The spores are banana-shaped, up to 14 µm, usually septate. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium vitis-idaea. references…

Monochroa servella parasite

Monochroa servella Zeller, 1839) Primula farinosa, Austria; from Klimesch (1958a). mine Large, very transparant, full depth blotch that begins in the basal part of the leaf; in this oldest part most of the frass is accumulated. The mine is strongly folded lengthwise, and the two halves of the leave are…

Uromyces proeminens parasite

Uromyces proeminens (de Candolle) Léveillé, 1847 on Euphorbia Euphorbia chamaesyce, from González-Fragoso (1925a) : urediniospores and teliospores gall no host plant alternation. Aecia hypophyllous, dispersed all over the leaf, pale yellow, peridium inconspicuous. Uredinia mainly epiphyllous, brownish; spores dispersed fine-spinulose, with (4)5(6) pores. Also telia mainly epiphyllous, blackish brown. Teliospores…

Physoderma gerhardtii parasite

Physoderma gerhardtii Schröter, 1886 on Poaceae gall up to 5 mm long blackish brown stripes on the leaves. Embedded in the tissue ovoid resting sporangia. Contrary to Ph. graminis, that may occur on the same host plants, the growth and development of the host is not disturbed. hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous…

Scrobipalpa ergasima parasite

Scrobipalpa ergasima (Meyrick, 1916) mine Full depth, flat, very transparent blotch. The larva makes several mines, that generally develop from near the midrib towards the leaf margin. Each new mine obviously begins with a hole, and some frass may be found here; otherwise the mines are free of frass. Pupation…

Scrobipalpa spergulariella parasite

Scrobipalpa spergulariella (Chrétien, 1910) mine The larva spins groups of leaves together and mines them out, but may also live free in the inflorescence. host plants Caryophyllaceae, monophagous Spergularia media. In the original description, “Spergularia azorica” is mentioned as the host plant, but that is en endemic of the Azores….

Scrobipalpula psilella parasite

…shield greenish-yellow (Benander, cited by Huemer & Karsholt [1998a]). Uniformly light grey, head and pronotum light brown (Hering, 1957a). synonyms Gnorimoschema psilellum; Gelechia, Lita, Phthorimaea, psilella references Aarvik, Karsholt, Larsen & Schnack (1988a), Bland, Heckford & Langmaid (2002a), Chrétien (1909a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Elsner, Huemer &…

Scrobipalpula tussilaginis parasite

Scrobipalpula tussilaginis (Stainton, 1867) colt’s-foot groundling Tussilago farfara, Belgium; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Namur, Maizeret © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind larva mine Initially a branching corridor, later more an elongate upper-surface blotch from the leaf base tot the leaf margin, finally occupying a good part…

Teleiopsis lunariella parasite

Teleiopsis lunariella (Walsingham, 1908) Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae Rumex lunaria; uit Hering (1957a) mine Large, glassy blotch from which all frass has been ejected. The blotch lies against the leaf margin, that curls over the mine somwhat. The larva may also bore in a young shoot. Pupation external. hostplants Polygonaceae, narrowly monophagous…

Tuta absoluta parasite

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) tomato leaf-miner on mainly Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculenteum, Peru, Lima; © Chris Snyers Source: Pherobank, Wageningen, The Netherlands Lycopersicon esculentum, Westland, ‘s-Gravenzande, 1.viii.2014 © Jan Scheffers: first open air observation larva protruding from the mine larva the species also is a borer in the fruits … ……

Aecidium parasite

Aecidium (Caeoma, Uredo) notes Among the rust species that go through a complete life cycle, most species form aecia and telia on different host plants. Many groups of related species then have their aecial stage on one and the same host species, and their telial stage on an array of…

Melampsora pulcherrima parasite

Melampsora pulcherrima Maire, 1921 on Mercurialis Mercurialis annua, Crete, Rethimnon, 11.ii.2021 © Paul Fontaine gall Aecia pulvinate (not cupulate), mainly on the stem, that may be completely covered over a length of several cm. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, narrowly monophagous Mercurialis annua. Not on M. perennis. ​ on Populus Populus alba,…

Ochromolopis ictella parasite

Ochromolopis ictella (Hübner, 1813) mine Short, full depth, irregularly linear mine. The larva may make several mines. The older larva lives free on the plant under some spinning. host plants Santalaceae, monophagous Thesium linophyllon subsp. montanum, pyrenaicum. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe…

Ectoedemia atricollis parasite

Ectoedemia atricollis (Stainton, 1857) pinch-barred pigmy on woody Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna, Belgium, prov. Namur, Boneffe, 4.x.2018 © Jean-Yves Baugnée (along the leaf margin also an unfinished mine of Stigmella regiella) Malus domestica, Belgium, prov. Liege, Ben-Ahin 25.ix.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout mine, upper side; note the exit slit mine, underside mine…

Mompha ochraceella parasite

Mompha ochraceella (Curtis, 1839) buff mompha on Epilobium Epilobium hirsutum, Belgium, prov. East-Flanders, Lebbeke, 12.iv.2020 © Ruben Meert: infested plant in spring broken stem base with bore hole three tunnels larva higher up in the stem larva taken out of its gallery 1.v.2020: cocon in the base of a leaf…

Mompha propinquella parasite

…montanum, palustre. phenology Mines in early spring (Koster, 2002b). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2010). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except the Mediterranean Islands and large parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva Body…

Mompha sturnipennella parasite

…summer generation live in the fruits, without any outwards sign of their presence. host plants Onagraceae, monophagous Chamerion angustifolium. synonyms Mompha nodicolella Fuchs, 1902. references Buhr (1964a), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Huemer (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Klimesch (1960a, 1989a), Koops (2013a), Koster & Sinev…

Mompha terminella parasite

Mompha terminella (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845) enchanters mompha Circaea lutetiana, Luxemburg, Kautenbach detail Circaea lutetiana, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Rachecourt; © Jean-Yves Baugnée; det. Sjaak Koster mine Egg at the upper side of the leaf, not near the midrib. The larva starts by making a long, narrow, full depth corridor that…

Acalyptris loranthella parasite

Acalyptris loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Loranthus europaeus, Czechia; from van Nieukerken (2007a) mine In connection with the thickness of the leaf, the mine is superficial: egg, mine and exit at the same side, either upper-surface or lower-surface. The mine is a corridor, often somewhat contorted, especially near the start,…

Etainia albibimaculella parasite

…Pale yellow, head pale brown. synonyms Ectoedemia albibimaculella. notes Possibly many larvae will never arrive at mining a leaf (Johansson ea, 1990). references Aarvik, Bakke, Berg ao (1997a), Adamczewski (1947a), Bengtsson (2008a), Gustafsson (1985a), Hering (1957a), Johansson ao (1990a), Laštuvka & Laštuvka (1997a), van Nieukerken (1986a), Skala (1939a), Sønderup (1949a)….

Ectoedemia angulifasciella parasite

Ectoedemia angulifasciella (Stainton, 1849) bent-barred pigmy on Rosa Rosa canina, Belgium, Prov. Namur, Couvin, Petigny, Barrage du Ry de Rome © Stéphane Claerebout occupied mine Rosa sp., Losser Rosa sp., Brummen mine Oviposition at the underside of the leaf, usually not far from the midrib. The mine is a corridor;…

Etainia obtusa parasite

Etainia obtusa (Puplesis & Diškus, 1996) mine Unknown. hostplants Oleaceae, ? monophagous Fraxinus ornus? Possibly also other Fraxinus spp. A remote possibility exists that the species rather lives on Acer monspessulanum. phenology Cocoons were collected in April. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2012). distribution within Europe…

Mompha lacteella parasite

Mompha lacteella (Stephens, 1834) rust-blotch mompha mine Large full depth blotch in the lower leaves. Much frass in coarse grains. The larva easily leaves its mine and restarts elsewhere. Pupation either in the mine or in the ground. Mines cannot be told apart from those of Mompha propinquella. host plants…

Stigmella arbusculae parasite

Stigmella arbusculae (Klimesch, 1951) mines on Salix arbuscula, retusa and reticulata; from Klimesch (1951e). mine Egg usually near the midrib. Here begins a narrow gallery completely filled with frass, that widens into a full depth blotch. In dwarf willows with very small leaves the entire leaf can be mined out….

Rhytisma andromedae parasite

Rhytisma andromedae (Persoon) Fries, 1819 on Andromeda Andromeda polifolia, Norway, Trollstigen (Møre og Romsdal), 17.vii.2016 © Cor Zonneveld. gall oval, shining-black stroma, 5-10 mm long, on the upper side of a leaf; may cover the entire upper side of the leaf. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Andromeda polifolia. synonyms Placuntium andromedae…

Stigmella desperatella parasite

Stigmella desperatella (Frey, 1856) scarce apple pigmy Malus domestica, Austria, (Kärnten) Pörtschach, 5 km W Völkermark;leg JJ Boomsma & EJ van Nieukerken mine Egg either at upper side or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a narrow gallery, often following a vein or the leaf margin. Later sections…

Stigmella hybnerella parasite

Stigmella hybnerella (Hübner, 1796) greenish thorn pigmy Crataegus monogyna, Nieuwendam mine Oviposition at random point of the leaf, either at upper- or lower-surface. First a quite slender corridor is made, with a relatively broad, continuous, frass line, that always leaves a clear margin at either side; the corridor winds freely…

Stigmella magdalenae parasite

Stigmella magdalenae (Klimesch, 1950) northern rowan pigmy Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Lanaken, de Hoefaert © Carina Van Steenwinkel same mine, lighted from behind another specimen Cotoneaster integerrimus; Czechia, North Bohemia, Děčín; © Jindra Černý Sorbus aucuparia, Nunspeet Sorbus aria, Belgium, prov. Namur, Ave-et-Auffe, RN Tienne de Boton © Stéphane…

Stigmella minusculella parasite

Stigmella minusculella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) brown-tipped pigmy on Pyrus Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne © Jean-Yves Baugnée Pyrus communis, Luxemburg, Kautenbach Pyrus spinosa, Rhodes (Nepticula embonella); from Klimesch (1978b) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a not very strongly contorted corridor, also not limited to…

Stigmella oxyacanthella parasite

Stigmella oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854) common fruit-tree pigmy Crataegus monogyna, Nieuwendam, 22.x.2011 Crataegus monogyna, Duin en Kruidberg, 11..x.2001 detail Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Tournai, RN de la Carrière de l’Orientm 22.viii.2016 © Stéphane Claerebout mine Long corridor, that widens only little, and winds freely through the leaf, not influenced by…

Podosphaera clandestina parasite

Podosphaera clandestina (Wallroth) Léveillé, 1851 on woody Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna, Amstelveen, Schinkelbos gall mycelium amphigenous, often also on stem, forming a thin white film. The fungus may cause galling and reddening of young shoots. Appressoria poorly developed to nipple-shaped. Conidia short-oval, formed in chains, with fibrosin bodies. Cleistothecia with a…

Phyllobrostis hartmanni parasite

Phyllobrostis hartmanni Staudinger, 1867 on Daphne mine Oviposition in the leaf tissue. The mine begins a a fine corridor, often following the leaf margin. Next a large, somewhat inflated, full depth, blotch is made, extending from the leaf tip, that in the end may occupy the entire leaf. The mine…

Phyllonorycter barbarella parasite

Phyllonorycter barbarella (Rebel, 1901) Lepidoptera, Graciillariidae mine Lower-surface tentiform mine betwee two side veins; the mine can trespass over e vein, even the midrib. hostplants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus faginea, pubescens. phenology Larvae in March to May. distribution within Europe Iberia, southern France. synonyms Phyllonorycter neli Buvat, 1996. notes Buvat (1996a)…

Spulerina simploniella parasite

Spulerina simploniella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1840) on Castanea, Quercus gall long, tortuous, very shallow gallery just below the bark of a still smooth stem; in the end the gallery widens into a blotch. Callus formation may suggest galling. hostplants Fagaceae, oligophagous Castanea sativa; Quercus petraea, pubescens, robur. synonyms Dialectica, Eutrichocnemis,…

Phyllonorycter coryli parasite

…BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach) distribution within Europe Europe, with exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa synonyms Lithocolletis coryli; Lithocolletis danica Caradja, 1920. references Ahr (1966a), Beiger (1979a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Buhr (1935a,b,…

Ditylenchus destructor parasite

Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 gall Buhr mentions this species as a causer of galls in potato. The nematode feeds on the underground storage tissues of a number of plants species, like Dahlia, Gladiolus, Iris, Solanum, Taraxacum, Tulipa. It often is associated with a bacterium, and particularly then tissue rot may…

Phyllonorycter insignitella parasite

…recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa Described by Gregor & Patočka (2001a) and Patočka & Turčáni (2005); see also King & Murria (2002a). The pupa strongly resembles the one of Ph. medicaginella, but the 10th abdomen segment is clearly wider…

Phyllonorycter klemannella parasite

Phyllonorycter klemannella (Fabricius, 1781) dark alder midget on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Hungary, Kimle, 29.vi.2018 © László Érsek: mine, upper side of leaf underside lava in opened mine larva, dorsal and ventral view head and thorax dorsal view head and thorax ventral view larva, lateral 19.vii.2019, pupa, dorsal view vental view…

Phyllonorycter platani parasite

…Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gregor & Patočka (2001a), Grandi 1931a, 1933a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927a, 1936b, 1957a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Jaworski (2009a), Kirichenko, Augustin & Kenis (2018a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kvičala (1938a), Lhomme (1934c),…

Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella parasite

Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella (Stainton, 1851) sandhill midget Salix repens, Zandvoort; the mine at right still quite young mine Lower-surface tentiform mine, that in small leaves can occupy the entire underside. The mine does contract strongly, folding the leaf, sometimes causing it to become tube-like. Lower epidermis with many fine folds. Pupa,…

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella parasite

…be missing, while in the autumn generation it is quite tough. All frass in a corner of the mine. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula x alpestris, grossa, pendula, pubescens. Reported by Hering (1957a) as an occasional miner of Ribes. The statement by Kollár (2007a) and Kollár & Hrubík (2009a) that…

Triberta cistifoliella parasite

Triberta cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) on Cistus mine The mine begins as an epidermal lower-surface corridor that closely follows a thick vein. It continues into a tentiform mine with strong folds, that may occupy almost an entire leaf, and be very transparent in the end. Frass in a loose accumulation. Very…

Phyllobrostis fregenella parasite

Phyllobrostis fregenella Hartig, 1941 on Daphne Daphne gnidium, France, Corsica, Haute Corse, Galéria © Stéphane Claerebout mine detail mine, lighted from behind mine Oviposition within the leaf tissue. The mine begins as a narrow corridor along the midrib, not far from the leaf tip. Then a large full depth blotch…

Triberta helianthemella parasite

Triberta helianthemella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1861) mine The mine begins as an epidermal lower-surface corridor that closely follows a thick vein. It continues into a tentiform mine with strong folds, that may occupy almost an entire leaf, and be very transparant in the end. Frass in a loose accumulation. Very unusual is…

Heliozela hammoniella parasite

Heliozela hammoniella Sorhagen, 1885 birch lift Betula pubescens, Lauwersmeer, Ballastplaatbos; © Corrie van As: vacated mine with excision Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Namur, Nismes © Stéphane Claerebout: vacated mine detail of the excision Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol, © Carina Van Steenwinkel: mine with an exceptionally long gallery section…

Phylloporia bistrigella parasite

Phylloporia bistrigella (Haworth, 1828) striped leaf-cutter Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Tenneville © Jean-Yves Baugnée living larva Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Namur, Mettet © Jean-Yves Baugnée Betula pubescens, Britain, Fleet © Rob Edmunds Betula pubescens, Nieuw-Bergen mine Long, very narrow corridor that may wind several times through the leaf, freely…

Leucoptera laburnella parasite

Leucoptera laburnella (Stainton, 1851) laburnum leaf-miner Genista tinctoria, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark young mine Laburnum anagyroides, Amsterdam Laburnum anagyroides, IJzevoorde, coll. JHH Zwier; young mine mine The very first part of the mine is a densely contorted corridor of about 2 mm long, that quickly turns brown. It is followed by…

Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans parasite

Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans Edwards, 1933 Plantago lanceolata, Nieuwendam detail, showing two completely galled fruits more or less developed, yet galled, fruit sometimes some of the fruits are completely developed, but the two seeds within are ruined and mouldy Plantago lanceolata, Zwolle: sometimes only a few fruits in an inflorescence…

Apiognomonia errabunda parasite

Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge) von Höhnel, 1918 on woody plants Tilia x europaea, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark 29.vi.2018 © Carina Van Steenwinkel underside of an infected leaf like in A. veneta the leaf spots develop from the veins, but they are not angular. same leaf, underside characteristic also is the…

Leucoptera sinuella parasite

…Europe. phenology Larvae in June and September; hibernation as pupa (Emmet, 1985a; van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks, 1970a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except Ireland, the Balkan Peninsula and the…

Peronosporales parasite

Peronosporales form an internal parasitic mycelium within a host plant. In different structures conidia are formed. They germinate while forming motile spores that than reinfect a host plant. Within the host plant by sexual means, after fertilisation of an oogonium, thick-walled oospores are formed that enable hibernation. The oospores germinate…

Phyllonorycter harrisella parasite

…NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa synonyms Lithocolletis harrisella; Lithocolletis, Phyllonorycter cramerella (Fabricius, 1777). notes The biology is discussed by Miller (1973a). According to Emmet ao…

Elachista pomerana parasite

Elachista pomerana Frey, 1870 fen dwarf mine The mine begins near the leaf tip and descends towards the base. The mine occupies the entire width of the blade. Frass initially scattered, later in an irregular central line. Fully developed mine c. 8 cm long. Probably the larva is capable of…

Parna tenella parasite

…(2015a), Blank & Taeger (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a, 1965a), Burger, van Frankenhuyzen, de Goffau & Ulenberg (1984a, 1985a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Edmunds (2016a), Haarder & Liston (2018a), Halsted (2004a, 1009a), Haris (2009a), Hering (1924a, 1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Lengesova (2008a),…

Cosmopterix schmidiella parasite

Cosmopterix schmidiella Frey, 1856 vivid cosmet mine Large blotch, that may occupy an entire leaflet. During feeding pauses the larve rests in a silken resting place above the midrib, and is well hidden then. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Fabaceae, oligophagous Lathyrus linifolius, niger; Vicia sepium, pisiformis. Preference for…

Urocystis antipolitana parasite

Urocystis antipolitana Magnus, 1879 on Anemone gall lead-coloured blisters or pustules that eventually rupture and release a blackish brown, granular-powdery mass of spore balls. The spore balls consist of 1-6(7) sporen, surrounded by a complete layer of lesser sterile cells. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly monophagous Anemone baldensis, coronaria, hortensis. synonyms…

Coleophora spiraeella parasite

Coleophora spiraeella Rebel, 1916 from Toll (1962a) case Dark brown to blackish spatulate leaf case of 7-9 mm. Rear end somewhat lighter in colour, bivalved. Mouth angle sharp (Toll, 1962a). Hering (1957a) writes that the youth case is bivalved, the final case however trivalved. Toll’s drawing does not seem to…

Coleophora spinella parasite

Coleophora spinella (Schrank, 1802) apple & plum case-bearer Crataegus laevigata, Luxemburg, Kautenbach Crataegus monogyna, Nederhorst den Berg; youth case, after hibernation Sorbus aucuparia, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman case The larva lives two years. In the first year, in autumn, a composite leaf case is made that resembles a boomerang:…

Coleophora sergiella parasite

Coleophora sergiella Falkovitch, 1979 case Bivalved spatulate leaf case of c. 6 mm with a mouth angle of c. 45°; the case is light brown with a felty surface. The case may have dorsal lobes, when the original mine was near the leaf margin. In a few specimens the case…

Coleophora prunifoliae parasite

Coleophora prunifoliae Doets, 1944 new sloe case-bearer from Toll (1952a) case Tubular leaf case, 6-7 mm long, light, later dark brown, trivalved, with a mouth angle of 45°. The larva lives at the underside of the leaf, and makes sizeable fleck mines there. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous (?) Betula; Cotoneaster…

Coleophora lixella parasite

…Europe, perhaps excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Described by Suire (1961a) and Emmet ao (1993a). notes In Britain the case may be confused with the one of Coleophora tricolor. This species does not have a composite, but rather a tubular leaf case. references Baldizzone (1979a, 2004a), Biesenbaum…

Coleophora lineolea larva parasite

Ballota nigra, Cadzand; the larva was dead, which may be responsible for the white colour….

Coleophora laricella parasite

Coleophora laricella (Hübner, 1817) larch case-bearer on Larix Larix decidua, Maarn detail Larix sp., Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Beloeil © Stéphane Claerebout: spring picture: the dark part of the case has hibernated, the light part is a recent extension Larix decidua, Heerde, lg de Dellen © Hans Jonkman: another image from…

Coleophora idaeella parasite

Coleophora idaeella Hofmann, 1869 scotch case-bearer from Toll (1962a) Vaccinium myrtillus, Belgium, prov. Liège, High Fens © Steve Wullaert feeding traces, with excision and youth case case The full-grown larva in a bivalved composite leaf case, composed of three leaf fragments of increasing age and decreasing size; the case measures…

Metallus pumilus parasite

Metallus pumilus (Klug, 1816) raspberry leaf-mining sawfly on Rubus Rubus spec., Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek underside mine, lighted from behind larva in dorsal view … … lateral … …and ventral Rubus spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Lanaken, de Hoefaert © Carina Van Steenwinkel larva in the mine Rubus fruticosus, Dronten,…

Coleophora hospitiella parasite

Coleophora hospitiella Chrétien, 1915 Medicago laciniata, La Gomera; left the youth case, right the adult case, on a fructiferous inflorescence; from Klimesch (1982a) case Rather flat lobe case, finally about 7-9 mm long, composed of fairly large leaf fragments. Later the larve changes its life style, and starts feeding on…

Coleophora gryphipennella Uncategorized

Coleophora gryphipennella (Hübner, 1796) rose case-bearer Fragaria vesca, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel, det. Camiel Doorenweerd, DNA detail case Rosa pimpinellifolia, Duin en Kruidberg Rosa rubiginosa, Duin en Kruidberg: case mine The larvae, that hatch around the end of August make three…

Coleophora flavipennella parasite

…Baldizzone & scalercio (2018a), Drăghia (1968b), Emmet, Langmaid, Bland ao (1996a), Goodey (1992a), Hering (1930b, 1934a, 1957a), Huemer (2012a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Kasy (1987a), Klimesch (1942a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Leutsch (2011a), Michaelis (1983a), Nel (1992b), Patzak (1974a), Razowski (1990a),…

Coleophora coracipennella parasite

Coleophora coracipennella (Hübner, 1796) blackthorn case-bearer from Toll (1962a) case The final case is a tubular leaf case, 6-7 mm long, light brown at first, darker later. The rear end is trivalved, the mouth opening is around 45°. The larvae live at the underside of the leaves, and make sizable…

Pancalia nodosella parasite

Pancalia nodosella (Bruand, 1851) mine young larvae bore in the petiole, but may make irregular blotch mines in the leaves. The older larvae may cause external window feeding, but ultimately they bore in the rootstock (Koster & Sinev, 2003a). hostplants Violaceae, monophagous Viola canina, tricolor subsp. curtisii. phenology Larvae in…

Bucculatrix ainsliella parasite

Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, 1905 Quercus rubra, Wezep © Erik van Nieukerken detail mine Tiny, full depth gallery, often in a vein axil, apart from the larval chamber almost completely filled with blackish brown frass. The mine starts at an iridescent egg shell next to a thick vein. Older larvae live…

Pseudodineura enslini parasite

Pseudodineura enslini (Hering, 1923) mine Large, full depth blotch, starting with a short corridor, that often follows the leaf margin. Often 5-12 mines in a leaf. Mines mainly in the lower leaves. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, monophagous Trollius…

Anthracoidea arenariae parasite

Anthracoidea arenariae (Sydow) Nannfeldt, 1977 on Carex Carex arenaria, England, Vice County: Dorset, VC9 © Malcolm Storey, BioImages gall the contents of the ultimately rupturing utriculi is transformed into a hard, globular, dusty, black body consisting of agglutinated spores. The spore walls are uneven in thickness, finely verruculose. host plants…

Elachista maculicerusella parasite

…2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, excepted the Iberian Peninsula and perhaps also the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Yellowish green, head and pronotum pale brown; see Steuer (1987a) for a detailed description. pupa Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Elachista cerusella (Hübner,…

Pseudodineura clematidis parasite

Pseudodineura clematidis (Hering, 1924) mine Large, full depth, primary blotch that begins with a very short and quickly widening corridor starting at the leaf margin. Frass in thick black lumps. The larva can vacate its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly mnophagous Clematis alpina….

Silliana lhommei parasite

Silliana lhommei (Hering, 1934) Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae on Phillyrea Phillyrea latifolia, France, Montpellier © Stéphane Claerebout mine, upperside, with red oviposition scar mines, underside two occupied mines, lighted from behind larva in the mine, ventral view mine Large, full depth blotch, narrow at first, but often occupying a large part of…

Moesziomyces bullatus parasite

Moesziomyces bullatus (Schröter) Vánky (1977) on Echinochloa Echinochloa spec., Belgium, prov. Limburg, Beverlo, Vallei van de Grote Beek © Carina Van Steenwinkel detail sorus, still partly in its membrane clumps of spores spores Echinochloa spec., Belgium, prov.Antwerp, Balen, Griesbroek © Carina Van Steenwinkel: sori in an old inflorescence (mid-November) fallen…

Bucculatrix ainsliella pupa parasite

Bucculatrix ainsliella Quercus rubra, Hoenderloo, Hoge Veluwe (exuvium): th 2-3, ab d1-2 abd 3-4 and 4, anterior part, in detail abd 7-10 detail of abd 10, dorsal view abd 1-2 On the basis of the key by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) ainsliella stands next to B. frangutella and demaryella. The…

Euura destricta parasite

Euura destricta (MacGillivray,…

Bucculatrix argentisignella parasite

Bucculatrix argentisignella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 mine At first a very narrow, upper- or lower-surface gallery. Further on the gallery widens, and becomes full depth. Frass here in coarse grains in the centre of the corridor. The larva may leave its mine and continue elsewhere. Contrary to most Bucculatrix species the larva…

Euura bridgmanii parasite

…proxima species group. references Altenhofer, Hellrigl & Mörl (2001a), Béguinot (2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Beneš (2015a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Boevé, Peter, Jacobs, ao (2009a), Buhr (1965a), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Ecott (2012a), Koops (2013a), Kopelke (1999a, 2005a), Lambinon, Schneider &…

Urocystis pulsatillae-albae parasite

Urocystis pulsatillae-albae Vánky & Tóth, 2009 on Pulsatilla gall blister-like swellings on leaves, petioles and disfigured stems; when they rupture a black powdery mass of spore balls is released. The infestation resembles the one caused by U. pulsatillae, that may occur on the same host plant species, but the spore…

Mycosarcoma maydis parasite

…Lutz (2013a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Kabaktepe & Akata (2019a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Koops (2013a), Kruse (2019a), Llorens i Villagrasa (1984a), Lutz & Vánky (2009a), McTaggart, Shivas, Boekhout ao (2016a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez ao (2010a), Mułenko, Piątek, Wołczańska ao (2010a), Negrean & Anastasiu (2006a), Prillinger, Wuczkowski, Lopandic ao…

Euura polita parasite

Euura polita (Zaddach, 1883) on Salix Salix purpurea, Zeeland, Braakman © Tineke Cramer; from Mol (2013a) gall The leaf margin at one side of the leaf is sharply folded downwards, forming a quite flat tube that is open at both ends. (No spinning is involved here!) The solitary larva can…

Tebenna micalis parasite

Tebenna micalis (Mann, 1857) vagrant metal-mark mine A sizable blotch with an ample quantity of frass. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Older larvae often live free in a web under the leaf. This description, based on Hering (1927a, 1957a), and probably stemming from his experience on…

Cosmopterix scribaiella parasite

…of Antwerpen), in 2005 also in Limburg (De Prins & Steeman, 2007). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a); rare (Microlepidoptera.nl, 2008). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). distribution within Europe All of Europe, excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva pupa See Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a)….

Pseudodineura clematidisrectae parasite

Pseudodineura clematidisrectae (Hering, 1924) mine Large, full depth, primary blotch. Frass in thick black lumps. The larva may vacate its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly monophagous Clematis recta. phenology Larvae in end May (Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), June -July (Hering (1957a). distribution within…

Vulcaniella extremella parasite

Vulcaniella extremella (Wocke, 1871) mine The mine begins as a short corridor, generally along the midrib. When a side vein is reached an irregular, elongate blotch is made that may reach the leaf margin, and causes the leaf to contract somewhat. Almost all frass is ejected through an opening in…

Heterarthrus microcephalus parasite

Heterarthrus microcephalus (Klug, 1818) Salix spec., Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel prepupa in cocoon (another leaf) Salix caprea, Belgium, prov.Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel: prepupa in cocoon Salix cinerea, Reusel: mine with cocoon > Salix triandra, Amsterdam Salix fragilis, Nederhorst den…

Cynaeda dentalis parasite

Cynaeda dentalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) starry pearl Echium vulgare, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Large, full depth blotch, mainly in the lower leaves. The opaque centre is strongly inflated. Here the frass is concentrated, and in the end also pupation takes place here. The…

Elachista cingillella parasite

Elachista cingillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) white-tipped dwarf mine Gradually widening mine in the base of the blade; the sides very irregularly scalloped out. In the end the blade may be eaten out completely. When lighted from behind the mine is not uniformly transparent, but rather yellowish green and mottled because the…

Elachista compsa parasite

…brown. pupa See Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Elachista holdenella auct. nec Stainton, 1854. references Aarvik, Bakke, Berg ao (1997a), Baran (2005a), Buszko (1990a), Hering (1957a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Pröse (1981a), Sruoga & Ivinskis (2005a), Steurer (1976a), Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen (1977a)….

Peronospora farinosa parasite

Peronospora farinosa (Fries) Fries, 1849 on Amaranthaceae gall underside of the leaves with a fungal down consisting of vertical conidiophores that apically several times are dichotomously branching, each branch ending upon an elliptic conidium. notes Peromospora kochiae Gäumann, 1919. But the study by Choi ao has shown that P. farinosa…

Elachista freyerella parasite

…Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Yellowish grey, head and protharal shield black; prothoracal shield divided. pupa Described by Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Cosmiotes freyerella; Elachista nigrella (Hübner, 1805); Cosmiotes aridella…

Fenusa ulmi parasite

Fenusa ulmi Sundevall, 1847 elm leafminer Ulmus glabra, Nieuwendam the fresh frass often lies in long pearl chains Ulmus glabra, Belgium, prov. Liège, Hucconge: often several mines in a leaf © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Very clear blotch, containing a yellow white larva. The final mine may occupy a sizable part…

Elachista bisulcella parasite

Elachista bisulcella (Duponchel, 1843) yellow-tipped dwarf mine Mine a descending and widening corridor, in the end an elongate blotch that may occupy the entire width of the leaf. The mine contracts somewhat, narrowing the leaf. Frass in some elongate lumps in the centre of the mine. host plants Poaceae, Cyperaceae,…

Peronospora hornungiae parasite

Peronospora hornungiae Gustavsson, 1959 on Hornungia gall upperside of the leaves with paled, slightly embossed patches; at the corresponding underside a greyish fungal down, consisting of erect, distally strongly branched conidiophores. In cases of severe infestation the entire plant may be covered. The conidia measure 13-21 x 14-23 µm. hostplants…

Hyaloperonospora brassicae parasite

Hyaloperonospora brassicae (Gäumann) Göker, Voglmayr, Riethmüller, Weiß & Oberwinkler, 2003 on Brassicaceae gall upperside of the leaves locally bleached; at the underside a greyish-white fungal down consisting of erect, distally branched conidiophores. host plants Brassicaceae, oligophagous Brassica napus, nigra, oleracea, rapa; Raphanus raphanistrum, sativus; Sinapis alba & subsp. dissecta, arvensis…

Peronospora lapponica Uncategorized

Peronospora lapponica Lagerheim, 1888 on Euphrasia gall upperside of the leaves locally bleached; at the corresponding underside a greyish-purple fungal bloom consisting of erect, distally strongly branched conidiophores, 0.4-0.7 mm high; conidia elliptic in shape. hostplants Orobanchaceae, monophagous Euphrasia frigida, rostkoviana. notes contrary to Plasmopara euhprasiae, that also may occur…

Elachista irenae parasite

Elachista irenae Buszko, 1989 Lepidoptera, Elachistidae mine The mine usually starts about a cm below the tip of the leaf, and descends as a slender, whitish, full depth gallery for a length of 3-4 cm. Not infrequently stripes of uneaten parenchyma can be found. Frass in a sometimes interrupted and…

Elachista luticomella parasite

Elachista luticomella Zeller, 1839 yellow-headed dwarf mine Long, narrow, white corridor, descending from close to the leaf tip to the leaf base or even stem. Frass in an inconspicuous grey line. From the stem the larva may enter a new leaf (Steuer, 1987a; Bland, 1996a). hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromopsis ramosa;…

Sporisorium andropogonis parasite

Sporisorium andropogonis (Opiz) Vánky, 1985 on Bothriochloa, Dichanthium, ? Andropogon. Andropogon distachyos, southern Crete © Paul Fontaine gall Infested parts of the infloresence are turned into a spore mass of 1-3 cm long and 1-3 mm thick. Initially this is enclosed in membrane built out of mycelial tissue, but after…

Urocystis anemones parasite

Urocystis anemones (Persoon) Winter, 1880 anemone smut on Anemone etc. Anemone nemorosa, Belgium, prov. Flemish Brabant, Hoegaarden, Meldertbos, 30.iii.2019 © Carina Van Steenwinkel another image spore balls spore balls, more strongly magnified Anemone nemorosa, England, Vice County: South-west Yorkshire, VC63 © Malcolm Storey, BioImages spore balls gall lead-coloured blisters or…

Nymphula nitidulata parasite

…Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe All Europe, except parts of the Balkan Peninsula and some Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva Yellowish, with a brown dorsal line and a brown head (Hering, 1957a); see also Lepiforum, Vallenduuk & Cuppen. synonyms Nymphula stagnata (Donovan, 1806). references Buhr (1935b, 1937a), Grabe (1955a),…

Trama caudata parasite

Trama caudata (del Guercio, 1909) on Asteraceae, Cichoreae picture derived from Encyclopédie des pucerons. parasiet The aphids live without host alteration permanently at the roots. They are parthenogenetic. Attended by ants host plants Astraceae, narrowly oligophagous Cichorium endivia, intybus; Crepis, Hypochaeris; Lactuca sativa; Leontodon; Picris; Sonchus; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon. Mainly…

Juncus host plants

Juncus rush Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a at the oviposition site a shiny oval, blackish-brown drop of dried secretion => 2 1b no such drop => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a the most common species, occuring furthest words the NW; on various Juncus-soorten…

Aculus ornatus parasite

Aculus ornatus (Roivainen, 1947) on Salix parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Salix phylicifolia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Phyllocoptes ornatus. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1947a)….

Tetra caraganae parasite

Tetra caraganae Soika, 2000 on Caragana parasite The mites live as vagrants on upperside and underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Caragana arborescens. references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Soika & Labanowski (2000a)….

Rhyncaphytoptus amplus parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus amplus Keifer, 1961 on Acer parasite The mites live on the underside and upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Sapindaceae, monophagous Acer platanoides, pseudoplatanus, tataricum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Chetverikov, Letukhova, Marinković & Petanović (2018a), Pye (2012a)….

Cinara cembrae parasite

Cinara cembrae (Setiner, 1936) on Pinus gall Shining dark brown, 3-5 mm large aphids, resembling Cinara pini form colonies on the older branches; they are intensively visited by ants. host plants Pinaceae, narrowly monophagous Pinus cembra. synonyms Cinaria cembrae. references Albrecht (2017a), Blackman & Eastop (2017), Börner & Franz (1956a),…

Cinara acutirostris parasite

Cinara acutirostris Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 corsican-pine aphid on Pinus Pinus nigra, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall Aphids without host alternation at the underside of old branches; intensively attended by ants. Hibernation as oval, shining black eggs on the needles. host plants Pinaceae, narrowly monophagous Pinus…

Aculus cytisi parasite

Aculus cytisi Labanowski, 2000 on Cytisus parasite The mites live as vagrants on the shoots without causing apparent damage. hos tplants Fabaceae, monophagous Cytisus praecox, scoparius. references Pye (2012a), Soika & Labanowski (2000a….

Abacarus stadelbacheri parasite

Abacarus stadelbacheri Petanović, 1993 on Geranium parasite The mites are vagrant on upperside and underside of the leaves, not causing apparent damage. hostplants Geraniaceae, monophagous Geranium dissectum. A strongly resembling eriophyid was found on G. pusillum. references Boczek & Petanović (1993a, 1996a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a)….

Fenusella septentrionalis parasite

Fenusella septentrionalis (Koch, 1990) on Salix parasite Transparant, practically full depth, blotch, without a trace of an initial gallery, at a randomly selected place on the leaf. hostplants Salicaceae, narrowly monophagous Salix lapponum. distribution within Europe Norway, Sweden. larva illustrated by Liston (2007b). Thorax 2 and 3, and abdomen 1…

Quadracus geraniellus parasite

Quadracus geraniellus Boczek, 1993 on Geranium parasite The mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves; no apparent damage. hostplants Geraniaceae, monophagous Geranium pratense, pusillum. references Boczek & Petanović (1993a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Luzula host plants

Luzula woodrush Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a at the start of the mine an egg shell, covered by a black, shiny layer of dried secretion: Aphanisticus pusillus 1b egg invisible, inserted in the leaf tissue => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine upper-…

Rhinophytoptus bagdasariani parasite

Rhinophytoptus bagdasariani Shevtchenko & Pogosova, 1985 on Ulmus parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ulmaceae, monophagous Ulmus procera. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a)….

Cheiracus ornatus parasite

Cheiracus ornatus (Farkas, 1963) on Fagus parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Fagus sylvatica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Rhyncaphytoptus ornatus. references Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Pye (2012a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Ripka (2007a), Xue, Wang, Song…

Metopolophium albidum parasite

Metopolophium albidum Hille Ris Lambers,1947 on Arrhenatherum (etc.) parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, yellowish white or yellowish green, without a green spinal stripe, but sometimes with green spots at bases of siphunculi. Sometimes in large numbers causing red and yellow discoloration of grass blades. Not attended by ants. host plants Poaceae,…

Eulachnus cembrae parasite

Eulachnus cembrae Börner, 1950 on Pinus gall Apterae 2-3 mm, spindle-shaped, light green to yellowish green, dusted with wax. They live without host alternation on the needles. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus cembra, peuce, strobus. P. cembra is the most important host. synonyms Protolachnus cembrae. references Albrecht (2017a), Blackman &…

Scirpus host plants

Scirpus club-rush Incl. Blysmus, Bolboschoenus, Eleogiton, Holoschoenus, Isolepis, Schoenoplectella, Schoenoplectus, Scirpoides. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Scirpus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparency; frass in 1 or a few large lumps; larva a maggot => 2 1b…

Cinara laricis parasite

Cinara laricis (Hartig, 1836) speckled larch aphid on Larix Larix decidua, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall Aphids on 1-3 years old branches, also on stems of young trees. Sometimes attended by ants. Seems to prefer a higher altitude than C. cuneomaculata. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Larix…

Cavariella cicutae parasite

Cavariella cicutae (Koch, 1854) on Apiaceae parasite Apterae ± 2 mm, shining yellowish with two longitudinal green stripes. Living without host alternation in large colonies on upper parts of stems of aquatic plants. host plants Apiaceae, oligophagous Angelica sylvestris; Berula; Cicuta; Selinum carvifolia; Sium. notes Buga & Stekolshchikov report the…

Metopolophium montanum parasite

Metopolophium montanum Hille Ris Lambers,1966 on Rosa parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, evenly green or apple green, without a darker green spinal stripe; at the undersides of the leaves. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rosa pendulina, tomentosa. on grasses host plants Poaceae, ? monophagous Poa alpina. synonyms Acyrthosiphon montanum. references Blackman &…

Abacarus tucholensis parasite

Abacarus tucholensis Skoracka, 2001 on Drymochloa mite, dorsal view (from Skoracka) parasite The mites live on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Drymochloa sylvatica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka (2001a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Cinara nuda parasite

Cinara nuda Mordvilko, 1894 on Pinus parasite Apterae 3-4 mmm, bronze, very shiny, almost without wax dusting. Dorsal hairs short, erect, strong. In large colonies on 2-8 years old parts of the stem and basal branches; in spring in younger shoots. Always visited by ants. The immature are already active…

unknown on Alchemilla xanthochlora parasite

unknown on Alchemilla xanthochlora Alchemilla xanthochlora, Belgium, prov. Namur, Graide © Jean-Yves Baugnée underside parasite Probably this is an oviposition scar caused by a sawfly, fam. Tenthredinidae. That would explain the slight swelling and the tiny wounds at the upper side. It is known of several sawflies that the freshly…

vivipara glossary

(pl viviparae). Female aphid that, without fertilisation, produces living young. Often viviparae are wingless (“apterae”), but they may winged as well (“alatae”). Usually a species during summer has a number of generations of viviparae. In autumn male and female aphids are born. The fertilised females (the “oviparae”) lay eggs by…

Pterocomma populeum parasite

Pterocomma populeum (Kaltenbach, 1843) poplar-bark aphid on Populus Populus nigra, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints Populus nigra, Hungary, Jánossomorja, 19.iv.2019 © László Érsek: colony detail ant visit aptera larvae alate alatae parasiet The aphids live without host alternation on the bark of the two-year old, and the…

Atheroides serrulatus parasite

Atheroides serrulatus Haliday, 1838 on Poaceae upperside (left) and underside (from Wieczorek, 2009) parasiet Apterae ± 2 mm, yellow to yellowish brown, very slender with short feet and antennae. They live, usually solitary, without host alternation on leaves of grasses in dry situations. They are visited by ants. host plants…

Thelaxes suberi parasite

…& Mier Durante (1981a, 1998), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto Nafría (2001a), Petrović (1998a), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Seco Fernández, Mier Durante, Blaso Zumeta & Nieto Nafrîa (1998a), Seco & Mier (1986a), Suay Cano & González Funes (1998c), Wieczorek, Kanturski & Junkiert (2013a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Amphorophora ampullata host plant species

Amphorophora ampullata Buckton, 1876 on ferns gall Aphids 3-5 mm, bright green without markings; eyes red. Legs, antennae and siphunculi long. Siphunculi swollen in the distal half. host plants Polypodiales, narrowly polyphagous Asplenium; Athyrium filix-femina; Cystopteris montana; Dennstaedtia punctilobula; Dryopteris carthusiana, dilatata, filix-mas; Gymnocarpium dryopteris; Onoclea struthiopteris; Phegopteris connectilis; Polypodium;…

Glyphina jacutensis parasite

Glyphina jacutensis Mordvilko, 1931 on Alnus, ? Betula parasiet Aptera ± 2 mm, brown; without host alternation at the tip of young shoots; ant-attended. host plants Betulaceae, ? monophagous Alnus glutinosa, incana. According to several authors also Betula pubescens, but this is not accepted by Blackman & Eastop. synonyms Glyphina…

Macrosiphum equiseti parasite

Macrosiphum equiseti (Holman, 1961) on Equisetum gall Apterae 2–3 mm, bright green without markings, body with thin whitish wax dusting on venter (adults) or all over (juveniles). Siphunculi length rarely over 1.4 × cauda length. Antennae longer than the body. No host plant alternation. Aphids in small colonies at the…

Aceria triseti parasite

Aceria triseti Skoracka, 2005 on Trisetum mite, dorsal (from Skoracka, 2005a) parasite The mites live on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Trisetum flavescens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2008a), Skoracka (2005a)….

Molinia host plants

Molinia purple moor-grass (For a dichotomous table for galls on Molinia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow segments of the corridor frass in a more or less narrow central line; pupation outside the mine: Elachista subalbidella 1b larva a maggot;…

Myzocallis carpini parasite

…Börner & Franz (1956a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a, 2011a), Heie (1982a), Łabanowski & Soika (2011a), Lampel & Meier (2003a), Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante (1998a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Petrović (1998a), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Stroyan (1977a), Weis (1955a), Wieczorek & Kanturski (2011a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Aphis korshunovi parasite

Aphis korshunovi Ivanovskaja, 1971 on Veronica parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, dull black, without wax, antennae and legs dark except for basal part of ant. III, femoral bases and middle parts of tibiae, siphunculi and cauda black; on the stem and leaves hostplants Plantaginaceae, monophagous Veronica anagallis-aquatica subsp. michauxi, austriaca subsp….

Alliaria petiolata host plant species

garlic mustard, jack-in-the-bush synonym: Alliaria officinalis; Sisymbrium…

Pterocallis alni parasite

…López Rodríguez & Nieto Nafría (1983a), Mier Durante & Nieto Nafría (1981a, 1997a), Nieto Nafría & Mier Durante (1981a, 1998a), Osiadacz & Wojciechowski (2008a), Petrović (1998a), Piron (2021c), Ripka, Reider & Szalay-Marzsó (1998a), Stroyan (1977a), Tambs-Lyche & Heie (1984a), Weis (1955a), Wieczorek & Kanturski (2011a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Typha host plants

Typha bulrush Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva mines in autumn in the leaf sheaths: Limnaecia phragmitella 1b larva mines in the leaves, earlier in the season => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva: anal shield with thickened rim, ending in two diverging…

Brevulacus extensus parasite

Brevulacus extensus Pye, 2012 on Quercus mite, dorsal view (from Pye) parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus robur. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a)….

Aphis equiseticola parasite

Aphis equiseticola Ossiannilsson, 1964 on Equisetum gall Aptera 1–2 mm, light or dark green without markings. Head, antennae, tarsi and tips of tibiae rather dark. Antennae about half as long as body. Siphunculi shorter than cauda with dark apices. No host plant alternation. hostplants Equisetaceae, monophagous Equisetum pratense, sylvaticum. references…

Pterocallis ostryae parasite

Pterocallis ostryae (Börner, 1949) on Ostrya parasite Viviparae partly apterae, partly alate, yellow, ± 1 mm. They live, not attended by ants, at the underside of the leaves. hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Ostrya carpinifolia. references Barbagallo, Binazzi, Pennacchio & Pollini (2011a), Barbagallo & Massimino Cocuzza (2014a), Barbagallo & Pollini (2014a), Blackman…

Macrosiphum euphorbiae parasite

Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) potato aphid polyphagous on herbs Dianthus barbatus, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints Buddleja spec., UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints Solanum nigrum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jambes © Stéphane Claerebout Urtica dioica, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman parasite Apterae slender, 1-4 mm…

Aphis brohmeri parasite

Aphis brohmeri Börner, 1952 on Anthriscus (etc.?) parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, dark purplish brown. Immatures have no discrete pleural wax spots (cf. fabae). Colonies low down on the stems and in the leaf sheaths. host plants Apiaceae, ? monophagous Anthriscus nitidus, sylvestris. Also recorded from other Apiaceae (Aegopodium; Carum, Heracleum…

Aphis lindae parasite

Aphis lindae Danielsson in Heie, 1986 on Tripleurospermum parasite Apterae 1-2 mmm, in a small dense colony at the basal parts of a plant growing between stones near the seashore; not attended by ants. hostplants Asteraceae, ? monophagous Tripleurospermum maritimum. Without discussion listed by Piron from Matricaria chamomilla. references Blackman…

Takecallis arundicolens parasite

Takecallis arundicolens (Clarke, 1903) black-tailed bamboo aphid on bamboo species bamboo, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints parasite Mature viviparae winged, 2-3 mm, pale yellow or greyish-yellow, usually without any dark dorsal abdominal markings, but with a black cauda; at the underside of mature leaves. hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous…

Coleophora albella parasite

Coleophora albella (Thunberg, 1788) viviparous case-bearer on Silene Silene nutans, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Mazée, Tienne de Najauge, vii.2019 © Stéphane Claerebout case (from Patzak, 1974a, as C. leucapennella) parasite The female brings forth living larvae. The young larva for some time lives inside a capsule, feeding on the seeds….

Eulachnus mediterraneus parasite

Eulachnus mediterraneus Binazzi, 1983 on Pinus parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, pale to mid green, without wax. On the needles. hostplants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus nigra & subsp. laricio & salzmannii, pinaster, sylvestris. Mainly P. pinaster. synonyms Eulachnus mediterraneus ibericus Binazzi & Mier Durante, 1997. references Blackman & Eastop (2018), Mier Durante,…

Boczekella laricis parasite

Boczekella laricis Farkas, 1965 on Larix parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Larix decidua. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Aphis vineti parasite

Aphis vineti Hoffmann, 1972 on Securigera parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, blackish, without wax (?). On ground stems and roots. host plants Fabaceae, monophagous Securigera varia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references Blackman & Eastop (2019), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Xerobion hortobagyi parasite

Xerobion hortobagyi (Szelegiewicz, 1978) on Artemisia parasite Apterae ± 1 mm, brownish, without wax. Not attended by ants; at the terminal parts. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Artemisia maritima, santonicum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references Blackman & Eastop (2019), Kadyrbekov (2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Xerobion pannonica parasite

Xerobion pannonica (Szelegiewicz, 1978) on Artemisia parasite Apterae ± 1.5 mm, brown, without wax, almost shiny. In ant-attended colonies on basal parts. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Artemisia absinthium. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references Blackman & Eastop (2019), Kadyrbekov (2014a), Wojciechowski, Depa, Halgoš ao (2016a)….

Nanophyes marmoratus parasite

…within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Bukejs, Balalaikins & Telnov (2012a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Delbol (2012a), Dieckmann & Herger (1985a), Pešić (2000a), Reimann (2012a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Wilson, Schwarzlaender, Blossey & Bell Randall (2004a), Wanat & Borowski (2013a), Wanat & Szypuła (2008a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Aceria eximia parasite

Aceria eximia Sukhareva, 1983 on grasses parasite The mites live in the leaf sheaths and on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophahous Calamagrostis epigeios; Festuca rubra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a), Ripka (2008a), Skoracka (2005a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek…

Golovinomyces vincae parasite

Golovinomyces vincae Braun & Tamamatsu, 2019 on Vinca Vinca major, Loenen © Arnold Grosscurt Vinca major, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel appressorium conidia parasite Mycelium amphigenous, forming thin white spots. Appressoria nipple-shaped, solitary. Conidiophores straight, 70-140 µm lang (without conidia). Foot-cell usually sinuous, basal septum at the…

Golovinomyces tabaci parasite

Golovinomyces tabaci (Sawada) Shin, Takamatsu & Kiss, 2919 polyphagous parasite Mycelium amphigenous, also on stems and peduncles, thin, effuse, white, evanescent to persistent; appressoria poorly developed to nipple-shaped, solitary. Conidiophores 70–140 μm long (without conidia); foot-cells straight, cylindrical, ± 30–100 μm, followed by (1)2(4) shorter cells. Cleistothecia amphigenous, ø 100-140…

Golovinomyces bolayi parasite

Golovinomyces bolayi Takamatsu, Lebeda & Gotz, 2019 polyfaag, mainly Asteraceae-Lactucinae parasite Mycelium amphigenous, also on stems, thin, forming white patches, evanescent to persistent; appressoria poorly developed to nipple-shaped, solitary. Conidiophores 80–230(−290) μm long (without conidia), basal septum at the junction with the mother hypha or only slightly elevated; foot-cell cylindrical,…

Picris host plants

Picris ox-tongue Incl. Helminthia, Helminthotheca. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Picris by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes setiger 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites…

Pseudoprotapion elegantulum parasite

…expressly denied by Dieckmann, but is later repeated without comment by Ehret. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Apion elegantulum. references Germann, Braunert, Colonnelli, ao (2020a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Podlussány (1986a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Russell & Velazquez de Castro (2015a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Ceutorhynchus ignitus parasite

…rusticana; Aurinia saxatilis; Berteroa incana; Cochlearia; Coincya monensis subsp. cheiranthos. Berteroa seems the most important host plant. phenology Univoltine. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Behne (1987a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1962a, 1972a), Heijerman, Alders & Edzes (1995a), Krátký (2012a), Rheinheimer & Hassles (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Golovinomyces cynoglossi parasite

Golovinomyces cynoglossi (Wallroth) Heluta, 1988 on Cynoglossum parasite mycelium conspicuous, white, amphigenous, generally persistent. Conidia in chains, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Conidiophores up to 250 mm, basal septum usually 5–25 mm above the junction with the mother cell. Conidia 15-20 x 25–40, length/width ratio 1.4–2.0. Cleistothecia with 5-20 asci that…

Acaricalus hydrophylli parasite

Acaricalus hydrophylli Keifer, 1972 on Ilex parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Aquifoliaceae, monophagous Ilex aquifolium. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a)….

Abacarus acutatus parasite

Abacarus acutatus Sukhareva, 1985 on grasses parasite The mites live in the leaf sheaths and on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromopsis inermis; Calamagrostis arundinacea, canescens, epigeios; Dactylis glomerata; Echinochloa crus-galli; Festuca rubra; Holcus lanatus. Mainly on Calamagrostis. distribution within Europe…

Ceutorhynchus constrictus parasite

…1802) on garlic mustard parasite Larvae in the fruits; pupation in the soil. host plants Brassicaceae, monophagous Alliaria petiolata. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Cmoluch & Łętowski (1987a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Gültekin (2014a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Ceutorhynchus alliariae parasite

…1860 on garlic mustard parasite Larvae in the stems; pupation in the soil. host plants Brassicaceae, monfaag Alliaria petiolata. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Delbol (2008ak, 2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Lechapt (2015a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Wolf & Fuchs (2014a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

August, 2019 news

Important publication JC Roskam, Plant Galls of Europe. Three volumes hard bound set, 2292 pages, € 399. The book offers an English translation and modernisation of Herbert Buhr’s 1964/’65 compendium of the European plant galls. Moreover the older work of Houard, that was more specifically aimed at southern Europe has…

Depressaria ultimella parasite

…oligophagous Helosciadium nodiflorum; Oenanthe aquatica, crocata; Sium latifolium. phenology Larvae in June-August. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Head light brown; prothoracic plate yellowish; body, thoracic feet and anal plate greenish, no length lines; pinacula black with grey setae. See also Fetz. references Blaik, Dobrzański, Hołowiński & Zajda (2019a), Emmet…

Eteobalea teucrii parasite

Eteobalea teucrii (Walsingham, 1907) on Teucrium Teucrium fruticans, Spanje, Sierra Morena, iv.2017 © Sébastien Carbonelle opened gall gall Elongated galls in the woody stems and branches; pupation in the gall. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Teucrium fruticans. phenology Galls from February till August. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Head black;…

Lampronia pubicornis parasite

Lampronia pubicornis (Haworth, 1828) northern bright on Rosa parasite The larvae bore in the stems, without killing them. Pupation in the tunnel. The biology of the young larvae is unknown; they might be associated with the flowers of hips. host plants Rosaceae, (narrowly?) monophagous Rosa spinosissima. distribution within Europe (PESI,…

Leontodon host plants

Leontodon hawkbit Incl. Thrincia. See also the closely related genus Scorzoneroides. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Leontodon by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls,…

Anthocoptes transitionalis parasite

Anthocoptes transitionalis Hodgkiss, 1913 on Acer parasite The mites live as vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Sapindaceae, monophagous Acer campestre, monspessulanum, platanoides, pseudoplatanus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Navia, Ochoa, Welbourn ao (2010a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Pye (2012a), Ripka (2007a),…

Bistorta host plants

Bistorta 1a small blotch mine,, usually several together, each one ultimately with an oval excision: Antispilina ludwigi 1b gallery, abruptly changing into an elongated blotch => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a blotch oriented over the midrib; larva: front spiraculum with 13-14 papillae: Agromyza…

Golovinomyces asperifolii parasite

Golovinomyces asperifolii (Eriksson) Braun & Shin, 2018 on Buglossoides, Echium, Myosotis Myosotis sp., Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt parasite mycelium conspicuous, white, amphigenous, generally persistent. Conidia in chains, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Conidia 12-20 x 22–38 µm, length/width ratio 1.4–2.4. Conidiophores up to 250 mm, basal septum usually 5–25 mm above…

Schizaphis rotundiventris parasite

Schizaphis rotundiventris (Signoret, 1860) on Cyperus parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, dark green to almost black; on the leaves. hostplants Cyperaceae, monophagous Cyperus esculentus, longus, rotundus. distribution within Europe . notes In the Middle East the species has a primary generation on Pyrus communis; the southern Europe the species lives continuously…

Calepitrimerus buxi parasite

Calepitrimerus buxi Petanović, 2001 on Buxus parasite The mites live on both sides of the leaves and on the stems, without causing apparent damage. host plants Buxaceae, monophagous Buxus sempervirens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Petanović (2001a), Pye (2012a), Pye & Ostojá-Starzewski (2009a)….

Coleophora lassella parasite

Coleophora lassella Staundinger, 1859 toad-rush case-bearer on Juncus case (from Nel, 1993c) parasite The larvae starts by consuming the contents of a fruit, without any evidence at the outside. When the larva becomes larger, a case becomes needed. The completed case resembles the one of C. insulicola, with a mouth…

Coleophora silenella parasite

Coleophora silenella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 on Silene case on Silene nutans (from Patzak, 1986a) parasite The young larva lives in the capsules, feeding on the developing seeds, without any visible sign at the outside. Only in its latest instar it bites from the inside a hole in the wall of the…

Tegnacus unicornutus parasite

Tegnacus unicornutus Pye, 2012 on Carpinus mite, dorsal and lateral (from Pye) parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Carpinus betulus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a), Soika, Gol, Honarmand ao (2017a)….

Glyptacus fagineae parasite

Glyptacus fagineae Carmona, 1972 on Quercus parasite The mites live on the underside of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus cerris, faginea, robur. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Carmona (1972a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Pye (2012a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Xue, Wang, Song…

Coleophora vulnerariae parasite

…Anthyllis vulneraria. distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except Ireland, the Benelux and the Mediterranean Islands (PESI, 2018). larva See Nel (1994b). notes The case that is depicted by Suire does not belong to vulnerariae. references Aarvik, Bakke, Berg ao (1997a), Baldizzone (1979b, 2004a), Baldizzone & Luquet (1981a), Biesenbaum &…

Leucoptera spartifoliella parasite

Leucoptera spartifoliella (Hübner, 1813) broom bent-wing on Cytisus, Genista Cytisus scoparius, Belgium © Stéphane Claerebout detail egg Cytisus scoparius, Belgium, prov. Brabant Wallon, Rosières-Saint-André © Jean-Yves Baugnée: pupation in a conspicuous, snow-white cocoon mine Oviposition on a young shoot. The larva leaves the egg without filling it with frass, and…

Trifurcula subnitidella parasite

Trifurcula subnitidella (Dpunchel, 1843) dingy meadow pigmy on Lotus mine (from van Nieukerken, 1990a) parasite Oviposition often at the base of a petiole, low on the plant. The larva makes a 6-9 cm long gallery in the bark of the stem, without killing the shoot. The first section is narrow,…

Pulvinaria floccifera parasite

Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood, 1870) cottony camellia scale on evergreen shrubs Ilex, female with ovisac (from van der Linden) parasite The ovisac, that is produced in June-July, is elongated, without distinct length grooves. Scales mainly at the undersides of the leaves. After the eggs have been deposited generally the female drops…

Calepitrimerus crataegi parasite

Calepitrimerus crataegi Malandraki, Petanović & Emmanouel 2004 on Crataegus mite, dorsal and lateral (from Malandraki ao) parasite The mites live on the underside and upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus laevigata, monogyna, orientalis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Malandraki, Petanović &…

Arytinnis dividens parasite

Arytinnis dividens (Loginova, 1976) on Cytisus eggs along the midrib and inside folded new leaves (from Percy) parasite First to third instars cream or orange, with black tergites, 4th–5th instars pale green or blue-grey, with or without black tergites. hostplants Fabaceae, narrowly monophagous Cytisus proliferus. distribution within Europe Canary Islands:…

Septoria spec. parasite

Septoria spec. on Quercus Quercus rubra, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Geel, Gemeentelijke visvijver, 13.vi.2018 © Carina Van Steenwinkel leaf spots, upper side underside of a single leaf spot conidia conidia parasite Conidia 1 x 20-25 µm, 1-septate, with acute tips, no mucilaginous cap; no constriction at the septum. host plants Fagaceae…

Hellinsia carphodactyla parasite

Hellinsia carphodactyla (Hübner, 1813) citron plume on Buphthalmum, Carlina, Inula Inula conyzae, Belgium, prov.Namur, Viroinval, Nismes, 24.vii.2018 © Ruben Meert larva pupa, head upwards protruding from the flower head parasite The young larvae of the first generation briefly mine a young leaf in early spring, next live as stem borers;…

Sesia melanocephala parasite

…Aistleitner (2004a), Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bartsch (1992a), Bella, Bartsch & Laštůvka (2017a), Ebert (ed., 1997a), Garrevoet & Garrevoet (2003a), Garrevoet & Goosens (2021a), Kusdas & Reichl (eds, 1974a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a, 2015a), Predovnik (2018a), De Prins, Steeman & Sierens (2016a), Pühringer (2004a), Sage (2005a), Steeman & Sierens (2018a)….

Synanthedon stomoxiformis parasite

Synanthedon stomoxiformis (Hübner, 1790) buckthorn clearwing primarily on Frangula, Rhamnus parasite The larva lives in a broad flat room just below the bark of the root crown. The gallery is so short the one supposes the larva to live of the sap of the tree. Pupation in a silken tube…

Synanthedon andrenaeformis parasite

…host plants Adoxaceae, monophagous Viburnum lantana, lantana. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). larva, pupa Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski. references Aistleitner (2004a), Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bartsch (1992a), Ebert (ed, 1997a), Kusdas & Reichl (eds, 1974a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a, 2014c), Predovnik (2018a), Sage (2005a), Sobczyk (2009a)….

Synanthedon soffneri parasite

…The larva lives three years. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). larva, pupa Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski. references Bachelard (2014a), Bąkowski (2013b), Bąkowski, Celadyn, Hołowiński & Zajda (2011a), Ebert (ed., 1997a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Predovnik (2005a), Pühringer & Kallies (2004a), Pühringer & Scheuchenpflug (1995a), Sage (2005a)….

Chamaesphecia hungarica parasite

…palustris. phenology The larva lives for one year, hibernates in the tunnel and pupates, without making a cocoon, in the spring. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). larva, pupa Larva and pupa are extensively described by Bąkowski. references Bąkowski (2013b), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Predovnik (2010a), Toševski, Gassmann & Schroeder (1996a)….

Calacarus pusillus parasite

Calacarus pusillus Pye, 2012a on Calluna mite, dorsal view (from Pye) parasite The mites live on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Calluna vulgaris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Pye (2012a)….

Phacellium rufibasis parasite

Phacellium rufibasis (Berkeley & Broome) Braun, 1992 on Morella, Myrica Myrica gale, Belgium, prov. Limburg, Neerpelt, ‘t Hageven, 4.viii.2018 © Carina Van Steenwinkel same leaf, underside colonies the conidiphores are grouped in a dense bundle conidiophores and conidia conidiophores and conidia conidia parasite Colonies on the leaves and on the…

Cinara pectinatae parasite

Cinara pectinatae (Nördlinger, 1880) green-striped fir aphid on Abies Abies veitchii, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints parasite Aphids without host plant alternation in small groups on young stems or lignified branches; sometimes visited by ants. Produces copious amounts of honey-dew. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Abies alba, balsamea,…

Pennisetia bohemica parasite

Pennisetia bohemica Kralícek & Povoiný, 1974 on Rosa parasite The larva bores in the roots. Pupation in the gallery without a cocoon. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rosa. phenology The larva lives for two years. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references Bartsch (2003a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Špatenka (1987a)….

Taraxacum host plants

Taraxacum dandelion (For a dichotomous table for galls on Taraxacum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes setiger 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Sesia pimplaeformis parasite

Sesia pimplaeformis Oberthür, 1872 on Populus, Salix parasite The larva bores in thick trunks. Pupation in the gallery, without a cocoon. host plants Salicaceae, oligophagous Populus alba; Salix. phenology The larva lives for two years. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). synonyms Eusphecia pimplaeformis. references Garrevoet, Garrevoet & Özbek (2007a), Laštůvka…

Chamaesphecia palustris parasite

…back in the roots, but pupates in the spring, without forming a cocoon, close to the exit opening. host plants Euphorbiaceae, monophagous Euphorbia palustris. phenology Th larva lives for one year. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references Toševski, Gassmann & Schroeder (1996a), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2001a), Predovnik (2018a), Pühringer (2004a)….

Lythrum host plants

Lythrum purple loosestrife (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lythrum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor mine: Galerucella pusilla 1c fleck mine => 2 1c blotch or tentiform mine => 3 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a hole in…

Cinara curvipes parasite

Cinara curvipes (Patch, 1912) bow-legged fir-aphid on Abies, Cedrus Abies, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall Aphids on stem and branches; no host plant alternation. Sometimes attended by ants. host plants Pinaceae, oligophagous Abies balsamea, concolor, koreana, lasiocarpa; Cedrus deodara. references Albrecht (2017a), Binazzi, Strangi, Paoli ao…

Plantago host plants

Plantago plantain (For a dichotomous table for galls on Plantago by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a upper-surface tentiform mine: Aspilapteryx tringipennella 1b mine upper- or lower-surface, opaque, more or less a corridor => 2 1c mine full depth, transparant => 7 1d fleck mine => 9…

Marrubium host plants

Marrubium white horehound Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a trnasportable case => 2 1b blotch, may be preceded by a corridor => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a lobe case: Coleophora lineolea 2b composite leaf case => 3 3a…

Scutellaria host plants

Scutellaria skullcap Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a pinnately branched gallery, its branches on top of the main leaf veins: Liriomyza strigata 1b (at least ultimately) a blotch mine => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a full depth irregular blotch without initial corridor; larvae later…

Clinopodium host plants

Clinopodium wild basil Incl. Acinos, Calamintha; check also at Satureja, calamint, savory Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b full depth blotch and/or corridor; larva with feet and chitinised head => 3 1c upper- or lower-surface corridor or secondary blotch => 4 1d galls, etc => Tables…

Lavandula host plants

Lavandula lavender Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch; the larve mines from the inside => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a the larva mines from a silken web between some leaves: Sophronia humerella 2b the larve mines…

Sesleria host plants

Sesleria blue moor-grass Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation outside the mine => 2 1b mine upper-surface; larva a maggot; puparium in the mine: Chromatomyia nigra 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten per soort 2a larva yellow-white, dorsally two…

Rosmarinus host plants

Rosmarinus rosemary Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine inflated, opaque; inner wall lined with silk; pupation within the mine: Vulcaniella rosmarinella 1b mine not inflated, rather transparant, inside not lined with silk; pupation outside the mine: Glaucolepis rosmarinella 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species…

Salvia host plants

Salvia clary (For a dichotomous table for galls on Salvia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b full depth corridor or blotch; larva with chitinised head=> 5 1c upper- or lower-surface corridor or blotch => 11 1d galls, etc => Tables for…

Thymus host plants

Thymus thyme For Thymus, Coridothymus capitatus see Thymbra (For a dichotomous table for galls on Thymus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch mine without preceding corridor; after a short while the larvae live free between spun leaves: Scrobipalpa artemisiella 1b mine is or begins with…

Jasminum host plants

Jasminum jasmine Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a greenish, later brown blotch without an apparent initial corridor; a number of larvae share a mine: Gracillaria syringella 1b silvery blotch with a conspicuous initial corridor: larva solitary: Caloptilia cuculipennella 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species Not included in…

Phillyrea host plants

Phillyrea mock privet Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larvae mine all their life => 2 1b older larvae live free => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a pupation within the mine => 3 2b pupation outside the mine => 4 3a larva a maggot;…

Melampyrum host plants

Melampyrum cow-wheat Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short corridor, that seems to vanish into a thick vein; the larva finally lives as a stem borer: Phytomyza rostrata 1b irregular small mine, not associated with a vein; older larvae live free among spun leaves: Cnephasia asseclana 1c galls, etc. => Tables…

Veronica host plants

Veronica speedwell Incl. Hebe, Pseudolysimachion. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Veronica by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva in a lobe case: Coleophora chamaedriella 1b very short mine, containing a puparium: Hydrellia griseola 1c full depth corridor or blotch; larva with chitinised…

Onosma host plants

Onosma Incl. Podonosma (For a dichotomous table for galls on Onosma by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva makes fleck mines from a transportable case: Coleophora pennella 1b larva mines from the inside, making a gallery and/or blotch mine => 2 1c gallen etc => Tabellen…

Verbascum host plants

Verbascum mullein Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1b mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 5 1c fleck mine: Apterona helicoidella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a large, pale, upper-surface blotch: Amauromyza verbasci 2b corridor…

Verbena host plants

Verbena vervain Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine small, full depth; larva with feet and sclerotised head =>2 1b mine larger, upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparancy; larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva: pinacula colourless (only the base of…

Ipomoea host plants

Ipomoea morning glory, sweet potato Incl. Pharbitis Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a Irregular, full depth blotch without frass; under the leaf a loose spinning, in which some frass grass have been trapped: Bedellia somnulentella 1b long, generally upper-surface gallery: Liriomyza trifolii 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Hyoscyamus host plants

Hyoscyamus henbane (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hyoscyamus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a one or more short galleries radiating from the base of the leaf or the midrib: Psylliodes hyoscyami 1b mine otherwise => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites…

Cochlearia host plants

Cochlearia scurvy grass, spoonwort Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a the mine radiates from a galled portion of the midrib of petiole: Ceutorhynchus chalibaeus 1b no association with a gall => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva a maggot; mine (partly) lower-surface of upper-surface…

Fibigia host plants

Fibigia roman shields incl. Farsetia. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with well-recognisable, chitinised head: Ceutorhynchus minutus 1b larva a maggot, seemingly headless: Scaptomyza flava 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species…

Peltaria host plants

Peltaria garlic cress (For a dichotomous table for galls on Peltaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short gallery, that ends or begins on a thick vein; the larva essentially lives as a borer in the veins, petiole, or stem => 2 1b the larva does…

Calamagrostis host plants

Calamagrostis small-reed (For a dichotomous table for galls on Calamagrostis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow parts of the mine frass in a central line => 2 1b larva a maggot; in narrow parts frass in two lines along the…

Arabis host plants

Arabis rock-cress Incl. Fourraea, Pseudoturritis, Turritis; Arabis holboellii => Boechera holboellii Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth (except perhaps a green centre); larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 6 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Briza host plants

Briza quaking grass Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a case straw-coloured, with a constriction behind the mouth: Coleophora lixella 2b case brownish, without a constriction: Coleophora ornatipennella 3a larva wth…

Apera host plants

Apera silky-bent (For a dichotomous table for galls on Apera by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva: mandible with 1 tooth; at the start of the mine (often within a leaf sheath!) at the outside an egg shell: Hydrellia griseola 1b mandible with 2 teeth; nog…

Ajuga host plants

Ajuga bugleweed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva without feet; untidy, locally widened corridor: Orthochaetes setiger 2b larva with thoracic…

Echium host plants

Echium viper’s bugloss (For a dichotomous table for galls on Echium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b mine full depth => 3 1c mine entirely or largely upper- or lower-surface => 7 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Aethionema host plants

Aethionema stonecress Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth, transparant; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish when lighted from behind; larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a frass in grains; larva with prolegs; older…

Pisum host plants

Pisum garden pea (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pisum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers Mines can occur also in the petioles and even in the tendrils. These can be identified only by a study of the larvae or by breeding. 1a corridor, widening into…

Pyracantha host plants

Pyracantha firethorn The only species that regularly lives on Firethorn is Phyllonorycter leucographella. The other species in the key are either polyphagous on Rosaceae (Lyonetia clerkella) or species that primarily live on Hawthorn. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tentiform mine or blotch without preceding corridor => 2 1b blotch with…

Hippophaë host plants

Hippophaë sea-buckthorn Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; the larva mines from a case: Coleophora serratella 1b tentiform mine: Phyllonorycter corylifoliella 1c long, sometimes compact gallery, starting from a semiglobular shining egg shell => 2 1d small gallery or blotch, no visible egg shell => 3 1e galls, etc…

Dryas host plants

Dryas mountain avens Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine, larve mines from a portable case => 2 1b no fleck mine; larva mines from the inside => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a spatulate leaf case: Coleophora unigenella 2b tubular silken case =>…

Filipendula host plants

Filipendula dropwort, meadowsweet (For a dichotomous table for galls on Filipenula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small (< 1 cm) blotch or broad corridor, eventually with an excision: Incurvaria praelatella 1b full depth blotch without an intial corridor: Fenella nigrita 1c corridor, may terminate in…

Geum host plants

Geum wood avens (For a dichotomous table for galls on Geum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; the larve mines from a transportable case => 2 1b small blotch mine, in the end with en excision of 2 mm: Incurvaria praelatella 1c blotch (without…

Humulus host plants

Humulus hop (For a dichotomous table for galls on Humulus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case: Coleophora violacea 1b corridor or blotch; larva mines from the inside => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Sanguisorba host plants

Sanguisorba burnet incl. Poterium. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sanguisorba by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small (< 1 cm) full depth blotch or broad corridor; larvae later live free: Spialia sertorius 1b upper-surface corridor without an egg shell at the beginning; larva a…

Spiraea host plants

Spiraea bridewort Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, from which an excision is made in which the larva drops to the ground: Incurvaria praelatella 1b mine without an excision => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a fleck mine: Coleophora potentillae 2b corridor, blotch, or…

Parietaria host plants

Parietaria pellitory Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a most frass is expelled, part of it is trapped in spinning below the leaf; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine contains much frass; larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a species of…

Urtica host plants

Urtica nettle Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine begins (usually in the centre of the leaf) with a number of close, intestine-like, loops; frass partly in a long thread; larva solitary: Agromyza anthracina 1b mine, usually at the leaf margin, without an intestine-like start; frass not in a thread; larvae…

Coronilla host plants

Coronilla crown vetch Incl. Securigera. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Coronilla by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor or blotch => 2 1b fleck mine => 13 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine full depth; larva with chitinised…

Hypericum host plants

Hypericum st john’s-wort Incl. Webbia. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hypericum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine small, of indefinite shape, not starting at an egg shell; the older larva lives free, among spun leaves => 2 1b mine not particularly small, a…

Cynoglossum host plants

Cynoglossum hound’s-tongue Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva mines from a transportable case, making fleck mines => 2 1b larva mines from the inside => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva in a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 2b larva in hoary, tubular case:…

Ostrya host plants

Ostrya hop-hornbeam Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, from which in the end a circular excision is made: Incurvaria pectinea 1b corridor mine => 2 1c blotch, without excision => 4 1d tentifom mine => 6 1e fleck mine => 9 1f galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Oxytropis host plants

Oxytropis locoweed (For a dichotomous table for galls on Oxytropis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case => 2 1b corrdor or blotch, containing frass; larva not in a case =>3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Laburnum host plants

Laburnum Incl. Laburnocytisus. For a discussion of the biology and the parasitoids of Laburnum miners see Askew (1968a). (For a dichotomous table for galls on Laburnum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine, larve mines from a case => 2 1b fleck mine, larva mines…

Lupinus host plants

Lupinus lupin (For a dichotomous table for galls on Lupinus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with thoracic feet and a distinct head => 2 1b larva a maggot => 6 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine in the…

Petteria host plants

Petteria Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine (almost) without frass: Micrurapteryx kollariella 1b mine with clear amounts of frass => 2 2a blotch, frass in concentric arcs: Leucoptera laburnella 2b gallery, frass in two rows along the sides: Phytomyza cytisi…

Ulex host plants

Ulex gorse Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, loosely following the leaf margin from the leaf basis up; once at the tip the mine descends along the midrib, forming a narrow blotch: Agromyza johannae 1b fleck mine: full depth blotch without frass, with a small opening; larva mines from a…

Dorycnium host plants

Dorycnium canary clover Incl. Bonjeania (For a dichotomous table for galls on Dorycnium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor or blotch => 2 1b fleck mine => 7 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a older larvae live free among spun…

Phytoptus liroi parasite

Phytoptus liroi Roivainen, 1947 on Blysmus, Carex parasite The mites live in number in the leaf sheaths and in the grooves at the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cyperaceae, oligophagous Blysmus compressus; Carex arenaria, colchica, distans, disticha, echinata, ericetorum, flacca & subsp. serrulata, leporina,…

Trifolium host plants

Trifolium clover Incl. Amoria, Chrysapis. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Trifolium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Apterona helicoidella 1b under-surface tentiform mine => 2 1c corridor or blotch => 3 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Trigonella host plants

Trigonella fenugreek Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larvae with obvious head and thoracic feet; after a while they leave the and continue living free among spun leaves => 3 1b larvae are maggots; they mine until just before pupation => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Cucurbita host plants

Cucurbita gourd Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small mine of indefinite shape; larva, with distinct head and feet, later lives free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana 1b mine a gallery, not remarkably small; the larva, a maggot, mines all its life => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Ammophila host plants

Ammophila marram grass Incl. Ammocalamagrostis = Calammophila. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; mine inflated: Apatetris kinkerella 1b larva a maggot; mine flat, shallow => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a frass in rather widely dispersed grains; puparium orange brown; front…

Aurinia host plants

Aurinia basket of gold Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva wiyh chitinised head => 2 1b mine lower- or upper-surface; larva a magot => 3 1c fleck mine; opening irregular and relatively large: Apterona helicoidella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a small…

Lachninae parasite

Aphids mostly living on the bark of trees, without host alternation….

Pinus host plants

Pinus pine (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pinus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a needle swollen, clearly shorter than normal: Brachonyx pineti 1b needle normal in shape and length => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a small full…

Clematis host plants

Clematis traveller’s joy (For a dichotomous table for galls on Clematis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch => 2 1b corridor => 6 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva a maggot; on Clematis cirrhosa: Phytomyza cirrhosae 2b larva with…

Delphinium host plants

Delphinum larkspur incl. Consolida (For a dichotomous table for galls on Delphinium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine small, irregular, full depth; the larva, with clear head and feet, later lives free among spun leaves: Cnephasia incertana 1b mine not unusually small or irregular; the…

Pulsatilla host plants

Pulsatilla pasque Flower Pulsatilla often is considered a subgenus of Anemone. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with thoracic feet and chitinised head => 2 1b larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine full depth; larva with prolegs: Pseudodineura parvula…

Ranunculus host plants

Ranunculus buttercup Incl. Batrachium, Beckwithia, Ficaria. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a blotch mine; larva with abdominal and thoracic…

Platanus host plants

Platanus london plane Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a under-surface corridor, turning first into a grey-green lobed flat blotch, then into a large orange-red tentiform mine: Phyllonorycter platani 1b full depth corridor, never turning into a blotch or a tentiform mine: Acalyptris platani 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten…

Erodium host plants

Erodium heron’s bill (For a dichotomous table for galls on Erodium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: small, full depth blotch without frass, with a relatively opening by which the larvae has accessed the leaf tissue => 2 1b no fleck mine, but a…

Geranium host plants

Geranium crane’s-bill (For a dichotomous table for galls on Geranium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva in a helicoidal case; hole, in the mine…

Tropaeolum host plants

Tropaeolum nasturtium Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a entire mine full depth, very transparant; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine (mostly entirely) upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine < 1 cm; larva, with thoracic feet,…

Chamerion host plants

Chamerion rosebay willow-herb The genus Chamerion (= Chamaenerion) is alternatively split off from, and merged with Epilobium in the botanical literature. Although presently it is included in Epilobbium by the…

Juniperus host plants

Juniperus juniper (For a dichotomous table for galls on Juniperus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a tiny fleck mine; older larvae live free in spinning and don’t mine any more: Archips oporana 1b larger blotch or corridor mine => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for…

Abies host plants

zonder donkere vlek; lichaam heldergroen: Epinotia fraternana Niet opgenomenin de tabel: Aphelia viburniana; Argyrotaenia ljungiana; Cedestis subfasciella (voorkomen op deze waardplant dient nader te worden bevestigd); Chionodes electella; Ditula angustiorana; Exoteleia dodecella; Ocnerostoma friesei; Pseudohermenias abietana. Zie ook Patocka (1960a). Abies (For a dichotomous table for galls on Abies by…

unknown on Geranium spec. parasite

unknown on Geranium spec. Geranium spec., Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman detail mine the mine is upper surface, and the frass pattern indicates an agromyzid. All mines are vacated, which means that the larvae have been able to complete their development; this seems to exclude xenophagy. Without a larva a…

Meconopsis host plants

Meconopsis welsh poppy Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a little branched corridor without association with the leaf venation; pupation within the mine in a, usually lower-surface, pupal chamber: Chromatomyia horticola 1b pinnately branched corridor on top of the midrib and the thickest side veins; pupation outside the mine: Liriomyza strigata 1c…

History introduction

A bit of history Many mines are all but inconspicuous, and it is almost certain that also in former time sometimes they must have attracted attention. Nevertheless, the first written reference to mines of which I am aware is of a relatively recent date. 1681 Johann Christoph Beckmann publishes a…

Parasitoids introduction

…serious pest. To combat it one has introduced G. albipes by way of biological control. (Leo Blommers, pers. comm.; Eichhorn & Pschorn-Walcher, 1973a, Guèvremont & Quednau, 1977a). Fenusa pumila on Birch Braconidae Cocoon of a braconid in a tentiform mine; the crumpled remnant of the miner is still there. The…

Shape: fleck mines introduction

Shape: fleck mines fleck mines More or less round mines, with a diameter of mostly not more than a centimeter, having in their centre, in upper or lower epidermis, a small hole. Most mines of this type are made by the Lepidoptera family Coleophoridae. The larvae of this group live…

Dutch vernacular plant names Uncategorized

…knoop, blauwe margriet, blauwe regen, blauwe zeedistel, blauwgras, blazenstruik, blimbing, boekweit, boerenjasmijn, boerenkers, boerenwormkruid, bokkenorchis, boksdoorn, bolderik, bolletjeskers, bolletjeskool, bolletjesraket, bonenkruid, boon, borstelkrans, bosbes, boshyacinth, bosliefje, bosrank, bosvogeltje, boterbloem, braam, brandnetel, brave hendrik, brem, bremraap, breukkruid, brilkruid, bronkruid, bruidssluier, brunel, brunnera, brussels lof, buddleia, buntgras A B C D E…

Phragmites host plants

Phragmites common reed (For a dichotomous table for galls on Phragmites by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow segments of the mine frass in a more or less narrow central line => 2 1b larva a maggot; in narrow sections frass…

Ramularia lapsanae parasite

Ramularia lapsanae (Desmazières) Saccardo, 1881 on Lapsana Lapsana communis, Belgium, prov. Limburg, Bree, de Luysen © Carina Van Steenwinkel same leaf, underside hypophyllous down colony seen from above colony colony conidia gall Conidia formed in chains, generally 2-5 x 6-18 µm, 0-1-septate. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Lapsana communis. synonyms Ramularia…

caeoma glossary

An unusual type of aecium, lacking a peridium….

epidermis glossary

The outermost layer of cells of the leaf, in fact, the skin of the leaf. The epidermis consists of somewhat flattened cells that do not contain chlorophyll. The outside wall of the epidermis cells is thickened: the cuticle….

endophyte glossary

Sorry, this entry is only available in Dutch….

septum glossary

(pl septa). Dividing wall, e.g. in a fungal spore or hypha. Often a septum contains a pore that enables some regulated connection between the protoplasma at either side. Hyphae without septa are called aseptate….

Eurina triangularis parasite

Eurina triangularis Becker, 1903 on Bolboschoenus gall The larve lives in the stem without causing any galling. hostplants Cyperaceae, monophagous Bolboschoenus maritimus. references Nartshuk (2012a)….

Aconitum host plants

Aconitum monkshood (For a dichotomous table for galls on Aconitum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small, irregular, full depth mine; larva with thoracic feet and sclerotised head:: Cnephasia incertana 1b mine larger, upper surface; larva a maggot => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for…

Iris host plants

Iris iris (For a dichotomous table for galls on Iris by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a small cavity in the leaf (no corridor, too small to be called a blotch); larva slender, yellow, without feet: Dicerura iridis 1b mine m ore extensive => 2 1c galls,…

Conringia host plants

Conringia hare’s ear mustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Conringia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short gallery, that either ends of begins on the midrib or a thick side vein => 2 1b mine different => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for…

Eleusine host plants

Eleusine finger millet, goosegrass Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a gallery from start to end; the puparium is formed within the mine, and the front spiracula then penetrate the epidermis: Chromatomyia nigra 1b mine eventually a blotch; if there is a puparium visibe it is situated in a separate mine, and…

Crambe host plants

Crambe seakale, crambe (For a dichotomous table for galls on Crambe by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short gallery, that begins on the midrib or the base of the leaf => 2 1b mine different => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Eruca host plants

Eruca arucula, rocketsalad, roqettte, rucola, rugula (For a dichotomous table for galls on Eruca by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short gallery, that ends or begins on a thick vein; the larva essentially lives as a borer in the veins, petiole, or stem: Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus 1b…

Erucastrum host plants

Erucastrum dogmustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Erucastrum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva a maggot; mine partly or entirely upper- or lower-surface => 2 1b larva with chitinised head; mine full depth => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites…

Phleum host plants

Phleum cat’s-tail Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; in narrow stretches the frass in a more or less narrow, central line => 2 1b larva a maggot; in narrow parts frass in two rows => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Hesperis host plants

Hesperis dame’s rocket, garden rocket, damask violet, gilliflower (For a dichotomous table for galls on Hesperis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a short gallery, that ends or begins on a thick vein; the larva essentially lives as a borer in the veins, petiole, or stem: Ceutorhynchus…

Malcolmia host plants

Malcolmia virginian stock Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a pinnately branched gallery, main and secondary branches on top of midrib and side veins: Liriomyza strigata 1b blotch or little, not pinnately branched, gallery; mine not determined by the leaf venation => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per…

Matthiola host plants

Matthiola stock (For a dichotomous table for galls on Matthiola by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a pinnately branched gallery, main and side branches on top of the midrib and side veins: Liriomyza strigata 1b blotch, or little, not pinnately, branched gallery; mine not determined by the…

Hierochloe host plants

Hierochloe holy-grass Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with feet and chitinised head; pupation externa: Cosmopterix orichalcea 1b larva a maggot; pupation within the mine => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva and puparium with strongly enlarged, fang-shaped, rear spiracula, anchoring into the…

Myagrum host plants

Myagrum bird’s-eye cress (For a dichotomous table for galls on Myagrum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a pinnately branched gallery, main and side branches on top of the midrib and side veins: Liriomyza strigata 1b blotch, or little, not pinnately, branched gallery; mine not determined by…

Raphanus host plants

Raphanus radish (For a dichotomous table for galls on Raphanus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, never widening into a blotch => 2 1b blotch, may be preceded by a corridor => 9 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor…

Melica host plants

Melica melick Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinsed head; pupation outside the mine => 2 1b larva a maggot; puparium in the mine => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a a number of Elachistidae occurs on Melica. The mines are not very…

Coronopus host plants

Coronopus swinecress, wartcress Incl. Senebiera. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head => 2 1b larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva greyish green, with prolegs; a leaf is completely mined out: Hellula undalis 2b larva bone coloured,…

Allium host plants

Allium look (For a dichotomous table for galls on Allium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1amine on broad-leaved species (e.g. Ramsons, A. ursinum): Cheilosia fasciata 1bmine on species with linear or tubular leaves (Onion, Chives etc) => 2 1c gallen etc => Tabellen voor alle parasieten…

Iberis host plants

Iberis candytuft, sweet alyssum (For a dichotomous table for galls on Iberis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a pinnately branched gallery, main and side branches on top of the midrib and side veins: Liriomyza strigata 1b blotch, or little, not pinnately, branched gallery; mine not determined…

Thlaspi host plants

Thlaspi penny-cress Incl. Microthlaspi, Noccaea. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Thlaspi by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 1b no fleck mine; larva mines from the inside => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for…

Bunias host plants

Bunias (For a dichotomous table for galls on Bunias by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface (small patches sometimes full depth); larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Brachypodium host plants

Brachypodium false-brome (For a dichotomous table for galls on Brachypodium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with chitinised head; pupation outside the mine => 2 1b larva a maggot; pupation either within or outside the mine => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Neslia host plants

Neslia ball mustard (For a dichotomous table for galls on Neslia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva a maggot; mine partly or entirely upper- or lower-surface =>2 1b larva with chitinised head; mine full depth => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites…

Sisymbrium host plants

Sisymbrium hedge mustard, rocket (For a dichotomous table for galls on Sisymbrium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine either begins or ends in stem, petiole or midrib => 2 1b mine at most on the midrib, otherwise free in the leaf => 4 1c galls,…

Avena host plants

Avena oat (For a dichotomous table for galls on Avena by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b gallery or blotch => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a no longer applies 2b case brown, trivalved, on cultivated…

Cleome host plants

Cleome spider flower Incl. Polanisia. Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with well recognisable head; at least most of the mine full depth => 2 1b larva a maggot; mine essentially lower- or upper-surface => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva without feet:…

Reseda host plants

Reseda mignonette (For a dichotomous table for galls on Reseda by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth, very transparant; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine (mostly) entirely upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

Helianthemum host plants

Helianthemum rock-rose (For a dichotomous table for galls on Helianthemum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, widening into, and often overrun by, a blotch => 2 1b blotch, not preceded by a gallery: Urodeta hibernella 1c tentiform mine: Triberta helianthemella 1d fleck mine, made by…

Hibiscus host plants

Hibiscus hibiscus, rosemallow Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor, sometimes quite broad, overlying midrib and side veins => 2 1b corridor, not associated with leaf venation => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor rather narrow, not varying in depth and width: Liriomyza strigata…

Aculodes janboczeki parasite

Aculodes janboczeki Skoracka 2005 on grasses mite, dorsal (from Skoracka). parasite The mites live on the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromopsis inermis; Festuca rubra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aceria janboczeki. references Ripka (2008a), Skoracka (2005a)….

Eriophyes tiliaetomentosae parasite

Eriophyes tiliaetomentosae Nalepa, 1918 on Tilia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Malvaceae, monophagous Tilia timentosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Phytoptus hirtae parasite

Phytoptus hirtae Roivainen, 1950 on Carex mite, dorsal (from Chetverikov) parasite The mites live in the leaf sheaths and in the grooves at the upper side of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cyperaceae, monophagous Carex arenaria, colchica, hirta. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Chetverikov (2011a), Farkas…

Abacarus compactus parasite

Abacarus compactus Sukhareva, 1977 on grasses parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromus hordeaceus; Festuca ovina, rubra; Lolium multiflorum, perenne. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) ….

Keiferella abietis parasite

Keiferella abietis Boczek, 1969 on Abies parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Abies alba, koreana. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a….

Epitrimerus taxifoliae parasite

Epitrimerus taxifoliae Łabandowski, 1999 on Pseudotsuga parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pseudotsuga menziesii. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a….

Cupacarus octogibbus parasite

Cupacarus octogibbus Łabandowski, 2014 on Abies parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Abies alba. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a)….

Calepitrimerus lutocinus parasite

Calepitrimerus lutocinus Lewandowski, 2006 on Picea parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Picea abies. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a) ….

Acaricalus juniperi parasite

Acaricalus juniperi Szulc, 1967 on Juniperus mite, dorsal view (from Szulc) parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles at the base of th berries, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cupressaceae, monophagous Juniperus communis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek…

Cecidophyes siedleckii parasite

Cecidophyes siedleckii Kiedrowicz, Szydło & Skoracka, 2016 on Saxifraga parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Saxifragaceae, monophagous Saxifraga oppositifolia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Rector, Zawierucha ao (2016a)….

Aculodes calamaabditus parasite

Aculodes calamaabditus Skoracka, 2003 on Calamagrostis parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants FFFFFFF, monophagous Calamagrostis epigeios. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Leipothrix yipingae parasite

Leipothrix yipingae Shi, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus ursinus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Setoptus multigranulatus parasite

Setoptus multigranulatus Castagnoli, 1973 on Pinus parasite The mites live in th sheath at the foot of the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus sylvestris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a)….

Aculus daneki parasite

Aculus daneki Shi & Boczek, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus laciniatus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculodes rubivagrans parasite

Aculodes rubivagrans Shi & Boczek, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus laciniatus, ursinus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Abacarus pliszki parasite

Abacarus pliszki Shi & Boczek, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus caesius, laciniatus, ursinus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Acalitus orthomerus parasite

Acalitus orthomerus (Keifer, 1951) on Rubus parasite The mites live in the buds, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Quadracus ursinus parasite

Quadracus ursinus Shi & Boczek, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus laciniatus, ursinus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Platyphytoptus taxodii parasite

Platyphytoptus taxodii Petanović, 2001 on Taxodium parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cupressaceae, monophagous Taxodium distichum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Petanović (2001b)….

Epitrimerus knautiae parasite

Epitrimerus knautiae Liro, 1942 on Knautia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Knautia arvensis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Leipothrix knautiae. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Liro (1942a), Petanović (2001b), Petanović & Rector (2007a),…

Nalepella ednae parasite

Nalepella ednae Keifer, 1951 on Abies parasite The mites are vagrants on the needles, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Abies nordmanniana. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Boczek (1964a), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) ….

Leipothrix serbicus parasite

Leipothrix serbicus (Petanović, 2001) on Dryopteris parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Dryopteridaceae, monophagous Dryopteris filix-mas. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Epitrimerus serbicus. references Lotfollahi & de Lillo (2017a), Petanović (2001b)….

Eriophyes hunniacus parasite

Eriophyes hunniacus Ripka, 2009 on Pinus parasite The mites are vagrants in the sheath at the base of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus nigra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2009a)….

Aceria carpini parasite

Aceria carpini (Frauenfeld, 1865) on Carpinus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Carpinus betulus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Aculus parakarensis parasite

Aculus parakarensis (Bagdasarian, 1972) on Prunus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Prunus spinosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aculops parakarensis. references Ripka (2007a)….

Aculops knowltoni parasite

Aculops knowltoni (Keifer, 1964) on Populus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Populus alba, grandidentata, x canescens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aculus knowltoni. references Ripka (2007a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a)….

Aceria banatica parasite

Aceria banatica Vidović, 2011 on Echinops parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Echinops ritro subsp. ruthenicus. distribution within Europe Serbia. references Vidović (2011a)….

Aceria utzkae parasite

Aceria utzkae Vidović 2014 on Carlina parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Carlina acanthifolia subsp. utzka. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Vidović (2014a)….

Aculops martonaroni parasite

Aculops martonaroni Ripka, 2017 on Stachys parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves and in the infloescence, without causing apparent damage. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Stachys recta. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2017a)….

Aculops berochensis parasite

Aculops berochensis Keifer & Delley, 1971 on Prunus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Prunus avium. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Aceria szepligetii parasite

Aceria szepligetii Farkas, 1965 on Cotinus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Anacardiaceae, monophagous Cotinus coggygria. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Epitrimerus gentianae parasite

Epitrimerus gentianae Boczek, 1964 on Gentiana parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Gentianaceae, monophagous Gentiana asclepiadea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Boczek (1964a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Leipothrix pterisfolii parasite

Leipothrix pterisfolii Lotfollahi & de Lillo, 2017 on Gymnocarpium, Pteridium mite, dorsal view (from Lotfollahi & de Lillo) parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Pteridophyta, restricted polyphagous Gymnocarpium dryopteris; Polypodium vulgare. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Lotfollahi & de Lillo (2017a)….

Epitrimerus asperulae parasite

Epitrimerus asperulae Boczek, 1993 on Galium parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rubiaceae, monophagous Galium rivale. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Calepitrimerus darrowi parasite

Calepitrimerus darrowi Keifer, 1940 on Viburnum parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Adoxaceae, monophagous Viburnum carlesii, lantana. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus morivagrans parasite

Aculus morivagrans Boczek, 1968 on Morus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Moraceae, monophagous Morus alba. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus megacrinis parasite

Aculus megacrinis Keifer, 1962 on Betula parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula pubescens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus malvae parasite

Aculus malvae Boczek & Davis, 1984 on Malva parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Malvaceae, monophagous Malva sylvestris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculodes deschampsiae parasite

Aculodes deschampsiae (Sukhareva, 1972) on Deschampsia parasite The mites live in the furrows at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Deschampsia cespitosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculodes capillarisi parasite

Aculodes capillarisi Skoracka, 2003 on Agrostis parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Agrostis capillaris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculodes altamurgiensis parasite

Aculodes altamurgiensis de Lillo & Vidović, 2018a on Taeniatherium parasite The mites are vagrants on the plants, preferring sheltered parts of the plant, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Taeniatherum caput-medusae. distribution within Europe Italy. references de Lillo, Vidović, Petanović ao (2018a)….

Aculodes mckenziei parasite

Aculodes mckenziei (Keifer, 1944) on grasses parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Agrostis capillaris, gigantea, stolonifera; Alopecurus pratensis; Anisantha sterilis, tectorum; Apera spica-venti; Arrhenatherum elatius; Avenula pubescens; Bromopsis erecta, inermis; Bromus hordeaceus, racemosus; Calamagrostis epigeios; Dactylis glomerata;Elytrigia repens Festuca…

Leipothrix menthae parasite

Leipothrix menthae Jočić, Petanović & Vidovic, 2011 on Mentha mite, dorsal view (from Jočić ao). parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Mentha x piperita. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Jočić, Petanović &…

Vasates mori parasite

Vasates mori Farkas, 1968 on Morus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Moraceae, monophagous Morus alba. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aculus mori. references Ripka (2007a)….

Shevtchenkella juglandis parasite

Shevtchenkella juglandis (Keifer, 1951) on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Oxypleurites juglandis. references Farkas (1965a), Lotfollahi, Irani-Nejad & de Lillo (2014a), Ripka (2007a)….

Diptacus mazuriensis parasite

Diptacus mazuriensis Boczek, 1966 on Carpinus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Carpinus betulus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Diptacus calicoryli parasite

Diptacus calicoryli (Keifer, 1943) on Corylus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Corylus avellana, cornuta & subsp. californica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a)….

Rhyncaphytoptus gallicolus parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus gallicolus (Nalepa, 1922) on Ulmus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ulmaceae, monophagous Ulmus laevis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Phyllocoptyches gallicolus. references Farkas (1965a)….

Phyllocoptes intermedius parasite

Phyllocoptes intermedius Nalepa, 1924 on Sambucus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Adoxaceae, monophagous Sambucus racemosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Epitrimerus trilobus var. intermedia. references Farkas (1965a)….

Epitrimerus roivaineni parasite

Epitrimerus roivaineni Liro, 1943 on Eriophorum parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cyperaceae, monophagous Eriophorum vaginatum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a)….

Tegonotus borealis parasite

Tegonotus borealis (Liro, 1941) on Alnus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus incana. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Oxypleurites borealis. references Farkas (1965a) [….

Shevtchenkella cornifoliae parasite

Shevtchenkella cornifoliae (Keifer, 1939) on Cornus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cornaceae, monophagous Cornus sanguinea, sericea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Oxypleurites cornifoliae. references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a) ….

Anthocoptes pulmonariae parasite

Anthocoptes pulmonariae Farkas, 1960 on Pulmonaria parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Boragoinaceae, monophagous Pulmonaria officinalis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1960a, 1965a), Ripka (2007a)….

Aceria calamagrostis parasite

Aceria calamagrostis Sukhareva, 1977 on Calamagrostis, Festuca parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Calamagrostis arundinacea; Festuca rubra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Rhyncaphytoptus alsasuensis parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus alsasuensis Roivainen, 1953 on Salix parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Salix aurita, cinerea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1953a….

Anthocoptes bellus parasite

Anthocoptes bellus Liro, 1943 on Ribes parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Grossulariaceae, monophagous Ribes alpinum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a)….

Aculops centaureae parasite

Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) on Centaurea, Inula parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Centaurea; Inula britannica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates centaureae. references Farkas (1960a, 1965a), Petanović (1985a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Ripka (2007a)….

Aculus schubarti parasite

Aculus schubarti (Farkas, 1960) on Viola parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Violaceae, monophagous Viola cornuta. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates schubarti. references Farkas (1960a, 1965a), Ripka (2007a)….

Aculus aphanotrichus parasite

Aculus aphanotrichus (Liro, 1943) on Angelica parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Apiaceae, monophagous Angelica sylvestris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates aphanotrichus. references Farkas (1965a)….

Aceria nanula parasite

Aceria nanula (Liro, 1943) on Euphorbia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Euphorbiaceae, monophagous Euphorbia esula. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a)….

Aceria novitia parasite

Aceria novitia Roivainen, 1949 on Ulmus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ulmaceae, monophagous Ulmus glabra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Farkas (1965a)….

Diptacus sulcatus parasite

Diptacus sulcatus Szulc, 1967 on Carpinus mite, lateral view (from Szulc) parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Carpinus betulus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Szulc (1967a)….

Aceria erecti parasite

Aceria erecti Skoracka, 2004 on Bromopsis, Schedonorus parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromopsis erecta; Schedonorus arundinaceus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Trisetacus cupressi parasite

Trisetacus cupressi (Keifer, 1944) on Cupressus, Thuja parasite The mites are vagrants on the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Cupressaceae, oligophagous Cupressus sempervirens; Thuja occidentalis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Buhr (1965a), Keifer (1952), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus arzakanensis parasite

Aculus arzakanensis (Bagdasarian, 1970) on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates meghriensis Bagdasarian, 1970. references Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) ….

Tetra ulmi parasite

Tetra ulmi (Boczek & Szymkowiak, 1997) on Ulmus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ulmaceae, monophagous Ulmus laevis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Tetra tiliae parasite

Tetra tiliae Boczek & Szymkowiak, 1997 on Tilia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Malvaceae, monophagous Tilia cordata. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus tiliaevagrans parasite

Aculus tiliaevagrans Boczek, 1964 on Tilia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Malvaceae, monophagous Tilia tomentosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates tiliaevagrans. references Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus marinkovici parasite

Aculus marinkovici (Petanović, 1897) on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates marinkovici. references Petanović & Stanković (1999a)….

Aculus pulaviensis parasite

Aculus pulaviensis Boczek, 1968 on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Might be a synonym of Aculus juglandis. references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus juglandis parasite

Aculus juglandis Natcheff, 1966 on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus fascigrans parasite

Aculus fascigrans Boczek & Shi, 2002 on Juglans parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Juglandaceae, monophagous Juglans regia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) ….

Eriophyes liangi parasite

Eriophyes liangi Shi, 2000 on Rubus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous plantnaamengenus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria flexuosae parasite

Aceria flexuosae Skoracka, 2004 on Avenella parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Avenella flexuosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aculus castriferrei parasite

Aculus castriferrei Ripka, 2014 on Agrimonia parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Agrimonia eupatoria. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2014b)….

Aceria taurica parasite

Aceria taurica Mitrofanov & Sharonov, 1988 on Holcus parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Holcus lanatus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria stipaespinulata parasite

Aceria stipaespinulata Skoracka, 2004 on Stipa parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Stipa capillata, pennata. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria ribis parasite

Aceria ribis Csapo, 1992 on Ribes parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Grossulariaceae, monophagous Ribes nigrum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria malvacearum parasite

Aceria malvacearum Boczek & Davis, 1984 on Malva parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Malvaceae, monophagous Malva sylvestris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria glomerivagrans parasite

Aceria glomerivagrans Skoracka, 2004 on Dactylis, Festulolium parasite The mites are vagrants at the unpper ides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Dactylis glomerata; Festulolium adscendens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a….

Aceria absentia parasite

Aceria absentia Skoracka, 2004 on Calamagrostis parasite The mites are vagrants at the upper sides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Calamagrostis epigeios. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Rhyncaphytoptus immeritus parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus immeritus Boczek, 1964 on Crataegus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus monogyna. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Boczek (1964a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Vasates dictamni parasite

Vasates dictamni Farkas, 1968 on Dictamnus parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Rutaceae, monophagous Dictamnus albus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aculus dictamni. references Ripka (2007a) ….

Epitrimerus bidensi parasite

Epitrimerus bidensi Farkas, 1970 on Bidens parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Bidens tripartitus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Ripka (2007a)….

Aculops ballotae parasite

Aculops ballotae (Farkas, 1963) on Ballota parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Ballota nigra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Vasates ballotae. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Ripka (2007a)….

Cenopalpus scoopsetus parasite

Cenopalpus scoopsetus Hatzinikolis & Papadoulis, 1999 on Erica parasite The mites are vagrants at the undersides of the leaves, without causing apparent damage. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Erica manipuliflora. distribution within Europe Crete. references Hatzinikolis & Papadoulis (1999a)….

Agapeta zoegana parasite

Agapeta zoegana (Linnaeus, 1767) sulphur knapweed moth on Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae parasite The larva bores in the roots; there also the hibernation and pupation. host plants Asteraceae, Caprifoliaceae, narrowly polyphagous Centaurea jacea, nigra, paniculata; Jurinea multiflora; Knautia arvensis; Scabiosa columbaria; Serratula tinctoria. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Body yellowish white;…