Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Bucculatrix bechsteinella parasite

Bucculatrix bechsteinella (Bechstein & Scharfenberg, 1805) hawthorn bent-wing Crataegus monogyna, Din en Kruidberg egg Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure; © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Ovipossition at the leaf upperside, egg shell iridescent. Small, hooklike corridor, mostly in a vein axil. Frass in a very thick central line. The…

Sorbus host plants

…Recurvaria nanella 15b mine does contain frass, not branched => 16 16a mine < 1 cm; first part stuffed with frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 16b mine much longer, not so full of frass => 17 17a no egg shell at the beginning of the corridor; corridor not infrequently crossing itself or…

Mespilus host plants

…1 cm => 10 9b corridor longer, freely winding through the leaf => 11 10a mine with much frass; usually hooklike, in a vein axil: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 10b little or no frass; gallery irregular, sloppy: Recurvaria nanella 11a frass partly coiled; at start of the mine a globular shining egg…

Pyrus host plants

…Lyonetia clerkella 16b corridor shorter, may be devoid of frass; larva chamber indistinct => 17 17a corridor narrow, branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella 17b corridor relatively broad, hook-like, in a vein axil, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 18a initial gallery quite narrow and strongly contorted; larva greenish white: Ectoedemia atricollis…

Pyracantha host plants

…alle parasieten per soort 2a upper-surface, silvery, blotch: Phyllonorycter leucographella 2b lower-surface, yellow green, tentiform mine: Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae 3a corridor < 10 mm, mostly hook-like, in a vein axil: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 3b corridor longer, not hook-like, winding freely through the leaf: Lyonetia clerkella Not included in the key: Coleophora prunifoliae…

Chaenomeles host plants

…shell: Stigmella oxyacanthella (?) 7b no egg shell visible here: Lyonetia clerkella 8a mine narrow, branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella 8b mine not narrow, unbranched, with much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 9a case > 8 mm and/or mouth angle 45°: Coleophora hemerobiella 9b case smaller and/or mouth angle 90° Coleophora serratella…

Malus host plants

…23b mine unbranched, hook-shaped, in a vein axil, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 24a at the start of the corridor a globular, shining egg shell => 25 24b no egg shell visible: Lyonetia prunifoliella 25a corridor part not strongly contorted; frass in narrow central line => 26 25b corridor part…

Cydonia host plants

…drop- or pear-shaped mine with very much frass; larva pear-shaped: Rhamphus oxyacanthae 10b circular blotch, with frass in concentric circles; larva slender: Leucoptera malifoliella 11a gallery < 1 cm => 12 11b gallery >> 1 cm => 13 12a gallery usually hook-like, in a vein axil; much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella

Crataegus host plants

…in a vein axil: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 12b mine with little or no frass; irregularly shaped: Ccephasia incertana 13a larva: pinacula colourless (the bases of the setae themselves are black) : Cnephasia incertana 13b pinacula black: Cnephasia asseclana 14a mine lower-surface, grey, later brown: youth mine of Parornix anglicella 14b mine…

Amelanchier host plants

…malifoliella 5a corridor very irregular, without frass: Recurvaria nanella 5b corridor regular, with obvious amounts of frass => 6 6a corridor < 1 cm, usually in a vein axil, with much frass that almost fills the entire first part of the corridor: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 6b corridor longer, with proportionally less…

Hippophaë host plants

…a long, clear, larval chamber; older larvae live free under a leaf: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 3b small irregular gallery or blotch with little frass; older larvae live between spun leaves => 4 4a mining larvae in June-July, greenish or yellowish with light brown head: Gelechia hippophaella 4b mining larvae in July-October,…

Prunus host plants

…epidermmis; case brown: Coleophora violacea 29b lobes cut from the lower epidermis; case generally whitish: Coleophora potentillae 30a case > 8 mm: Coleophora hemerobiella 30b case smaller: juvenile cases of Coleophora hemerobiella, and C. coracipennella, prunifoliae, spinella Not included in the key: Bucculatrix bechsteinella; Callisto insperatella; Coleophora adjectella, ahenella, currucipennella,…

Cotoneaster host plants

…branched, without frass: Recurvaria nanella 14b mine unbranched, containing much frass: Bucculatrix bechsteinella 15a mine lower-surface: initial mines of Parornix anglicella 15b min upper-surface => 16 15c mine full depth: Lyonetia prunifoliella & L. padifoliella 16a mine silvery, elongated, positioned over a thick vein: initial mine of Phyllonorycter corylifoliella or…

genus Sorbus host plant genus

…Aphididae Ovatus insitus leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes burtsi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes torminalis leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes sorbeus leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla albipes leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla breviantennata leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina deformans leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix thoracella leaf miner…

Crataegus douglasii host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix anglicella leaf miner Nepticulidae Stigmella oxyacanthella…

Pyracantha coccinea host plant species

…miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium amelanchieris leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium confusum stem gall summer generation Aphididae Eriosoma lanigerum stem scale Coccidae Parthenolecanium corni leaf gall…

Sorbus torminalis host plant species

…Psyllidae Cacopsylla albipes leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix scoticella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter cydoniella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter hostis leaf miner rarely Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter mespilella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter sorbi leaf…

Zagrammosoma talitzkii parasite

Zagrammosoma talitzkii (Bouček, 1961) parasite Parasitoid of Bucculatrix bechsteinella; Leucoptera malifoliella; Liriomyza congesta, Liriomyza pseudopygmina, Liriomyza trifolii; Phyllonorycter cerasicolella,connexella, corylifoliella. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references Amiri, Talebi, Navone & Yefremova (2009a), Yefremova & Kishinevsky (2021a)….

Sorbus aucuparia host plant species

…arianus leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes burtsi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes sorbeus leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla albipes leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla breviantennata leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora…

Sorbus aria host plant species

…Apiognomonia errabunda leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes arianus leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes sorbeus leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla albipes leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla breviantennata leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae…

Pyrus bourgaeana host plant species

organ parasitic mode stage note taxonomic group parasite leaf vagrant Noctuidae Acronicta psi leaf vagrant Lasiocampidae Malacosoma neustria leaf vagrant Zygaenidae Rhagades predotae leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf vagrant Tortricidae Cacoecimorpha pronubana leaf hidden Pyralidae Acrobasis obtusella leaf gall Eriophyidae Epitrimerus marginemtorquens…

Crataegus laevigata host plant species

…Eriophyidae Eriophyes crataegi leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes goniothorax leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla affinis leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla crataegi leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina crataegi leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora siccifolia leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trigeminella leaf miner…

Prunus spinosa host plant species

…abaenus leaf gall doubtful Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes eupadi leaf gall main Psyllidae Cacopsylla pruni leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora adjectella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora currucipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner…

Prunus domestica subsp. insititia host plant species

…Brachycaudus prunicola leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Phorodon humuli leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Rhopalosiphum padi leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Putoniella pruni leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes similis leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes abaenus leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pruni leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus…

genus Pyrus host plant genus

…gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyricola leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyrisuga leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bullata leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza heringiana leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora currucipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner main Coleophoridae Coleophora…

genus Pyracantha host plant genus

…down Erysiphales Podosphaera clandestina leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria pyracanthi leaf gall doubtful Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes goniothorax leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter leucographella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter oxyacanthae leaf miner Lyonetiidae Lyonetia clerkella leaf pustule aecia Pucciniales Gymnosporangium…

genus Prunus host plant genus

…Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes amygdali leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes eupadi leaf gall doubtful Psyllidae Cacopsylla affinis leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla picta leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pruni leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina deformans leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina farlowii leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina wiesneri leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf…

genus Mespilus host plant genus

…Phyllactinia mali leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera clandestina leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla crataegi leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Coleophoridae…

genus Malus host plant genus

Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora currucipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora siccifolia leaf miner Coleophoridae…

genus Hippophae host plant genus

…hippophaes leaf gall Triozidae Trioza binotata leaf miner doubtful Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Gelechiidae Gelechia hippophaella leaf miner Gracillariidae Phyllonorycter corylifoliella stem gall Diaspididae Chionaspis salicis stem vagrant Psyllidae Cacopsylla zetterstedti root gall Actinomycetales Frankia elaeagni leaf vagrant spring generation Aphididae Capitophorus similis leaf…

genus Cydonia host plant genus

…Eriophyes pyri leaf gall rarely Psyllidae Cacopsylla mali leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bullata leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae leaf miner…

genus Crataegus host plant genus

…Psyllidae Cacopsylla peregrina leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina crataegi leaf miner Agromyzidae Liriomyza trifolii leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora chiclanensis leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora potentillae leaf miner…

Crataegus monogyna host plant species

…leaf gall Cecidomyiidae Dasineura crataegi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes crataegi leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes goniothorax leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla affinis leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla crataegi leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla peregrina leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina crataegi leaf miner main Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora…

genus Cotoneaster host plant genus

…borer Tephritidae Anomoia purmunda leaf gall Aphididae Aphis pomi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes aroniae leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora coracipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf…

genus Amelanchier host plant genus

…Aphididae Dysaphis parasorbi leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes aroniae leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla breviantennata leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora kroneella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora trigeminella leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae leaf miner…

Cydonia oblonga host plant species

…Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bullata leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae leaf miner Gelechiidae Recurvaria nanella leaf miner Gracillariidae Parornix anguliferella leaf miner…

Hippophae rhamnoides host plant species

…rarely Sesiidae Paranthrene tabaniformis stem borer Sesiidae Synanthedon myopaeformis fruit gall Tephritidae Rhagoletis batava leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia hippophaës leaf gall spring generation Aphididae Capitophorus hippophaes leaf gall Eriophyidae Aceria hippophaena leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla hippophaes leaf gall Triozidae Trioza binotata leaf miner doubtful Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Gelechiidae…

Malus domestica host plant species

…malimarginemtorquens leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes mali leaf gall Eriophyidae Phyllocoptes malinus leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla mali leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla picta leaf miner Agromyzidae Phytomyza heringiana leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora prunifoliae leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora…

Mespilus germanica host plant species

…leaf down Erysiphales Phyllactinia mali leaf down Erysiphales Podosphaera clandestina leaf gall Eriophyidae Eriophyes pyri leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla melanoneura leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora serratella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora spinella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora violacea leaf miner Curculionidae Rhamphus oxyacanthae…

Pyrus communis host plant species

…gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyri leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyricola leaf gall Psyllidae Cacopsylla pyrisuga leaf gall Taphrinales Taphrina bullata leaf miner rarely Agromyzidae Phytomyza heringiana leaf miner Bucculatricidae Bucculatrix bechsteinella leaf miner Buprestidae Trachys minutus leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora anatipenella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora currucipennella leaf miner Coleophoridae Coleophora hemerobiella…