Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Stigmella aurella parasite

Stigmella aurella (Fabricius, 1775) golden pigmy Rubus sp., Belgium, Liège; © Jean-Yves Baugnée, January 11th, 2009 Rubus fruticosus, Denekamp, Singraven, January 12th, 2012 mine Oviposition may be at either side of the leaf, not necessarily close to a vein. The mine is a not very tortuous corridor, not widened in…

Stigmella aurella larva parasite

Stigmella aurella Rubus spec., Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Hensies © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail When larvae (and a miscroscope) are available, aurella can be distinguished from S. splendidissimella and poterii by the presence of a finely spinulose field near the rear margin of the pronotum; when the material has not been cleared…

Stigmella aurella cocoon parasite

Stigmella aurella Rubus sp., Belgium, Dinant © Jean-Yves Baugnée The cocoon is brown, contrary to the one of St. spelendidissimella, described as grey-brown tot greenish by Johansson ao (1990a). 20.xi.2009…

Stigmella splendidissimella larva parasite

Stigmella splendidissimella Rubus fruticosus, Duin en Kruidberg head dorsal, ventral anal segment dorsal, pronotum The pronotum bears a pair of heavy seta, and a number of lesser ones, but there is no patch of spinules along the rear border, like in St. aurella. 26.x.2008…

Stigmella splendidissimella parasite

Stigmella splendidissimella (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1855) glossy bramble pigmy Fragaria vesca, Belgium, prov. Namur, Furfooz, Parc National de Furfooz © Stéphane Claerebout same mine, lighted from behind Fragaria vesca, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler Geum urbanum, Nieuwendam detail of the mine on top Rubus fruticosus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, Ry de Pernelle © Stéphane…

Frass introduction

…frass is ejected. The colour of the frass is (in fresh mines) very constant, ranging from warm brown to black or greenish. Mostly the frass consists of rather dry grains or pellets. Fly larvae may produce frass that sometimes is semi-liquid (Weiss, 2006a). Stigmella aurella on Bramble: frass Agromyzidae In…

Agrimonia host plants

…11a corridor unusually short: Stigmella auromarginella 11b corridor of normal length: Stigmella aurella; possibly also Stigmella thuringiaca 12a case brown; lobes cut from the upper epidermis; mouth angle 0-10°: Coleophora violacea 12b case whitish; lobes cout from the lower epidermis; mouth angle 20-30°: Coleophora potentillae ** See also Ectoedemia rubivora….

Geum host plants

…quarter of the gallery strongly contorted; mountain species: Stigmella geimontani 6a corridor long and slender, often crossing itself; frass line usually very narrow; larva: pronotum not spinulose: Stigmella splendidissimella 6b corridor shorter, broader, only rarely crossing itself; frass line usually broader; pronotum finely spinulose: Stigmella aurella 7a larva: pinacula colourless…

Fragaria host plants

…entire corridor in wide loops: Stigmella aeneofaciella 6a corridor long, often crossing itself; frass line very narrow; no living larvae in the period December-April: Stigmella splendidissimella 6b mine not that long, only rarely crossing itself; living larvae also in December-April: Stigmella aurella; possibly also Stigmella thuringiaca 7a in the corridor…

Rubus host plants

…December-April: Stigmella aurella 8a mine 3-4 cm, whitish to pale brown, completely opaque, finally contracted: Coptotriche marginea 8b mine larger, pale green, less opaque, hardly contracted: Coptotriche heinemanni 9a larva: 1st abdominal segment ventrally with a brown spot; on all sorts of Bramble: Metallus pumilus 9b no spot here; on…

genus Rubus host plant genus

…oehlmanniella leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria praelatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella auromarginella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella poterii leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia rubivora leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus albipes leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus…

genus Agrimonia host plant genus

…Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia agrimoniae leaf miner doubtful Nepticulidae Ectoedemia arcuatella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum agrimoniae flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon…

genus Fragaria host plant genus

…miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aeneofasciella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia arcuatella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf vagrant spring generation rarely Aphididae Sitobion fragariae stem gall Asterolecaniidae Planchonia arabidis root collar gall Actinomycetales Rhodococcus fascians root collar…

Rubus fruticosus host plant species

aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella auromarginella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Kuehneola uredinis leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium bulbosum leaf pustule aecia…

genus Geum host plant genus

…urbanus leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina potentillae leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora ahenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria praelatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella geimontani leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Tenthredinidae…

Agrimonia eupatoria host plant species

…Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia agrimoniae leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aeneofasciella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum agrimoniae flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon malvae agrimoniae…

Fragaria vesca host plant species

…miner main Incurvariidae Incurvaria praelatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia arcuatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aeneofasciella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum euphorbiae leaf vagrant Aphididae Chaetosiphon fragaefolii leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis forbesi leaf vagrant Aphididae Aphis gossypii…

Geranium host plants

…conspicuous: Agromyza nigrescens 5c mine not as one of these: unknown agromyzid 6a gallery, starting from a semiglobular, shining egg shell: Stigmella aurella 6b no egg shell visible at start of the gallery => 7 7a larva without feet: Orthochaetes insignis 7blarva with thoracic feet => 8 8a larva bone…

Chrysocharis gemma parasite

Chrysocharis gemma (Walker, 1839) parasite Endoparasitoid on Acalyptris minimella; Chromatomyia horticola; Prays oleae; Stigmella aurella. host plants polyphagous Ilex aquifolium; Olea europaea; Pistacia lentiscus; Quercus ilex; Rubus ulmifolius. Preference for plants with hard leaves (Askew ao). distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Alissandrakis, Psirofonia, Kavallieratos, ao (2018a), Askew, Blasco-Zumeta &…

Aremonia host plants

Aremonia Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine shallow, greenish when lighted from behind; larva a maggot: Agromyza idaeiana 1b mine full depth, not greenish in transparency; larva with chitinised head => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor till the end: Stigmella aurella 2b…

Rubus caesius host plant species

…leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia rubivora leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum…

Geum urbanum host plant species

…leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyes nudus leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus urbanus leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella splendidissimella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus lanceolatus leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf vagrant Aphididae Ovatomyzus boraginacearum leaf vagrant Aphididae Myzus ornatus…

Geum rivale host plant species

…Coleophora ahenella leaf miner Incurvariidae Incurvaria praelatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella pretiosa leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus lanceolatus leaf pustule Chytridiales Synchytrium aureum leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Epitrimerus rivalis leaf vagrant Triozidae Bactericera bohemica flower vagrant Aphididae Macrosiphum gei leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorophora gei leaf vagrant doubtful…

Rubus idaeus host plant species

…Amphorophora idaei leaf gall Aphididae Aphis idaei leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Buhriella rubicola leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura plicatrix leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes gracilis leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza sulfuriceps leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae…

Fragaria viridis host plant species

…Phytoptidae Sierraphytoptus ambulans leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia grevilleana leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf gall Phytoptidae Fragariocoptes setiger leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner main Buprestidae Trachys fragariae leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia arcuatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca…

Rubus ulmifolius host plant species

…gracilis leaf vagrant Triozidae Phylloplecta trisignata leaf vagrant Aphididae Amphorophora rubi leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura plicatrix leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus leaf miner main Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella auromarginella leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche longiciliatella leaf miner Tischeriidae…

Rubus saxatilis host plant species

…aphanis leaf leaf spot Venturiales Coleroa chaetomium leaf gall Aphididae Aulacorthum cylactis leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria silvicola leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza sulfuriceps leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia rubivora leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella poterii leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus leaf miner Tischeriidae…

Rubus sanctus host plant species

…bicarinata leaf vagrant Tenthredinidae Macrophya aphrodite stem scale Coccidae Eulecanium tiliae stem scale Diaspididae Aulacaspis rosae flower gall Curculionidae Anthonomus rubi leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus leaf vagrant Triozidae Phylloplecta trisignata leaf miner main Nepticulidae Ectoedemia erythrogenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella auromarginella leaf miner Tenthredinidae…

Fragaria moschata host plant species

…vagrant Aphididae Aphis forbesi leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia grevilleana leaf scale Aleyrodidae Aleyrodes lonicerae leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora fragariae leaf gall Phytoptidae Fragariocoptes setiger leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia arcuatella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella thuringiaca…

Aremonia agrimonoides host plant species

basterd agrimony organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia aremoniae leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Cecidophyes malifoliae leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales Pucciniastrum agrimoniae…

Geum aleppicum host plant species

…Dothideales Pseudocercosporella gei leaf vagrant Noctuidae Orthosia gothica leaf hidden Tortricidae Notocelia uddmanniana leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Sphaerulina gei leaf leaf spot Capnodiales Ramularia gei leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Contarinia gei leaf gall Eriophyidae Cecidophyes nudus leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella

Rubus laciniatus host plant species

…Aculodes rubivagrans leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Aculus daneki leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora rubi leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria silvicola leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche heinemanni leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium violaceum leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Anthocoptes rubicolens…

Chrysocharis pentheus parasite

Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) parasite Parasitoid of Chromatomyia horticola; Coptotriche heinemanni; Dyseriocrania subpurpurella; Fenusa dohrnii; Phyllocnistis citrella; Phyllonorycter comparella, heegeriella, maestingella, quercifoliella, roboris; Stigmella aurella, paradoxa, pyri; Tischeria ekebladella. host plants polyphagous Alnus glutinosa; Citrus; Crataegus monogyna; Doronicum hungaricum; Fagus sylvatica; Populus alba; Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster; Quercus cerris, petraea;…

Agrimonia procera host plant species

fragrant agrimony organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Septoria agrimoniae-eupatoriae leaf gall Aphididae Aphis proffti leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora agrimoniae leaf miner Nepticulidae Ectoedemia agrimoniae leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella flower vagrant Aphididae Acyrthosiphon malvae agrimoniae leaf miner Tenthredinidae…

Rubus plicatus host plant species

…Aphis ruborum leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus gibbosus leaf down Peronosporales Peronospora rubi leaf vagrant Triozidae Phylloplecta trisignata leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf leaf spot Venturiales Coleroa chaetomium leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura plicatrix leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes gracilis leaf miner doubtful Coleophoridae Coleophora ahenella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf…

genus Geranium host plant genus

…miner rarely Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Psychidae Apterona helicoidella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella minuta leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella monilicornis leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia ecullyana leaf miner Tortricidae Cnephasia lineata leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia polygoni leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Puccinia polygoni-amphibii leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Uromyces geranii…

Rubus spectabilis host plant species

salmonberry organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Tischeriidae Coptotriche marginea leaf miner rarely Tenthredinidae Metallus albipes leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Tenthredinidae Metallus pumilus leaf pustule aecia uredinia telia Pucciniales Phragmidium rubi-idaei…

genus Aremonia host plant genus

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia agrimoniae leaf leaf spot Mycosphaerellaceae Ramularia aremoniae leaf vagrant Eriophyidae Cecidophyes malifoliae leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera aphanis leaf miner Agromyzidae Agromyza idaeiana leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella aurella leaf miner Tenthredinidae Fenella nigrita leaf pustule uredinia telia Pucciniales…