Plant Parasites of Europe

leafminers, galls and fungi

Where can I find the old website Frequently Asked Question

The old website is available on https://bladmineerders.nl/html-site/index.htm. Please note that this website has not been maintained since 2017….

Agromyzidae parasite

…shape of the spiracula and the papillae on top of it can vary appreciably. The number of papillae ranges from the basal number, three, up to over twenty. They usually are arranged in a circle or oval, but the papillae-bearing part of the spiraculum may also be elongated or bifurcated….

Frass introduction

Frass The most characteristic result of the presence of the larve in the mine are its excrements. Only in old, long vacated mines rain may have washed out the frass; the mines then generally look whitish. And of course, there is a rather small number of mines from which the…

Cameraria ohridella parasite

…its colour is cinnamon, with a darker centre. The frass is not granular, like in Phyllonorycter species, but consists of a tar-like substance covering the floor of the mine. The number of mines can be as much as several tens per leaf. Pupation occurs within the mine. host plants Sapindaceae,…

Shape introduction

Shape corridor mines When a larve eats onty the leaf tissue right in front of its head the result is a narrow tunnel. In extreme caes, when the larva makes no lateral head movements, the tunnel remains just wide enough to accomodate the growing larva. Mines that remain that narrow…

Plagiotrochus quercusilicis parasite

Plagiotrochus quercusilicis (Fabricius, 1798) on Quercus, agamous generation gall Fusiform to almost imperceptible, woody, multilocular swelling of the twigs, up to 1.5 x 3 cm in size; the individual cells measure 1×3.5 mm, parallel to the length of the twig. Often only the circular, 1 mm large exit holes (in…

Brachycera parasite

…basic number is 1, 2, and 3 for instars 1, 2 and 3, respectively (as long as this number has not secondarily be enlarged). Pegomya setaria 1st instar 2nd instar (the larva is about to moult; the 3rd instar spiraculum is already visible through the old skin.) 3rd instar feeding…

To be a miner introduction

…and Heterarthrus vagans (right) on Alder In a smaller number of species mines begin at a clutch of about five eggs, for instance in the fly genus Pegomya. The hatching larvae do not each take their own course, but, at least initially, ‘shoulder to shoulder’ make a multi-larvae corridor. Even…

Cocoon introduction

Cocoon cocoon In the pupal stage insect larvae are virtutally immovable and defenseless. Many species therefore make, before construct a protective cocoon before they undergo the moult that leads to the pupa or puparium. Some leaf miners too sometimes make a cocoon; not alwys within the mine, but when this…

Laeosopis roboris parasite

…on the leaves. host plants Oleaceae, oligophagous Fraxinus angustifolia; Phillyrea angustifolia, latifolia; Olea europaea. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). larva see Kan ao, Lepiforum. synonyms Laeosopis evippus (Hübner, 1793). references Dupont, Luquet, Demerges & Drouet (2013a), Kan & Kan-van Limburg-Stirum (2009a), Kan & van Limburg-Stirum (2009a), Lepiforum (2021), Marabuto (2018a)….

Practical introduction

…20 ml + kerosene 10 ml + dioxane 10 ml. Larvae and pupae are stored with a number-label in plastic tubes of 1.5 ml that are commonly used as disposable ‘Eppendorf microvials’ in biochemical laboratories. The number corresponds with the number in the mine herbarium and with a databse (Filemaker)…

Apiognomonia errabunda parasite

Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge) von Höhnel, 1918 on woody plants Tilia x europaea, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark 29.vi.2018 © Carina Van Steenwinkel underside of an infected leaf like in A. veneta the leaf spots develop from the veins, but they are not angular. same leaf, underside characteristic also is the…

Phyllocnistis saligna parasite

…parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Described by Lüders (1900) and Grandi (1931a, 1933a). pupa notes The species is expanding. Huisman & Koster (1999a) still considered the species rather scarce, but already Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a) reported findings in urban situations. Now it is…

Phyllocnistis citrella parasite

…a chamber at the end of the corridor, under an overturned part of the leaf margin. (A larva mining on on a fruit obviously stands no chance.) host plants Rutaceae, oligophagous Citrus. phenology In the tropical and subtropical areas where the species presently occurs there a large number of generations…

Fomoria deschkai parasite

Fomoria deschkai (Klimesch, 1978) Hypericum sp., Rhodes; uit Klimesch (1978b) Hypericum triquetrifolium, Rhodes; uit Klimesch (1978b) mine Egg at the leaf underside. The mine begins as a very narrow, mostly very tortuous corridor that is almost filled with frass. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch, with central deposition of…

Location in the leaf introduction

…Less often the oviposition site is in a vein axil or just someplace on the blade. In Nepticulidae it often (but not always!) is a reliable diagnostic character wether the egg is placed on the upper or the lower surface of the leaf. sawflies A number of sawfly species oviposit…

Pucciniales parasite

…a 0, and the subsequent stages by roman numbers. Spermogonia often appear on the upper side of a leaf as a group of orange dots of ± 0.1 mm. In the spermogonia special spores are formed, spermatia, that fuse one to one with spermatia derived from other spermogonia, then form…

Mompha raschkiella parasite

…Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula, the Mediterranean Islands and parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva pupa See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Lophoptilus, Tebenna, raschkiella. parasitoids, predators Cirrospilus vittatus. references Ahr (1966a), Baldizzone (2004a, 2008a),…

Pupa introduction

…fragments of the puparium In some Agromyzidae colour and shape of the puparium may be diagnostic, while it concerns species that pupate outside the mine. Often it is possible then to obtain puparia by keeping a number of occupied mines in a cool place in a small, closed, plastic bag,…

Pegomya flavifrons parasite

…shells attached to the leaf underside. Sometimes a number of of young mines, and eggs, on one leaf. The first part of the mine is a tortuous corridor, quickly turning into a large blotch. Most of the blotch is full depth, only some patches are upper-surface, and greenish when lighted…

Leucoptera lustratella parasite

Leucoptera lustratella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) on Hypericum Hypericum perforatum, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Heusden-Zolder, Terril Lindeman, 1.viii.2015 © Carina Van Steenwinkel same mine in backlight Hypericum perforatum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine lighted from behind detail: individual frass grains are grey and rod-like a leaf may be completely mined…

Mompha langiella parasite

…recorded (Phegea, 2010). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, but absent in parts of the Balkan peninsula and on the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larve pupa See Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Anybia, Mompha…

Phyllonorycter parasite

Phyllonorycter pastorella op Salix babylonica (Amsterdam) Generally, Phyllonorycter-mines can only be identified reliably when the mine contains pupa, or has a old pupal skin attached to it. In most (all?) species the pupa, just before emergence, works itself half out of the mine through an opening that has made in…

Phytomyza rufipes parasite

Phytomyza rufipes Meigen, 1830 mine The mine begins somewhere in the leaf, generally at the lower surface, not far from the leaf margin. From there a corridor runs randomly, until it hits upon a vein. Thd corridor then follows this vein until it reaches the midrib. Then the larva starts…

Parectopa ononidis parasite

…LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe, excluding Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Golden or greenish yellow. pupa synonyms Euspilapteryx ononidis. notes The mine can have a deceiving similarity to the one of Agromyza nana. However, the mine that species contains…

Elachista albifrontella parasite

…& Pałka (2007a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Bland (1996a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989b), Hering (1957a), Kaila, Mutanen, Saarela, Siloaho, Sippola & Tabell (2008a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Z Laštůvka, A Laštůvka, Liška, Marek, Skyva & Vávra (1992a), Parenti & Varalda…

Celypha woodiana parasite

Celypha woodiana (Barrett, 1882) mistletoe marble Viscum album, France, dép. Calvados, Beuvron-en-Auge © Ruben Meert mine with entrance opening and frass at the outside larva in the mine full grown larva mine In autumn the mine begins as a brown, narrow and inconspicuous, lower-surface corridor. The larva is capable of…

Dilophospora alopecuri parasite

Dilophospora alopecuri (Fries) Fries, 1849 on grasses Holcus mollis, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Peer, Mullerembeenden, 30.iv.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel detail conidia Holcus lanatus, België, prov. Antwerpen, Geel, Neerhelst © Carina Van Steenwinkel the development is the plant is retarded and disturbed black stromata with pycnidia conidium gall Infected plants often…

Ectoedemia heringella parasite

…messaniella en Stigmella suberivora (Times online, 2009). The mines cannot be separated from those of E. haraldi and pseudoilicis. references Arenberger & Wimmer (1996a), Baldizzone & scalercio (2018a), Edmunds (2007a), Hering (1957a), Laštůvka & Laštuvka (1997a, 1998a), van Nieukerken (1985a, 1986a), van Nieukerken, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2006a, 2010a), Pritchard (2005a),…

Euura nigritarsis parasite

Euura nigritarsis Cameron, 1885 Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae on Salix Salix caprea © Roelof Jan Koop gall the catkin-buds are swollen and unusually firm. For the oviposition the wasp’s ovipositor has pierced through the base of petiole, often leaving a clear scar. Inside a single sawfly caterpillar. Often several buds of the…

Cucullia celsiae parasite

Cucullia celsiae Herrich-Schäffer, 1850 on Scutellaria parasite Larvae freely on the inflorescence. host plants Lamiaceae, monophagous Scutellaria albida, columnae, cypria, rupestris subsp. parnassica. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). egg, larva, pupa see Lepidoptera and their ecology (www.pyrgus.de). synonyms Calocucullia celsiae. references Kravchenko, Fibiger, Muller & Ronkay (2005a)….

Cynaeda gigantea parasite

…within Europe At one side France and Switzerland, at the other from Hungary and Romania to Crete (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva A picture on www.lepiforum.de shows a full grown, almost black, larva. synonyms Cynaeda mendicalis Lattin, 1951. references Hering (1957a), Kravchenko, Poltavsky, Segerer, ao (2020a), Scalercio, Ienco & Greco (2019a)….

History of the website Uncategorized

2001 Willem Ellis started a website on leafminers in Europa. Determination of species through dichotomous tables. The site is in both English and Dutch and generously provided with images. de site is coded with HTML using TextWrangler hosting is provided by XS4ALL on the URL http://www.xs4all.nl/~wnellis 2003 links are maintained…

Puccinia athamantina parasite

Puccinia athamantina Sydow & Sydow, 1902 on Athamanta, Carum gall No host plant alternation. Spermogonia not numerous, between the aecia, formed sub-epidermally. Aecia small, yellowish, cupulate on yellowed and galled spots at the underside of the leaf, veins and petioles. Uredinia tiny, light brown; urediniospores with 3 germination pores. Telia…

Otiorhynchus smreczynskii parasite

Otiorhynchus smreczynskii Cmoluch, 1968 on Ligustrum, etc. adult feeding traces on various host plant species (from Balalaikins & Bukejs) parasite Larvae at the roots of a wide range of plants. The beetles are polyphagous as well, but with a strong preference for lilac and privet, were at night they eat…

Crossing of a thick vein specials

How does Lyonetia clerkella cross a major vein? Thick leaf veins form a obstacle for mining larvae. Often a gallery follows a vein for several centimeters, until the vein nears the leaf margin, where the vein becomes much thinner; then the vein is crossed by simply eating through it. When…

Paracletus cimiciformis parasite

Paracletus cimiciformis von Heyden, 1837 on Pistacia, primary host plant Pistacia terebinthus, galls (from Houard, 1909a) Pistacia terebinthus, Spanje, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez gall the gall reminds of Forda marginata, but never turns red. host plants Anacardiaceae, monophagous Pistacia khinjuk, terebinthus & subsp. palaeastina, vera….

Bucculatrix albedinella parasite

…albedinella and B. ulmifoliae were taken to be synonyms in the Netherlands. An inspection the mine material of “albedinella” showed that much effectively belongs to ulmifoliae. references Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a, 2011a), Buhr (1937a), Burmann (1991a), Buszko (1992b), Corley, Nunes, Rosete, ao (2020a), Hartig (1939a), Hellers (2017a), Hering…

Phytomyza vitalbae parasite

…NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a). LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach, Dudelange, Ahn). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva puparium parasitoids, predators Chrysocharis pubicornis; Closterocerus lyonetiae; Diglyphus isaea. notes Hering (1957a) attaches much importance to the fact that the start of the mine is upper-surface….

Heterarthrus nemoratus parasite

Heterarthrus nemoratus (Fallén, 1808) Betula pubescens, Mantingerzand Betula pendula, België, prov. Limburg, Koersel © Carina Van Steenwinkel same mine, lighted from behind larva in the mine; the arrow points to a slit along the midrib, probably used the eject frass Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel:leaf…

Monochroa suffusella parasite

Monochroa suffusella (Douglas, 1850) notch-wing neb Eriophorum angustifolium, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Kalmthoutse Heide © Dan Slootmaekers: the mine started in the oldest, dark-coloured part of the leaf; at right the emergence hole opened mine mine In autumn the larva bores into the stem and mines in the lower part of…

Pegomya laticornis parasite

Pegomya laticornis (Fallén, 1825) on Arctium Arctium lappa, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 17.v.2020 © László Érsek underside of the mine; accumulation of frass next to the midrib results in a characteristic discolouration opened mine with larvae larva, mouth field larva, anal region Arctium spec., Britain, Norfolk, Narborough, 25.vi.2018 © Rob Edmunds Arctium…

Agromyza abiens larva parasite

Omphalodes verna, Amsterdam “hips”, lateral and dorsal end of abdomen, and detail of the heavy spinulation of the “hip” front and rear spiraculum, dorsal mandibles Brunnera macrophylla, Amsterdam: mouth field ventral and obliquely lateral cephalic skeleton The larva is described by de Meijere (1925a), Nowakowski (1964a), Dempewolf (2001a), and Guglya…

Parasitoids introduction

Parasitoids By far the most important mortality factor are parasitoides. Very commonly, when opening a mine, one can encounter a parastoid larva that is succking the liquified contents of its host. It is impressive to see how an, often quite small, parasitoid, has overpowered its victim that is almost motionless…

Fusarium graminearum parasite

Fusarium graminearum Schwabe 1839 Fusarium head blight on Poaceae…

Acericecis vitrina parasite

Acericecis vitrina (Kieffer, 1909) on Acer Acer pseudoplatanus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Oignies © Sébastien Carbonnelle underside opened gall gall closed, lenticular, 2 mm large pustule of the lamina of a young leaf, margins more or less transparent; often several in a leaf. Larva white, solitary. Old galls drop out of…

Aphididae parasite

…female then deposits her eggs on plant species A; the progeny develops there but, once full grown migrates to plant species B, where a number of parthenogenetic generations follow. Against the end of the season along with females also males are formed, and the cycle restarts. Plant species A, the…

Scolytinae parasite

…into the plant (e.g. Christiansen, Kolařík ao). The larvae of several species in the sapwood of recently downed conifers; they have a symbiotic relationship with specialised fungi. These so-called ambrosia beetles are not treated here (Trypodendron, etc.) references Christiansen (1991a), Kolařík, Kostovćík & Patoužová (2007a), Lieutier, Mendel & Faccoli (2016a)….

Claviceps parasite

Claviceps Ergot fungi and relatives Within the Ascomycota, the family belongs to the Pyrenomycetes, characterised by having the asci in a specialised fruiting , the perithecium: a sac-like cavity with a narrow opening. In this family the perithecia are emdedded in a stroma. The ascospores are needle-like, almost as long…

Resseliella oculiperda parasite

…Möhn, 1955a) synonyms Diplosis, Tomasia, Thomasiniana, oculiperda. notes A pest in nurseries of fruit trees, where scion buds are grafted on a rootstock. references Barnes (1948a,b), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Rübsaamen (1983a, 1911e), Simova-Tošić, Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2004a), Skuhravá, Karimpour, Sadeghi ao (2014a), Skuhravá…

Puccinia veronicarum parasite

Puccinia veronicarum de Candolle, 1805 on Veronica Veronica montana, GD Luxembourg, Hollenfels © Sébastien Carbonnelle underside of a leaf with telia Veronica ? chamaedrys, Nieuwendam telia, at the underside of the leaf Veronica montana, Nieuwendam: all plants of the population were infected from the root collar up. teliospores: the middle…

Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae parasite

Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae Saville, 1968 on Veronica teliospores; derived from USDA Fact Sheets (Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae) gall no host plant alternation, only hypophyllous telia. The fungus is systemic. The telia consist of a dark brown centre where hibernating spores are formed, surrounded by a lighter zone where spores are formed that germinate…

Stenodiplosis phragmicola parasite

Stenodiplosis phragmicola Sinclair & Ahee, 2013 Diptera, Cecidomyiidae on Phragmites Phragmites australis, France, dép. Nord, Zuydcote © Sébastien Carbonnelle gall Larva solitary, develops in a floret, destroying the ovary; pupation in the floret, not in a cocoon. hostplants Poaceae, monophagous Phragmites australis. notes the species is described from North America,…

Hymenoptera parasite

Hymenoptera The adult insects have biting mouthparts and two pairs of membranous wings of unequal size; the females have an ovipositor. De Hymenoptera are divided in two main groups: Symphyta, where abdomen and thorax are broadly united, and the Apicrita, where the two are connected by a narrow and flexible…

Tenthredinidae parasite

Tenthredinidae Diversity The ± 900 European species of this family have strongly divergent habits. Many species just live freely on the plants. However, most mining sawflies also belong to the Tenthredinidae (in particular the subfamily Heterarthrinae). Galls The genus Salix consists of a large number of species. Mainly the mountains…

Openings in the mine introduction

exit slit Each mine must at some moment be vacated by its occupant. The opening that is made then often has a very constant shape. In those Agromyzidae species where the mine is left prior to pupation, the larvae make neat semicircular exit slit in the epidermis. Agromyza alnivora on…

Kessleria fasciapennella parasite

Kessleria fasciapennella (Stainton, 1849) lost ermine Parnassia palustris, from Kyrki (1985a) mine The young larva makes a long, irregular, sometimes widened gallery in one of the basal leaves. Later the larva live free in the hearth of the plant, where silk is deposited and where the larva lives in a…

Trialeurodes ricini parasite

Trialeurodes ricini (Misra, 1924) castor whitefly polyphagous puparium (from Hernández-Suárez ao) parasite Puparia pale, oval; along the margin many isolated wax threads that sometimes point up, but mostly to the side. host plants Abelmoschus esculentus; Amaranthus; Cucurbita maxima; Gossypium hirsutum; Hibiscus cannabinus; Ipomoea batatas; Ricinus communis. Mainly on Ricinus communis,…

Chromatomyia ramosa parasite

Chromatomyia ramosa (Hendel, 1923) on Caprifoliaceae Knautia arvensis, Germany, Schwarzwald, Rohrhardsberg, 24.viii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld Succisa pratensis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Matange-la-Grande, lieu-dit “Champ du Tir” © Stéphane Claerebout detail Dipsacus pilosus, Nieuwendam mine The larvae essentially is a borer in the midrib, but makes from there narrow corridors into…

Gracillariidae parasite

number belong to the Gracillariidae (Sefrová, 2002a, 2003a). websites Much information can be gathered from the website “Global taxonomic database of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera)”, that is maintained by Jurate and Willy De Prins. references Body, Burlat & Giron (2015a), Davis (1987a), Emmet (1985b), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a),Gregor & Patocka (2001a),…

Cosmopterix scribaiella parasite

…in the lowest part of the mine; part of it is ejected through a number of small holes. Both during hibernation as in the pupal stage the larva occupies the lowest part of the mine; the larva has spun a tube here into which it also retracts during feeing pauses…

Ophiomyia cunctata parasite

Ophiomyia cunctata (Hendel, 1920) Taraxacum officinale, Nieuwendam Lapsana communis, Rhenen mine The mine begins as a very narrow, upper- or lower-surface corridor, somewhere in the blade. When this hits a thick vein the larva uses this to descend towards the midrib. From that moment the lave lives in the hollow…

Elachista subalbidella parasite

…Baraniak (1989b), Ford (1943a), Gielis, Huisman, Kuchlein, ao (1985a), Hering (1957a), Huemer (2012a), Kaila, Mutanen, Saarela, Siloaho, Sippola & Tabell (2008a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen ao (2003a), Kozlov & Kullberg (2006a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De…

Teleiopsis diffinis parasite

Teleiopsis diffinis (Haworth, 1828) large groundling on Rumex mijn The young larva makes a slender sinuous gallery with only here and there some frass. Sometimes the mine is widened near the leaf margin into a blotch. The larva may make several mines. Older larvae live free at the underside of…

Gilletteella cooleyi parasite

…Picea abies, alcoquiana, engelmannii, mariana, orientalis, pungens, sitchensis. ​ on Pseudotsuga, secondary host plant Pseudotsuga menziesii, France, dép. Yvelines, Moisson, 2.vi.2018 © Pierre Duhem Pseudotsuga menziesii, Boswachterij Nunspeet © Hans Jonkman Pseudotsuga menziesii, Loenen (gld) © Arnold Grosscurt: feeding damage wax-covered female with eggs Pseudotsuga menziesii, Landgoed Tongeren © Hans…

Caloptilia coruscans parasite

Caloptilia coruscans (Walsingham, 1907) Pistacia lentiscus, France, Corsica, Belgodère, plage de Lozari © Stéphane Claerebout detail larva Schinus molle; from Hering (1927a). mine Epidermal, whitish or brownish corridor, later blotch. The mine can be upper- or lower-surface. In the end the mine is somewhat contracted and has fine folds. The…

Coleophora serratella parasite

…can easily stray onto a plant where they would never feed. Such tramps easily occasion erroneous hostplant associations. Because the four “nigricella‘s” together are quite numerous, the number of such incidental and erroneous references to hostplants in this group is considerable. Kemner (1917a) described a mass occurrence in Sweden, that…

Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans parasite

Gibberella fujikuroi var. subglutinans Edwards, 1933 Plantago lanceolata, Nieuwendam detail, showing two completely galled fruits more or less developed, yet galled, fruit sometimes some of the fruits are completely developed, but the two seeds within are ruined and mouldy Plantago lanceolata, Zwolle: sometimes only a few fruits in an inflorescence…

Fenusa pumila parasite

Fenusa pumila Leach, 1817 Betula pendula, Hungary, Kimle, 30.v.2019 © László Érsek same leaf, underside: the sponge parenchyma is almost wholly untouched, larva in opened mine larva dorsal and ventral head and thorax dorsal head and thorax ventral head and thorax lateral Betula pubescens, Hilversum Betula pubescens, Nunspeet: young mines…

Uromyces graminis parasite

…wall smooth, apically strongly thickened; pedicel stout, persistent, longer than the spore. uredinia, telia Poaceae, monophagous Melica ciliata & subsp. glauca + magnolii, minuta, nutans, transsilvanica. references Brandenburger (1985a), Buhr (1964b), Gäumann (1959a), Gjaerum (1987a), Gjaerum & Sunding (1986a), González-Fragoso (1922a, 1925a), Klenke & Scholler (20915a), Tomasi (2014a), Unamuno (1941b)….

Coleophora prunifoliae parasite

Coleophora prunifoliae Doets, 1944 new sloe case-bearer from Toll (1952a) case Tubular leaf case, 6-7 mm long, light, later dark brown, trivalved, with a mouth angle of 45°. The larva lives at the underside of the leaf, and makes sizeable fleck mines there. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous (?) Betula; Cotoneaster…

Cleopomiarus micros parasite

…co-occur a viable population may survive (Szwaj ao). distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva, pupa Described in detail by Szwaj ea. references Benedikt, Borovec, Fremuth ao (2010a), Bosmans (2012a), Caldara & Legalov (2016a), Delbol (2013a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Szwaj, Łętowski & Pawlęga (2018a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Coleophora coracipennella parasite

…feed. Such tramps easily can lead to erroneous host plant associations. Because the four “nigricella‘s” together are quite abundant, the number of incidental, erroneous hostplant references in this group is considerable. references Aguiar & Karsholt (2006a), Baldizzone (1984a, 2004a), Baldizzone & Nel (1992a), Baldizzone, van der Wolf & Landry (2006a),…

Cheilosia fasciata parasite

Cheilosia fasciata Schiner & Egger, 1853 Allium ursinum, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 28.iv.2018 © László Érsek in the mine the larva lies in deliquescent frass larvae larva, dorsal larva, lateral “head”, lateral larve, ventraal detail of the ventral spiracula, ventral Allium ursinum, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Bomal-sur-Ourthe © Jean-Yves Baugnée larva Allium ursinum,…

Tuta absoluta parasite

Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) tomato leaf-miner on mainly Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculenteum, Peru, Lima © Chris Snyers Source: Pherobank, Wageningen, The Netherlands Lycopersicon esculentum, Westland, ‘s-Gravenzande, 1.viii.2014 © Jan Scheffers: first open air observation larva protruding from the mine larva the species also is a borer in the fruits … ……

Aecidium parasite

Aecidium (Caeoma, Uredo) notes Among the rust species that go through a complete life cycle, most species form aecia and telia on different host plants. Many groups of related species then have their aecial stage on one and the same host species, and their telial stage on an array of…

Dryocosmus kuriphilus parasite

…or more chambers; rudiments of leaves often stick out. One generation, pupation in the gall. Old, lignified galls remain for up to two years on the tree. hostplants Fagaceae, monophagous Castanea crenata, dentata, mollissima, pumila, sativa, seguinii. larva See Viggiani & Nugnes. notes Parthenogenetic, no males ever found. Species native…

Andricus quercuscalicis parasite

…Groom (2011a), Hellrigl (2009a, 2010a) Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Katılmış & Kıyak (2008a), Kemal & Koçak (2010a), Kofler & Zwander (2009a), Kollár (2007a, 2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Marković (2014a), Melika (2006a), Melika,…

Trypeta zoe parasite

…Aartsen & Smit, 2002a); rare (Wakkie, 1994a). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with possible exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva puparium synonyms Forellia zoe; Trypeta zoe artemisicola Hendel. references van Aartsen & Smit (2002a), Ahr (1966a), Baugnée (2006a, 2009a), Beiger (1955a,…

Aploneura lentisci parasite

Aploneura lentisci (Passerini, 1856) mealy grass root aphid on Pistacia, primary host plant Pistacia lentiscus, France, Corsica, Belgodère, plage de Lozari © Stéphane Claerebout opened gall aphid Pistacia lentiscus, Greece, Lesbos, Krátigos Pistacia lentiscus, Spanje, Nerja: opened gall © Arnold Grosscurt old gall Several of these galls occurred in a…

Fenusa altenhoferi parasite

Fenusa altenhoferi (Liston, 1993) on Ulmus Ulmus minor, Duin- en Kruidberg, 2.vi.2005 larva ventral sternum prolegs, abd. 9 ventral view Ulmus laevis, Naardense bos, 21.vi.2007: prepupa mine Very transparent full depth botch with a yellow white larva. The mine can finally occupy a sizable part of the leaf. The mine…

Stigmina carpophila parasite

Stigmina carpophila (Léveillé) Ellis, 1959 on Prunus Prunus persica, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 16.vi.2019 © László Érsek first signs also lesions on on the shoots detail gumming also the fruits may be infected 8.viii.2019: shoot with old infection damaged fruit Prunus mahaleb, Velsen, lg. Velserbeek Prunus laurocerasus, Nieuwendam Prunus padus, Nieuwendam: a…

Synchytridiales parasite

  Chytridiomycota: Chytridiales The zoospores (motile spores, bearing a flagellum) penetrate an epidermis cell of the host plant. Then follows a series of divisions, eventually filling the parasitised cell with a mass that functions as a sporangium. From there new zoospores are released, that infect new cells, and transform there…

Elachista trapeziella parasite

Elachista trapeziella Stainton, 1849 scarce dwarf mine From autumn till early spring the larva makes a quite narrow corridor with a total length of 12-16 cm, essentially running parallel to the leaf venation; the corridor may change direction 2-3 times. Generally the corridor lies about halfway the length of the…

Perizoma incultaria parasite

Perizoma incultaria (Herrich-Schäffer, 1848) Lepidoptera, Geometridae mine Full depth mine; a long, slender, corridor at first. This widens into a blotch that may occupy the largest part of the leaf and then obliterates the corridor. The larvae is able to make a number of mines. Frass in the corridor in…

Cheilosia semifasciata parasite

Cheilosia semifasciata (Becker, 1894) Sedum telephium, Diemen Sedum telephium, Bergen NH: exit slit at the leaf margin Sedum telephium, Nieuwendam: the damage to the plant can be quite severe Sedum telephium, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol © Carina Van Steenwinkel: larva in a young mine (lighted from behind) larva in an…

Syringopais temperatella parasite

Syringopais temperatella (Lederer, 1855) Cyprus, Nikikleia © Ian Barton larva mine The mine mostly begins at the leaf-tip, and may occupy the entire width of the blade. Most frass in the lower part of the mine. hostplants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Hordeum; Triticum. In the Near East a serious pest on…

Ochrodia subdiminutella parasite

Ochrodia subdiminutella (Stainton, 1867) mine Short gallery, followed by a large, reticulate blotch, that may or may not contain frass. The larva can make several mines, and may spin leaves together. Pupation external. host plants Zygophyllaceae, oligophagous Tribulus terrestris; Tetraena album, fontanesii. Outside Europe also Balanites aegytiaca and Zygophyllum guyotii…

Trypeta immaculata parasite

Trypeta immaculata (Macquart, 1835) Pilosella officinarum, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel leaf lighted from behind mine The mine begins with a very narrow full depth corridor, that ends upon the midrib. Subsequently a broad corridor, or rather an elongated blotch, is made, often overlying the midrib; from…

Monochroa arundinetella parasite

Monochroa arundinetella (Stainton, 1858) sedge neb mine Rather narrow, long, corridor, of which the course largely is dictated by the venation; the mine may change direction (up/down). The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation within the mine; pupa in a white cocoon, just above the waterline. Tabell…

Elachista rufocinerea parasite

Elachista rufocinerea (Haworth, 1828) red-brindled dwarf mine Flat, translucent mine that can either run or down; the width may vary too, can be as wide as the blade. Frass few, grey, dispersed. THe larva uses to make several mines. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Arrhenarherum elatius; Holcus mollis; Schedonorus arundinaceus. Traugott-Olsen…

Phyllonorycter emberizaepenella parasite

…in July and September – October (Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson, 1985a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe Europe, except the the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009, A & Z Laštůvka,…

Contarinia scoparii parasite

Contarinia scoparii (Rübsaamen, 1889) on Cytisus Cytisus scoparius, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Arlon, Camp militaire de Lagland leg Sébastien Carbonnelle © Stéphane Claerebout opened gall with larva gall The terminal buds have turned into an ovoid unilocular gall of up to 3 mm. The gall can also consist of an elliptic…

Elachista gangabella parasite

…Corley, Marabuto, Maravalhas, Pires & Cardoso (2008a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Ford (1943a), Hering (1957a), Huemer & Mayr (2000a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), De Prins (1998a), Robbins (1991a), Roweck & Savenkov (2007a), Schütze (1931a),…

Elachista cinereopunctella parasite

Elachista cinereopunctella (Haworth, 1828) grey-spotted dwarf mine Mine generally descending from the leaf tip. The mine may occupy the space between leaf margin and midrib, but may also occupy the entire width of the leaf. Most frass accumulated in the oldest part of the mine. Pupation external; the pupa is…

Elachista bedellella parasite

…references Baldizzone (2004a), Baran, Mazurkiewicz & Pałka (2007a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Biesenbaum (1999a), Bland (1996a), O Hoffmann (1893a), Hering (1957a), Kaila (2007a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Parenti & Domínguez (1995a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Pröse…

Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi parasite

Rhopalomyia chrysanthemi (Ahlberg, 1939) on Chrysanthemum gall Small oval or conical galls of about 2 mm that are obliquely inserted on the leaf, stem, of involucre, often several together. Each contains a white or reddish orange larva. Heavily infested plants are stunted and malformed. In greenhouses a number of overlapping…

Bucculatrix cristatella parasite

…margin of a leaf segment near its tip and eating away as much tissue as it can reach (to about one third of its length). The result is a number of full depth blotch mines. When the larve has become too large even for this strategy, its starts to feed…

Gracillaria syringella parasite

…x intermedia, suspensa, viridissima; Fraxinus americana, angustifolia subsp. oxycarpa, anomala, excelsior, latifolia, nigra, oregona, ornus, quadrangulata, sogdiana; Jasminum nudiflorum; Ligustrum ibota, ovalifolium, vulgare; Osmanthus x burkwoodii; Phillyrea latifolia; Syringa emodi, josikaea, komarowii, x persica, reticulata, tomentella subsp. sweginzowii, vulgaris. In Forsythia the mines remain corridor-like, and the larvae die after…

Phytomyza arnicae parasite

Phytomyza arnicae Hering, 1925 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Upper-surface, rarely lower-surface, shallow, corridor, suddenly widening into a large blotch that may occupy almost the entire leaf, and may have some full-depth spots. Leaf around the mine sometimes with a red-violet discolouration. Frass in small, dispersed, granules. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants…

Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae parasite

Pseudomonas syringae van Hall, 1902 pv. syringae on Prunus gall the infection mostly starts on the flowers (to al lesser degree perhaps also the young foliage); initially they are symptomless, but under moist conditions they may collapse collectively. Via the dead flowers the bacterium may penetrate the fruit, but it…

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana parasite

Zeiraphera ratzeburgiana (Saxesen, 1840) spruce-bud moth Abies grandis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Lompret: possibly a youth mine of ratzeburgiana © Stéphane Claerebout mine The young larva penetrates the top of just opening bud and feeds on the developing needles. While feeding the still young larva may create fleck mines in the…

Ecology introduction

…the degree of toxicity/palatability between leaves of the same plant may also explain why often several mines, sometimes even of different species, may be found on on just one leaf, while a disproportionate number of other leaves are untouched (e.g. Ellis, Kuchlein & Meuleman-ten Broeke, 2001a and literature mentioned there)….

Plant defence introduction

Plant defence leaf abscission Mining larvae perish when their leaf wilts or is absconded prermaturely. It has been found in several studies that mined leaves are earlier to fall than unmined ones, but is does not seem plausible that this is a defense mechanism of the plant (Faeth, Connor &…

Puccinia hemerocallidis parasite

…the species was recorded from Europe for the first time, from Madeira and the Portugese mainland (Silva ea). references Alaei, De Backer, Nuytinck ao (2009a), Gäumann (1969a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Negrean & Anastasiu (2006a), Poelt & Zwetko (1997a, Silva, Carvalho, Nunes ao (2016a), Talhinhas, Carvalho, Figueira & Ramos (2019a)….

Symphytum host plants

…nowhere full depth => 9 4a mines small, usually a large number in a leaf; larva without feet: Phytosciara macrotricha 4b mines usually single; larva with thoracic feet => 5 5a mines quite small; older larvae life free among spun leaves => 6 5b mines of normal size; larvae mine…

Ulmus host plants

…loops, or following a vein or the leaf margin => 7 6a larva yellow; start of corridor a dense spiral: Stigmella lemniscella 6b larva bright green; start of corridor in a number of zigzagging loops: Stigmella viscerella 7a exit slit at upper surface; frass in first part of the corridor…

Chenopodium host plants

…near the coast, lives a number of Coleophora species that feed on the developing fruits. Their cases are so similar that identification is possible only after breeding. Generally, they do not mine the leaves. As far as the literature gives any information, the only species to be regarded as a…

Apteropeda globosa parasite

Apteropeda globosa (Illiger, 1794) mine Rather long corridor winding through the leaf, regularly crossing itself. The corridor later widenes considerably. Frass normally in a narrow central line, but may also lie along the side, or be absent. The larva regularly leaves a mine and restarts elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine….

Lyonetia prunifoliella parasite

…of the pupa. synonyms Lyonetia speculella Clemens, 1862. notes Contrary to what almost is a rule for leaf mines, most prunifoliella mines are in the very youngest leaves. references Aarvik, Karsholt, Larsen & Schnack (1988a), Baryshnikova (2007a), Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Borkowski (2003a), Buhr (1935a, 1964a), Buszko (1981a, 1992b), Ellis…

Apteropeda orbiculata parasite

…ea, Cox, 1997a). M. muscorum feeds on mosses. references Ahr (1966a), Bahillo de la Puebla & Román (2009a), Baviera & Biondi (2015a), Beenen, van Nunen & Winkelman (2006a), Beenen & Winkelman (1993a), Beiger (1960a), Buhr (1933a, 1964a), Cox (1997a), Doguet (1994a), Hering (1924a, 1925a,b, 1930a,b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Konstantinov &…

Ochrosis ventralis parasite

Ochrosis ventralis (Illiger, 1807) mine Narrow full depth corridor, with at least locally the frass in a very thin central line. The mine as a whole is rather long, but the larva may move to another leaf (either exteriorly or through the petiole) and make short corridors in individual leaves….

Stigmella crataegella parasite

…van Nieukerken & Ellis (2009a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1983a, 1987a), Klimesch (1936a, 1940a, 1948a, 1950c), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kurz (2016a), A & Z Laštuvka (1997a), Lhomme (1934c), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Navickaitė, Diškus & Stonis…

Chromatomyia asteris parasite

Chromatomyia asteris (Hendel, 1934) mine Initially lower-surface, later upper-surface corridor, not appreciably widening towards the end. Corridor often strongly contorted. Frass in rather coarse grains, irregularly scattered. Pupation in the mine. The puparium is white, its front spiracula penetrate the plant’s epidermis. host plants Narrowly monophagous Tripolium pannonicum subsp. tripolium….

Mompha miscella parasite

Mompha miscella (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) brown mompha Helianthemum apenninum, België, prov. Namen, Yvoir © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail Helianthemum nummularium, Pietersberg; herbarium material Helianthemum nummularium, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dinant, Anseremme © Jean-Yves Baugnée larvae, at the point of leaving its mine ….. …. and penetrating a new leaf Helianthemum nummularium,…

Liriomyza ptarmicae parasite

Liriomyza ptarmicae de Meijere, 1925 on Achillea, Anthemis, Glebionis Achillea ptarmica, Belgium, prov. Namur, Philippeville, RN les Tournailles, 17.vii.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout Achillea millefolium, Bemelen Achillea ptarmica, Amstelveen, Schinkelbos mine Narrow brownish corridor, either upper- or lower-surface. Frass in strings or pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine. In small leaves…

Liriomyza cepae parasite

Liriomyza cepae (Hering, 1927) mine Generally the mine begins as a fine corridor of variable length. Later the larva lives within the tubular leaves. Frass, at least partly, in green thread fragments. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Alliaceae, monophagous Allium cepa, fistulosum, victorialis. A pest on leek and onions (Darvas,…

a gall guide specials

Koops A small book, designed to de used in the field, with pictures, and a short text, covering 236 of the commonest galls. A sample page is given below. The price in the Netherlands is € 15 (elsewhere in Europa € 19.15). To be ordered from the author, r.j.koops@gmail.com ….

Apamea unanimis parasite

Apamea unanimis (Hübner, 1813) small clouded brindle on grasses parasite Larvae at night on the leaves. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Phalaroides arundinacea; Phragmites australis. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). references Ebert (ed., 1997b), pyrgus (2021)….

Ophiomyia parasite

Ophiomyia Most species of this large genus are miners of the rind of stems or stem borers, and therefore play no role in this site (Spencer, 1964a). An odd species like O. maura makes a very long corridor that winds several times through a leaf, giving the genus its name…

Hedma klimeschi parasite

Hedma klimeschi (Povolný, 1972) mine Initially a spiral corridor; larva eats at night and withdraws near a vein at daytime; later the parenchyma is grazed in glassy stripe-like mines. hostplants Solanaceae, monophagous Withania aristata. distribution within Europe Canary Islands (Teneriffa). larva Yellowish-green, head dark; mature larvae emerald green. synonyms Hedma,…

Digitivalva perlepidella parasite

Digitivalva perlepidella (Stainton, 1849) spikenard fanner mine One or several broad corridors, radiation from the leaf base, often along the midrib, towards the leaf tip widening into a roundish blotch, not containing any frass. The larva, that seems to feed only at night, retreats during feeding pauses in the leaf…

Ectoedemia argyropeza parasite

Ectoedemia argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) virgin pigmy on Populus Populus tremula, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome, 11.x.2014 © Carina Van Steenwinkel Populus tremula, Belgium, prov. Flemish Brabant, Molenstede-Dassenaarde, 6.xi.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel the galled part of the petiole Populus tremula, South England; green islands © Rob…

Ectoedemia hannoverella parasite

Ectoedemia hannoverella (Glitz, 1872) new poplar pigmy Populus x canadensis, Naarderbos Populus x canadensis, Niewendam same mine, lighted from behind Populus x canadensis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, Mariembourg © Stéphane Claerebout: larva in the galled petiole mine Oviposition in the petiole, c. a cm below the base of the leaf….

Ectoedemia klimeschi parasite

Ectoedemia klimeschi (Skala, 1933) mine The egg is deposited on the petiole. Here lives the larva initially as a borer, causing the petiole to swell gall-like somewhat. After the last moult the larva enters the leaf and makes a bloth there. Mostly the blotch is not positioned between two thick…

Cucullia campanulae parasite

Cucullia campanulae Freyer, 1831 on Campanula parasite Larvae (at night) freely on the inflorescence; during the day hidden in the soil etc.. host plants Campanulaceae, monophagous Campanula rotundifolia. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). egg, larva, pupa see Lepiforum. references Ebert (ed., 1997b), Freytag (1997a), Lepiforum (2021), Peslier (2000a)….

Atethmia centrago parasite

Atethmia centrago (Haworth, 1809) centre-barred sallow on Fraxinus parasite Larvae during the night freely on the inflorescence ans buds; at daytime they are hidden among moss at the foot of the tree. host plants Oleaceae, monophagous Fraxinus excelsior. distribution within Europe PESI (2021). egg, larva, pupa see Lepiforum, Wegner. references…

Bucculatrix frangutella cocoon specials

The cocoon of Bucculatrix start of making the cocoon (Wolfheze, 7.x.2007) larva at work the ridges are made by quickly changing the direction of the thread left: where fresh threads touch, they bond together; right: detail of a ridge…

Myzus dianthicola parasite

Myzus dianthicola Hille Ris Lambers, 1966 on Dianthus parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, deep yellow‑green, causing white or yellow spots or blotches on the leaves. Mostly in greenhouses. Closely resembling M. persicae, but distinguishable from that species by the reaction of the host plant hostplants Caryophyllaceae, narrowly monophagous Dianthus caryophyllus. references…

Melanaphis elizabethae parasite

Melanaphis elizabethae (Ossiannilsson, 1967) on Phragmites parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, dark brown, with a light dusting of wax; under the leaves, but mainly in the inflorescence, well concealed by their cryptic colour. hostplants Poaceae, monophagous Phragmites australis. references Blackman & Eastop (2017), Heie (1986a [“M. elisabethae“])….

Tetramesa phragmitis parasite

Tetramesa phragmitis Erdős, 1952 on Phragmites parasiet Up to ten, sometimes even more elliptic gall chambers, each one with a single larva, in the upper part of the culm. hostplants Poaceae, monophagous Phragmites australis. notes In his key to the gall makers of Phragmites, Buhr mentions a “Tetramesa [Isthmosoma] phragmitidis…

Acizzia jamatonica parasite

Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama, 1908) albizia psyllid on Albizia Albizia julibrissin, Hungary, Budapest, arboretum, 23.v.2018 © László Érsek group of larvae detail eggs larva larva dorsal … … and ventral imago copula parasiet The young larvae are transparant-yellow; later they become light green with light brown antennae, legs, and wing pads….

Cinara juniperi parasite

Cinara juniperi (De Geer, 1773) juniper aphid on Juniperus, Thuja Juniperus communis, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall Aphids in small groups on thin twigs, feeding on the needles, preferably on the one year old shoots. The rear tibiae are entirely darkened. Sometimes attended by ants. host…

Taraxacum host plants

Taraxacum dandelion (For a dichotomous table for galls on Taraxacum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head: Orthochaetes setiger 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

History introduction

…is definitely established that the mine of Lyonetia clerkella is caused by a tunnelling insect larva, that originates from an egg. 1737 In the third part of his impressive, six-volume work on the biology of insects de Réaumur described the work, larvae and pupae of quite a number of miners,…

Arundo host plants

Arundo cane, giant cane Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine entirely in the blad: Agromyza graminicola 1b mine begins in the blade, descends into the sheath, where pupation takes place: Cerodontha denticornis 1c mine entirely within the leaf sheath: Cerodontha phragmitophila 1d galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per…

Nardus host plants

Nardus Dichotomous table for leafminers Two Elachistidae species of which the hostplant is not known, have been collected in sites where Nardus was growing, therefore potentially the host: Elachista nielswolffi and triseriatella….

Cotoneaster host plants

Cotoneaster cotoneaster Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b tentiform mine, > 1 cm => 2 1c small (max. 1 cm) tentiform or blotch mine => 8 1d blotch, > 1 cm, without an initial corridor => 15 1e corridor, > 1 cm, may be…

Melilotus host plants

Melilotus melilot (For a dichotomous table for galls on Melilotus by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a strongly inflated tentiform mine => 2 1b corridor or blotch => 3 1c fleck mine; larve mines from a helicoidal case: Apterona helicoidella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all…

Amsinckia host plants

Amsinckia fiddleneck Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a large brown blotch: cf. Agromyza abiens 1b galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species Steven IJland sent me dried material that he had collected near the Hague in mid May. The mine was a brown blotch of ca. 4 cm without…

Smilax host plants

Smilax greenbriers Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a full depth corridor or blotch; often a silken web under the leaf, in which frass grains are stuck; larva with sclerotised head: Acrolepiopsis vesperella 1b galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Erodium host plants

Erodium heron’s bill (For a dichotomous table for galls on Erodium by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: small, full depth blotch without frass, with a relatively opening by which the larvae has accessed the leaf tissue => 2 1b no fleck mine, but a…

full depth

Mine where (almost) all the leaf tissue between upper and lower epidermis has been eaten away….

Sphaeropsidales

Deuteromycetes, subgroup Coelomycetes, that form their spores in a pycnidium. It is an artificial grouping, purely based on the form, not on a systematic relationship….

Colophon Uncategorized

…Henrik Bruun Dr. Csóka György Dr Zdeněk Laštůvka Dr Erik van Nieukerken Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell for making aphids an attractive object of study with their website: InfluentialPoints Dr Malcolm Storey, for permission to use the illustrations of his wonderful collection BioImages Acta zoologica Academiae Scientiarum hungaricae Acta zoologica…

Acarodomatia introduction

Acarodomatia The word acarodomatium means something akin to ‘house for mites’. The term is used for structures in plant leaves that seem to have been developed to enable mites to withdraw, or even establish. The best known acarodomatia are the hair bundles in the axils of lateral veins, like for…

Psylloidea Uncategorized

Bactericera larva © Sébastien Carbonnelle underside gall The number of Psylloidea living, mostly monophagously, on Salix is considerable. Probably the effect of the infestation will not differ much from one species to the other: small hypophyllous pits, each one housing a flattened larva, and, under more heavy infestation, curling, especially…

Upper- of lower-surface introduction

…possilby because the sponge parenchyma is less nutritious than the palissade parenchyma. Aulagromyza tridentata on White Willow: lower-surface mine alternating An odd agromyzid species starts by making an upper-surface mine, to continue it at the lower surface. Many more species start at the leaf under side, and continue with an…

Egg introduction

…syngenesiae on Dandelion: oviposition scar Some agromyzids deposit their eggs in a row or arc. Agromyza ferruginosa on Comfrey Agromyza ferruginosa on Comfrey transparancy The eggs (two on tihs picture) end in thin filament. Agromyza ferruginosa The oviposition scars of sawflies are sometimes recognisable as green pimples, in equal number…

Jacksonia papillata parasite

Jacksonia papillata Theobald, 1923 on grasses parasite Apterae ± 2 mm, brownish green, olive-green, dull greenish yellow or reddish, slightly wax-powdered on underside, with brown head, antennae and legs, dark-tipped siphunculi and dark cauda. At the basal, colourless parts of the plants where they are well camouflaged among the dead…

Epiblema costipunctana parasite

Epiblema costipunctana (Haworth, 1811) ragwort bell on Jacobaea parasite The larve bore in the roots; further to the south, where the species has a second generation, the summer generation larva lives as a stem borer. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Jacobaea vulgaris. phenology One or two generations, depending on the region;…

Cryptomyzus stachydis parasite

Cryptomyzus stachydis (Heikinheimo, 1955) on Ribes, primary host plant parasite Apterae ± 3 mm, pale yellowish, whitish or pale green, with a spinal row of green spots. On young leaves, causing yellowish vein-banding. hostplants Grossulariaceae, monophagous Ribes “x cultorum”. on Galeopsis, Lamium, Stachys, secondary host plants hostplants Lamiaceae, oligophagous Galeopsis…

Eucosma hohenwartiana parasite

Eucosma hohenwartiana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) bright bell on Centaurea parasite Larvae in the flower heads; pupation in the soil. host plants Asteraceae, ? monophagous Centaurea nigra. phenology Univoltine; hibernation as larva. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Body light yellow, head licht brown; see Swatschek. pupa See Patočka &…

Stictocephala bisonia parasite

…Karataş (2021a), Dabry (0000a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gjonov & Shishiniova (2014a), Gourvès (2011a), Hörren, Enß & Bodingbauer (2019a), Lauterer, Malenovský & Špryňar (2011a), Malenovský, Baňař & Kment (2011a), Malenkovský & Lauterer (2012a), Mazzoni (2005a), Mühlethaler, Holzinger, Nickel & Wachmann (2018a), Musik & Taszakowski (2013a), Pérez Hidalgo, Mier Durante &…

Dineura testaceipes parasite

Dineura testaceipes (Klug, 1816) on Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Sorbus parasite The larvae live freely at the upper side of the leaves, causing extensive window feeding. They rest at the underside of a leaf. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous Cotoneaster melanocarpus; Crataegus; Sorbus aria, aucuparia, intermedia. phenology Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a…

Dineura stilata parasite

Dineura stilata (Klug, 1816) on Crataegus etc. parasite The larvae live freely at the upper side of the leaves, causing extensive window feeding. They rest at the underside of a leaf. host plants Rosaceae, ? monophagous Cotoneaster melanocarpa, niger; Crataegus laevigata; Sorbus aucuparia. phenology Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a…

Dineura virididorsata parasite

Dineura virididorsata (Retzius, 1783) on Betula parasite The larvae live freely at the upper side of the leaves, causing extensive window feeding. They rest at the underside of a leaf. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula pendula, pubescens. phenology Univoltine; the larva hibernates in a cocoon in the litter. distribution within…

Tremex fuscicornis parasite

Tremex fuscicornis (Fabricius, 1787) polyphagous parasite Oviposition in the stem of dying or dead trees, especially where the bark already has statrted to split. Simultaneously with the eggs the female deposits spores of a fungus, Cerena unicolor (Bulliard) Murrill, 1903, the mossy maze polypore (Polyporales). The larva bores in the…

Dichrorampha alpinana parasite

Dichrorampha alpinana (Treitschke, 1830) broad-blotch drill on Leucanthemum parasite The larvae bore in the roots. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Leucanthemum vulgare. phenology Univoltine, hibernation as larva distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Body whitish; head and prothoracic plate light brown (Swatschek). pupa See Patočka & Turčáni. notes Heckford observed that…

Selania leplastriana parasite

Selania leplastriana (Curtis, 1906) cabbage piercer Moricandia arvensis, Spain; from Hering (1936b) mine Normally the larva bores in the stem and side shoots; the frass is elected through a hole in the stem (Bradley ao, 1979a). Hering (1936b, 1957a) found that in Moricandia a broad corridor is made alongside the…

Stemmatophora brunnealis parasite

Stemmatophora brunnealis (Treitschke, 1829) polyphagous on herbs parasite The larva feeds on the lower leaves from a very long white silken tube that reaches down deeply in the soil, between the roots of the host plant, and where it retreats during the day and upun disturbance, and were also the…

Eucosma fulvana parasite

Eucosma fulvana Stephens, 1834 fulvous bell on Centaurea parasite Larvae in the flower heads; pupation in the soil. host plants Asteraceae, ? monophagous Centaurea scabiosa. phenology Univoltine; hibernation as larva. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva Body light yellow, dorsally with red spots, head licht brown; see Swatschek. notes Eucosma…

Endothenia oblongana parasite

Endothenia oblongana (Haworth, 1811) downland marble on Plantago (etc.?) parasite The larvae bore in the rootstock. host plants polyphagous? Knautia arvensis; Plantago lanceolata. Records from other plants, especially when it implies references to flower heads, need further scrutiny: Centaurea jacea, nigra; Cirsium oleraceum, palustre; Dipsacus fullonum; Galeopsis; Odontites vernus, vulgaris;…

Calyciphora nephelodactyla parasite

Calyciphora nephelodactyla (Eversmann, 1844) on Cirsium parasite Larvae free at the undersides of the laves, causing conspicuous window feeding. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Cirsium eriophorum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). larva, pupa Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Nel, Patočka & Turčáni. synonyms Alucita nephelodactyla. references Burmann (1986a), Gielis (1996a),…

Strongylogaster mixta parasite

Strongylogaster mixta (Klug, 1817) on varens parasite Larvae free on the leaves. host plants Pteridophyta, narrowly polyphagous Athyrium filix-femina; Dryopteris dilatata, filix-mas; Pteridium aquilinum. Macek regularly found the larvae, exclusively on Athyrium filix-femina. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). larva See Macek. references Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Haris (2018a), Macek (2010a,…

Aphthona nonstriata parasite

Aphthona nonstriata (Goeze, 1777) iris flea beetle on Iris parasite Oviposition at the base of the leaf. The larvae descend as miners down to the rhizome where they continue as borers. host plants Iridaceae, monophagous Iris pseudacorus. phenology Univoltine; hibernation as imago. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). pupa See Steinhausen…

Pristiphora melagonia parasite

Pristiphora melagonia Liston & Prous, 2020 on Acer parasite Larvae free on the leaves. host plants Sapindaceae, monophagous Acer monspessulanum. Also observed in a region where this maple species does not occur. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references Liston & Prous (2020a)….

Hypoborus ficus parasite

Hypoborus ficus Erichson, 1836 fig bark beetle on Ficus, etc. Ficus; at left the gallery system in the decorticated wood (below a biramous boord gallery, on top a blister-like brood gallery); at right the cortex, damaged where it is positioned over a brood gallery © C. Allgaier, from Gebhardt. parasite…

Laburrus pellax parasite

Laburrus pellax (Horváth, 1903) on Galatella parasite Larvae and adults free on the leaves. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Galatella linosyris. Also recorded in gardens, where Galatella was absent; possibly there on some Aster. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references Malenovský, Baňař & Kment (2011a), Mühlethaler, Holzinger, Nickel & Wachmann (2018a),…

Sphenoptera pilosula parasite

Sphenoptera pilosula Jakovlev, 1887 on Salsola, etc. parasite The larvae bore in the branches, descending towards the root crown and the roots, where the pupation takes place. host plants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Salsola oppositifolia, vermiculata; Suaeda vera. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2021). references López Vergara, Baena & Castro Tovar (2015a), Murria…

Philomyrmex insignis parasite

Philomyrmex insignis Sahlberg, 1848 on Pinus parasite Associated with fallen pine cones, where the larvae suck the seeds. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus sylvestris. references Deckert (2004a), Ferenca, Tamutis, Martinaitis & Pūtys (2011a), Göricke (2009a), Péricart (1998b), Schmidt (2015a)….

Enarmonia formosana parasite

Enarmonia formosana (Scopoli, 1763) cherry-bark moth on Rosaceae parasite The larva bores in the bark, especially in the thick bark at the foot of older trees en in places where the bark already is swollen by old wounds or cankers. The presence of the larve in its turn causes gumming…

Eupoecilia ambiguella parasite

Eupoecilia ambiguella (Hübner, 1796) vine moth, european grape berry moth polyphagous on berry bearing plants parasite The larvae live within the berries, feeding on the pulp and the seeds. host plants Acer campestre; Cornus mas, sanguinea; Frangula alnus; Hedera helix; Ligustrum; Lonicera periclymenum; Rhamnus cathartica; Syringa x persica; Viburnum; Vitis…

Aphis thomasi parasite

Aphis thomasi (Börner, 1950) on Lomelosia, Scabiosa parasite Apterae ± 1 mm, straw yellow; at the root collar, ant-attended. host plants Caprifoliaceae, oligophagous Lomelosia argentea; Scabiosa columbaria, ochroleuca, triandra. Occasional observations on Dipsacus fullonum; Knautia arvensis, integrifolia; Lomelosia rutifolia; Sixalix atropurpurea. references Blackman & Eastop (2018), Buhr (1965a), Görür, Tepeci̇k,…

Lichtensia viburni parasite

Lichtensia viburni Signoret, 1873 viburnum cushion scale polyphagous on woody plants Viburnum, 4.iv.2015 © Roy Kleukers, Nederlands SoortenRegister; det. Maurice Jansen: 3rd instar larvae Olea europaea; male shield © Jeanne Daumal, INRA adult, but not yet ovigerous female (from Malumphy, 2015a) Hedera helix, ovisac (from Jansen, 2009a). parasite The eggs…

Cinara montanicola parasite

Cinara montanicola (Börner, 1939) on Pinus parasite Apterae 2-4 mm, grey-brown with variably-developed black dorsal markings, sometimes lightly dusted with wax. Preferring undersides of 2- to 3-year old branches including sections without needles, often in sheltered positions near the ground. Colonies may be very dense and are attended by ants….

Melanaphis bambusae parasite

Melanaphis bambusae (Fullaway, 1910) on bamboo parasite Apterae ± 1 mm, dark brown to black with waxy grey dorsal abdominal markings, legs and antennae mainly pale. Ant-attended. hostplants Poaceae, narrowly oligophagous Arundinaria; Bambusa; Phyllostachys aurea, bambusoides, nigra; Shibataea kumasasa. notes In Japan, where the species is native, it has a…

Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale parasite

Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale (Sasaki, 1899) rice root aphid on Prunus, primary host plant parasite Apterae 2-3 mm, reddish or greenish-brown with bluish-white mealy wax on sides of body and forming dorsal cross-bands. In spring colonies on young leaves, stems and suckers. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Prunus armeniaca. domestica. polyphagous on secondary…

Schizaphis graminum parasite

Schizaphis graminum (Rondani, 1852) greenbug aphid on grasses Avena spec., USA © Kent Loeffler parasite Apterae 1-2 mm. Mainly on the leaves, often causing yellowing. host plants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Agrostis curtisii; Alopecurus geniculatus; Anisantha diandra; Anthoxanthum aristatum; Avena sativa, sterilis; Brachypodium retusum; Cynodon dactylon; Dactylis glomerata; Elytrigia intermedia; Holcus…

Brevipalpus lewisi parasite

Brevipalpus lewisi (McGregor, 1949) polyphagous mite, dorsal view (from Ueckermann, Palevsky, Gerson ao) parasite Body (“idiosoma”) laterally ochraceous, centrally orange red and brown. Mites mainly at the underside of the leaves and on the fruits, where they cause silvering and scab-like scars. host plants Actinidia deliciosa; Alnus subcordata; Aphelandra squarrosa;…

Ophiomyia spenceri parasite

Ophiomyia spenceri Černý, 1985 on Achillea, Centaurea parasite The larva makes an inconspicuous gallery mine in the bark of the stem, slightly darker dan the stem itself. The gallery descends to about ground level, ending in a leaf axil where pupation takes place. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Achillea millefolium; Centaurea…

Aulagromyza galii parasite

Aulagromyza galii Groschke (1957) on Galium mine The larva makes almost full depth broad galleries or blotches in the leaves of several whorls above each other. If a whorl consists of very small leaves several in one whorl may be mined. The larva moves from one whorl to the other…

Venturia pyrina parasite

Venturia pyrina Aderhold,1896 pear scab on Pyrus Pyrus communis, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 27.vi.2012 © László Érsek fissures develop galled leaf Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Kerkhoven, den Tip, 31.v.2018 © Carina Van Steenwinkel same leaf, underside detail of a leaf spot damaged fruit conidia formation conidia gall During the summer leaf…

Dialeurodes citri parasite

Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, 1885) citrus whitefly polyphagous, mainly on Citrus puparia © Florida Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org parasite Puparia on the undersides of the leaves, sometimes in high densities, causing chlorosis and malformations of the leaves. host plants Citrus aurantium, limon, nobilis,…

Aculops benakii parasite

…protected by the stellate hairs. Yellow leaf spots develop, where the stellate hairs have been dropped. host plants Oleaceae, monophagous Olea europaea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Aculus benakii. references Hatzinikolis (1969a), Kapaxidi (2013a), Nuzzaci & Parenzan (1983a), Shahini, Kullaj, Çakalli & de Lillo (2009a), Vidović & Petanović (2008a)….

Pseudoperapion brevirostre parasite

…monophagous Hypericum elegans, hirsutum, maculatum, perforatum, triquetrifolium. phenology Univoltine. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Apion, Perapion, brevirostre. references Behne (1987a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Forbicioni, Abbazzi, Bellò ao (2019a), Friedman & Freidberg (2007a), Hodge (2011a), Podlussány (1986a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Lixus scabricollis parasite

Lixus scabricollis Boheman, 1842 on Amaranthaceae parasite The young larva mines in the rind of petiole and stem, then penetrates into the stem and gradually descends to about the root collar, where the pupation takes place. host plants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Atriplex; Beta vulgaris & subsp. maritima; Chenopodium; Spinacia. distribution within…

Rhinoncus bruchoides parasite

…to the root collar, where the pupation takes place. Sometimes several larvae in a stem. host plants Polygonaceae, narrowly oligophagous Persicaria hydropiper, lapathifolia, maculosa; Polygonum aviculare. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Hoebeke & Whitehead (1980a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Tapeinotus sellatus parasite

…the root collar, where the pupation takes place. host plants Primulaceae, monophagous Lysimachia thyrsiflora, vulgaris. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). larva, pupa See Gosik. synonyms Tapinotus sellatus. references Bosmans (2012a), Delbol (2013), Dieckmann (1972a), Gosik (2009b), Morris (1982a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Scholze (1991a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Coeliodinus phrymos parasite

…where the pupation occurs. host plants Betulaceae, monofaag Betula nana, pendula, pubescens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Coeliodes, Coeliodinus, rubicundus (Herbst, 1795 sensu Paykull, 1800). references Alonso-Zarazaga, Colonnelli & Caldara (2017a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Knutelski & Surowiak (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Hadroplontus trimaculatus parasite

…Pupation almost certainly in the soil. host plants Asteraceae-Cardueae, oligophagous Carduus acanthoides, bourgeanus, crispus, myriacanthus, nutans, pycnocephalus, tenuiflorus; Cirsium vulgare; Echinops sphaerocephalus; Galactites; Onopordum; Silybum marianum. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Ceutorhynchidius, Ceutorhynchus, trimaculatus. references Alonso Zarazaga (1983a), Behne (1981a), Boldt & Campobasso (1981a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a),…

Cheilosia nebulosa parasite

Cheilosia nebulosa (Verrall, 1871) on knapweed parasite The biology is unknown, but Doczkal observed how eggs were deposited on low leaves. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Centaurea nigra. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Doczkal (2002a), Speight (2017a) ….

Merodon loewi parasite

Merodon loewi van der Goot, 1954 on ? Gladiolus parasite Larvae in the tubers. host plants Iridaceae, monofaag ? Gladiolus. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). notes Hurkmans observed oviposition behaviour on Gladiolus spec. (not Ornithogalum, as is stated by Speight); however, no eggs were discovered. references Hurkmans (1988a), Ricarte, Souba-Dols,…

Novophytoptus luzulis host plant species

Novophytoptus luzulis Chetverikov, 2015 on Luzula parasite Mites live under the leaf epidermis in spaces of mesophyll where they feed on parenchymatous cells. Such feeding putatively causes necrosis of tissues, resulting in a light brown colour of the infested leaf area. host plants Juncaceae, monophagous Luzula pilosa. references Chetverikov (2015a)….

Argyresthia cupressella parasite

Argyresthia cupressella Walsingham, 1890 cypress-tip moth Thuja (?) © Robert W. Duncan Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, British Columbia, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service mine During autumn the larva mines a mere 9-12 leaves – the damage is quite inconspicuous. Hibernation occurs within the mine, and during mild days feeding…

Semiaphis horvathi parasite

Semiaphis horvathi Szelegiewicz, 1967 on Peucedanum parasite Apterae pale brown, lightly dusted with wax, ± 2 mm, at shoot tips where the leaves are malformed. host plants Apiaceae, monophagous Peucedanum alsaticum, officinale. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references Blackman & Eastop (2020), Roskam (2019a)….

Cacoecimorpha pronubana parasite

Cacoecimorpha pronubana (Hübner, 1799) carnation tortrix mine Generally the “Mediterranean carnation leafroller” is not a leafminer, but in plants with a thick cuticula the first larval instar may be forced to mine. The result then is a full depth gallery of some cm with irregularly scalloped sides; all frass is…

Phytomyza ilicis parasite

Phytomyza ilicis Curtis, 1846 holly leafminer on Ilex Ilex aquifolium, Nieuwendam, 19.viii.2002 oviposition scars, leaf underside Ilex aquifolium, Nieuwendam, 8.xii.2007: very young mines Nieuwendam, 30.iii.2009. Three mines, already in the puparium phase, with a lower-surface part; the middle one hit by bird predation. Ilex aquifolium, landgoed de Dellen, 7.xii.2015 ©…

Amauromyza chenopodivora parasite

Amauromyza chenopodivora Spencer, 1971 mine The larva bores in the pith of the stem, and eats this out while descending as low as the root collar. But before that it makes a linear mine in the green rind of the stem. Occasionally oviposition takes place on a leaf, leading to…

Aulagromyza cornigera puparium parasite

Aulagromyza cornigera Lonicera periclymenum, Ommen, het Laar: fresh puparium Lonicera periclymenum, Castricum: front and rear spiraculum A unique character of the puparium is the possession of a transverse row of cherry-red shining papillae on each segment. They correspond with water-clear, difficult observable papillae, perhaps campaniform sensillae, in the larva. 29.xi.2007…

Cerodontha elbergi parasite

Cerodontha elbergi Nowakowski, 1972 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Upper- of lower-surface corridor, descending, possibly with some reversals, often as far down as the leaf sheath. Frass in one big lump. Pupation within the mine. hostplants Poaceae, monophagous Sesleria sadlerana subsp. tatrae. Adults have also been collected in the lowland, where the…

Cerodontha hennigi parasite

Cerodontha hennigi Nowakowski, 1967 mine At least part of the mine consists of a very long, narrow, full depth corridor that is almost free of frass. The larva moves from one leaf to the other by way of the leaf sheath; most frass to be found in the leaf sheaths….

Psychoides filicivora parasite

Psychoides filicivora (Meyrick, 1937) fern smut mine Usually the larva lives free under the leaf, under an irregular mass of spun soredia and frass. The larva feeds on the sori, and larva betrays its presence as a sorus on an unusual place. Sometimes also elongate full depth blotches are made….

Liriomyza myrsinitae parasite

Liriomyza myrsinitae Hering, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Blotch, upper-or lower-surface, but when several larvae share a mine, wihch frequently occurs, the mine gets a number of full depth spots. The blotch is preceded by a short corridor (may have been overrun by the later blotch, but then stilll recognisable in…

Liriomyza orbona parasite

Liriomyza orbona (Meigen, 1830) mine Unknown. host plants Poaceae, probably oligophagous Avena; Deschampsia; Hordeum murinum; Poa. Avena, Deschampsia, and Poa are mentioned by Benavent, Martínez, Moreno & Jiménez (2004a). Where and how they have arrived at this association is not stated. BENELUX BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). NE recorded…

Ophiomyia melandricaulis parasite

Ophiomyia melandricaulis Hering, 1943 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine The mine generally starts as a fine, lower-surface, corridor the seems to end upon a thick vein. In reality the corridor continues by way of the petiole to the stem, where a very long mine is formed in the rind. Frass in widely…

Phytomyza arnicicola parasite

Phytomyza arnicicola Lundquist, 1949 mine Corridor, up to 100 long and 2-3 mm wide, with conspicuous primary feeding lines and frass in very large, widely dispersed grains. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Arnica angustifolia. Because the species has also been found in Czechia, where angustifolia does not…

Phytomyza conyzae parasite

…1931; Ph. riveriae Hering, 1932; Ph. inulina Hering, 1932. parasitoids, predators Seladerma diffine. notes Hering (1967a) noted that in southern Europe (Italy, Dalmacia) the number of papillae on the rear spiraculum is considerably reduced, between 9 and 12. Also Beri (1971e) presents a description of the larvae; but because his…

Phytomyza crassiseta parasite

Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860 on Veronica Veronica officinalis, Belgium, prov. Liège, Couthuin © Jean-Yves Baugnée Veronica chamaedrys, Duin- en Kruidberg Veronica officinalis, Belgium, Prov. Namur, Couvin, Petigny, Barrage du Ry de Rome © Stéphane Claerebout same mine, lighted from behind mine Wide upper-surface corridor. The first part closely follows the…

Phytomyza hellebori parasite

…in the Netherlands (Storey, 2004a). However, in Belgium the species was seen in a considerable number of natural habitats (Mortelmans ao, 2014a). references Beiger (1979a), Buhr (1941b), Černý & Merz (2006a), Csóka (2003a), Guglya (2021a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1924b, 1932e, 1957a), Ludwig (1907a), Maček (1999a), de Meijere (1926a), Mortelmans, Boeraeve,…

Phytomyza heringiana parasite

Phytomyza heringiana Hendel, 1922 Malus domestica, Belgium, Antwerp, old mine poto Chris Snyers same mine, lighted from behind Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin (Frasnes), Carrière des Grosses Haies © Stéphane Claerebout detail of the same mine, lighted from behind mine Very shallow, irregularly branched corridor, sometimes a narrow blotch….

Phytomyza plantaginis parasite

Phytomyza plantaginis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851 Plantago lanceolata, Belgium, prov. East Flanders, Oudenaarde, bos t’Ename © Carina Van Steenwinkel the galleries are relatively narrow and the frass grains are small and very widely spaced puparium, as seen in transparency puparium, hypophyllous Plantago major, Harderwijk mine Strikingly narrow corridor, upper-surface or lower-surface, often…

Agromyza frontella parasite

Agromyza frontella (Rondani, 1875) on Medicago, etc. Medicago sativa, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 14.v.2012 © László Érsek: vacated mine another specimen Medicago sativa, Hungary, Darnózseli, 1.vii.2016, occupied mine detail of the opened mine alfalfa blotch leafminer Trifolium pratense, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle, 29.viii.2013 © Jean-Yves Baugnée Trifolium repens, Belgium, prov. Liège, Angleur,…

Phytomyza senecionis parasite

Phytomyza senecionis Kaltenbach, 1869 on Senecio s.l. Senecio ovatus, Amstelveen, JP Thijsssepark, 7.vii.2018© Cor Zonneveld another specimen Senecio ovatus, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler same mine, detail mine Long to very long, upper-surface corridor. Often the corridor over long distances closely follows the main vein (it never is positioned on top of…

Phytomyza tanaceti host plant genus, parasite

…vulgare. Spencer (1976a) includes Achillea millefolium, but this may stem from the mistake by de Meijere (see “notes”, below). phenology Larvae from June to September (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX BE recorded (Ellis: Nismes). NE recorded (Ellis, numerous localities). LUX recorded (Elis: Kautenbach, Ahn). distribution within Europe From Scandinavia and Finland to…

Phytomyza veronicicola parasite

Phytomyza veronicicola Hering, 1925 mine Upper-surface corridor, without association with the leaf margin. First part of the mine more or less straight. The following part consists of a densely wound corridor, often forming a secondary blotch. The final section again is more or less straight, and ends upon a pupal…

Ptochomyza mayeri parasite

Ptochomyza mayeri (Spencer, 1966) Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Very narrow, whitish upper-surface corridor that starts somewhere on the leaf and descends towards the leaf base; from here a few short branches reenter the leaf disk, but in the end the corridor goes down throught the petiole into the pith of the…

Chirosia griseifrons parasite

Chirosia griseifrons (Séguy, 1923) on Athyrium, ? Dryopteris cephalic skeleton (from Dušek) puparium mine Long corridor in the petiole, descending to the very base, then again running upwards. The petiole turns black and the leaf is strongly malformed and underdeveloped. The corridor lies rather deep over its entire length; unlike…

Chirosia histricina parasite

Chirosia histricina (Rondani, 1866) Pteridium aquilinum, België, prov. Henegouwen, Thuin, Bois de la Frégène; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Pteridium aquilinum, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Thuin, Bois de la Frégène; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Pteridium aquilinum, Rhenen Pteridium aquilinum, Savelsbosch mine Large full depth blotch, covering the entire distal part of a pinnula. The…

Lipara parasite

The larvae of this genus, and the galls they induce, are the centre of a complex community of predator, parasitoids, inquilines and secondary occupants, that has attracted much investigations. See for instance Bogusch, Astapenková & Heneberg (2015a) and Grochowska….

Scaptomyza griseola parasite

Scaptomyza griseola (Zetterstedt, 1847) mine Narrow corridor, leading to a large blotch. The blotch has lower- and upper-surface parts, and is full depth where these overlap. Pupation external (Robbins, 1991a). hostplants Brassicaceae (?), Caryophyllaceae (?), Potamogetonaceae Potamogeton polygonifolius. Máca (1972a) mentions with some reservation an observation on Stellaria media; Robbins…

Americina vittata parasite

Americina vittata (Meigen, 1826) Paris quadrifolia, Belgium, prov Hainaut, Chimay, Virelles © Sébastien Carbonnelle mine Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Monocots (Asparagales): narrowly polyphagous Cephalanthera damasonium, rubra; Convallaria majalis;…

Tephritis praecox parasite

Tephritis praecox (Löw, 1844) on Calendula, Filago gall the larvae live in the flower heads. hostplants Asteraceae, oligophagous Calendula arvensis, suffruticosa subsp. maderensis; Filago gallica. Because flies have been caught in sites where none of the plants mentioned here did occur, the list of host plants certainly is still incomplete…

Terellia tussilaginis parasite

Terellia tussilaginis (Fabricius, 1775) on Arctium gall the larva develops in a hardly modified achene. Its presence is recognisable by a tiny hole near the upper end, and a much larger hole near the base. The larva is solitary and pupates within the achene. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Arctium lappa,…

Trypeta artemisiae parasite

…unusually large. For a number of years I have assumed that these were mines of T. zoe, but the constant absence of a narrow initial corridor has convinced me that these too are mines of artemisiae. Tanacetum vulgare, Arnhem, mine in transparancy same mine, from above references van Aartsen &…

Blastomyia origani parasite

Blastomyia origani (Tavares, 1901) on Origanum Origanum vulgare, Belgium, Agimont © Gérard Minet gall The observer found numerous yellowish larvae. According to the literature the larvae are red. host plants Lamiaceae, monofaag Origanum compactum, vulgare & subsp. virens. synonyms Oligotrophus origani. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a),…

Dasineura medullaris parasite

Dasineura medullaris (Kieffer, 1891) on Salix gall orange larvae in the pith of externally completely normal twigs. The larvae hibernate in the gall, pupate in spring just below the epidermis, where the can be recognised by a circular yellow spot. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Salix aurita. larva and pupa Larva…

Agromyza mobilis larva parasite

Reservation The identification of these larvae has not be confirmed by breeding; they therefore can just as well be A. nigrella! Elytrigia repens, Nieuwendam ‘head’ and rear end front and rear spiraclum, dorsal mandible and rear spiraculum, lateral mouth field ? Dactylis glomerata, Diemen As the pictures show, the larva…

Agromyza alnivora parasite

…plants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus glutinosa, incana. phenology Larvae in June-October; bivoltine, according to Robbins (1991a). BENELUX BE observed (Chris Steeman, Paul Fontaine, 2007 in corr.) NE Can be found in practically every clump of alder trees, but the number of mines per tree is mostly limited. LUX observed (Ellis: Kautenbach,…

Galiomyza violiphaga parasite

Galiomyza violiphaga (Hendel, 1932) Viola reichenbachiana, Belgium, prov. Namur, Agimont; © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind Viola cf. riviniana, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-weiler mine Large, conspicuous, upper-surface, whitish blotch, preceded by a short, in the end generally overrun, corridor. Most frass in fine grains; part of it lies in a…

Puccinia dioicae parasite

Puccinia dioicae Magnus, 1877 on Asteraceae Cirsium dissectum, England, North-east Yorkshire, VC62 © Malcolm Storey, BioImages gall Spermogonia epiphyllous. Aaecia hypophyllous, cupulate; peridium white, divided in segments, curved outwards; spore mass orange. spermogonia, aecia Asteraceae, oligophagous Centaurea benedicta; Cirsium arvense, canum, carniolicum, dissectum, eriophorum, erisithales, heterophyllum, monspessulanum, oleraceum, palustre, rivulare,…

Adelgidae parasite

…female then deposits her eggs on plant species A; the progeny develops there but, once full grown migrates to plant species B, where a number of parthenogenetic generations follow. Against the end of the season along with females also males are formed, and the cycle restarts. Plant species A, the…

Cynipidae parasite

…ao (2008a) has demonstrated that the number of Andricus species with only an agamous generations is small, or perhaps non-existing. The development of the gall is steered by the saliva of the wasp larva. This forms an interesting contrast with the situation in sawflies (Tenthredinidae, the “Pontania-complex”), where gall formation…

Peronosporaceae parasite

Peronosporaceae “Downy mildews” The dowwny mildews differ from the Albuginaceae by the fact that the “conidia” are not formed below the epidermis of the host plant, but externally, borne on a conidiopore: a vertically erect, thickened hypha, up to almost a milimeter in height, that apically is repeatedly branching, each…

Pucciniaceae parasite

Pucciniaceae The most speciose family of the Uredinales. The most important differentiating character is that the teliospores are pedicellate. The largest two genera are Puccinia, with two-celled teliospores, and Uromyces where they are one-celled. references Gäumann (1959a). 11/10/2015…

Aceria astragali parasite

Aceria astragali (Liro, 1940) Acari, Eriophyidae on Astragagus gall leaflets are small and rolled in downwards. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Astragalus alpinus, arenarius, glycyphyllos. Also found on A. frigidus, where the mite lived free on the leaves, without causing galling. references Buhr (1964b), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1950a,…

Aceria loewi parasite

Aceria loewi (Nalepa, 1890) on (Ligustrum), Syringa gall the buds are swollen and disfigured, turn brown. hostplants Oleaceae, ± monophagous Syringa x chinensis, josikaea, vulgaris. Occasionally on Ligustrum ovalifolium, where both plants coexist. synonyms Eriophyes, Phytoptus, loewi. references Buhr (1964a, 1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Farkas (1965a), Fjelddalen (1995a), Hellrigl…

Eriophyes platani parasite

Eriophyes platani Domes, 2002 Acari, Eriophyidae on Paatanus gall the mites are inquilines in the mines of Phyllonorycter platani. The can be found at the outer margin of the mines, next to the living leaf tissue. hostplants Platanaceae, monophagous Platanus hispanica, orientalis. references Domes (2002a), Denizhan, Monfreda, de Lillo &…

Taphrina pseudoplatani parasite

Taphrina pseudoplatani (Massalongo) Jaap, 1917 on Acer asci (rom Mix, 1949a) gall leaf spots, up to a cm large, weakly thickened, grey to blackish with indefinite margin, where a layer of asci is formed. host plants Sapindaceae, narrowly monophagous Acer pseudoplatanus. references Buhr (1964b), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Mix (1949a),…

Septoria aegopodii parasite

Septoria aegopodii (Roth) Petrak, 1921 on Aegopodium Aegopodium podagraria, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 23.v.2018 © László Érsek infested leaf, upper side underside acervuli extruded conidia massa Aegopodium podagraria, Tongeren: underside of the leaf © Arnold Grosscurt Aegopodium podagraria, Overveen: detail of the underside, with acervuli From the acervuli a mass of conidia…

Phyllosticta paviae parasite

Phyllosticta paviae Desmazières, 1847 on Aesculus Aesculus hippocastanum, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 15.viii.2018 © László Érsek leaf spot, detail numerous pycnidia Aesculus hippocastanum, Engeland, SW Yorkshire, VC 63 © Malcolm Storey, bioImages gall During all summer numerous pycnidia are present as small, black, epiphyllous dots; the conidia that are formed there disperse…

Venturia inaequalis parasite

Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Winter, 1875 apple scab on Malus, Sorbus Sorbus torminalis, Hungary, Budapest, Hűvösvölgy, 29.iv.2018 © László Érsek other leaf, underside detail upper side detail underside Malus domestica, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Kerkhoven, den Tip © arina Van Steenwinkel leaf spot conidia mass conidia conidia, 1000 x Malus domestica, Dronten…

Neonectria ditissima parasite

Neonectria ditissima (Tulasne & Tulasne) Samuels & Rossman, 2006 polyphagous on deciduous trees Betula sp., Kampsheide (Dr.) © Ben van As Malus sylvestris, Zeewolde, Wilgenreservaat © Arnold Grossurt Salix sp., Zeewolde, Wilgenreservaat © Arnold Grossurt Carpinus betulus, Nieuwendam parasite The fungus causes extensive lesions in the bark of thick branches;…

Trachyspora melospora parasite

Trachyspora melospora (Therry) Dietel, 1923 on Alchemilla gall No host plant alternation, no spermogonia or aecia. In fact no uredinia either: the few orange urediniospores are formed in the telia. Telia extensive, mainly hypophyllous, rust coloured. Teliospores one-celled, brown, coarsely verrucose, pedicel with a septum, where the pedicel breaks off;…

Puccinia karstenii parasite

Puccinia karstenii Lindroth, 1901 on Angelica gall No host plant alternation; telia only. These brown, on the petioles and (the underside of) the leaves on discoloured and galled spots. Spores two-celled, on short, deciduous pedicels. The germination pore of the lower cell usually is located in the upper half of…

Psylliodes napi parasite

Psylliodes napi (Fabricius, 1792) on Brassicaceae mine Under normal circumstances the larva is a stem borer. Exceptionally they may enter the petiole and midrib, and make from there a short corridor in the leaf blade. Mainly in damp situations (Hering, 1957a). host plants Brassicaceae, oligophagous Alliaria petiolata; Barbarea vulgaris; Brassica…

Puccinia tirolensis parasite

Puccinia tirolensis Zwetko, 1993 on Carex gall No host alternation, only uredinia and telia, both hypophyllous. Uredinia rust-coloured, on yellowed spots. Urediniospores 22-28 x 24-33 µm, spinulose, with 2(3) supra-equatorial pores, surrounded by a smooth zone and not capped by a papilla. Telia black, wide-oval, high-pulvinate; teliospores 2-celled, 16-23 x…

Pucciniastrum areolatum parasite

Pucciniastrum areolatum (Fries) Otth, 1863 on Picea Picea abies, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Vierves-sur-Viroin, 27.ix.2019 © Stéphane Claerebout: young aecia detail Picea abies, from González-Fragoso (1925a): two cone scales, occupied by aecia; at right they still are closed gall the spermogonia form white, up to 4 mm large crusts at…

Doassansia sparganii parasite

Doassansia sparganii Vánky, 1988 on Sparganium gall inconspuous leaf spots, where spore balls, solitary or grouped, are embedded in the tissue. The spore balls consist of ± 100 spores, surrounded by 2-5 irregular layers of sterile cells; the balls do not desintegrate easily. hostplants Sparganiaceae, monophagous Sparganium erectum. references Klenke…

Nannfeldtiomyces anomalus parasite

Nannfeldtiomyces anomalus (Crowell) Vánky, 1981 on Sparganium gall inconspiuous, ill-delimited leaf spots, up to 6 cm in size,, where spore balls, mostly solitary, are embedded in the tissue. The beige spore ball, up to 0.2 mm large, consist of a loose network of hyphae and spores; there is no cortical…

Nannfeldtiomyces sparganii parasite

Nannfeldtiomyces sparganii (Lagerheim) Vánky, 1981 on Sparganium Sparganium erectum, België, prov. Limburg, Kinrooi-de Zig-Goort, 15.vii.2022 © Carina Van Steenwinkel detail of a leaf, lighted from behind spores Sparganium erectum, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Herselt, Varenbroek, 2.x.20211 © Carina Van Steenwinkel lighted from behind opened leaf spot, with spore balls mass of…

Graphiola phoenicis parasite

Graphiola phoenicis (Mougeot) Poiteau, 1824 Fungi, Basidiomycota, Exobasidiomycetes, Exobasidiales on Phoenix, etc. gall ± 2 mm large, black, pustules at either sides of the (especially older, lower) leaves. At maturity a yellow filament is extruded from the tip, where conidia are formed. This finally desintegrated, leaving a tiny black crater….

Tilletia flectens parasite

Tilletia flectens Lagerheim, 1899 on Avenella gall Distal part of the leaves with dark brown parallel length streaks, releasing spores and sterile. Spores about globular, ø 21-30 µm, and have a reticulate wall structure; the smaller sterile cells are smooth. hostplants Poaceae, monophagous Avenella flexuosa. references Buhr (1964b), Klenke &…

Peronospora somniferi parasite

Peronospora somniferi Voglmayr, 2014 on Papaver Papaver somniferum, Hungary, Levél © László Érsek malformed leaves underside of an infected leaf The down is exceptionally deeply coloured here. gall Infection ultimately systemic, plants then stunted and strongly distorted. underside of the leaves with a felt-like greyish down of erect conidiophores that…

Peronospora aquilegiicola parasite

Peronospora aquilegiicola Thines, Denton & Choi, 2019 on Aquilegia gall systemic infection: leaves of whole plant chlorotic with pale patches and curling. Underside a grey fungal bloom, consisting of vertical, distally strongly branched conidiophores. host plants Ranunculaceae, monophagous Aquilegia alpina, buergeriana, flabellata, viridiflora, vulgaris. notes Originally found in Korea, but…

Sclerophthora macrospora parasite

…the dying tissue many, relatively large, pale yellow oospores are formed: resting spores with a thick, smooth wall. They can survive in the soil for several years. Under wet circumstances they germinate, each spore releasing a number of motile zoospores, that infect new plants. hostplants Poaceae, broadly oligophagous Agrostis stolonifera;…

Tranzscheliella minima parasite

Tranzscheliella minima (Arthur) Vánky, 2003 on Stipa gall Culm at all sides with large blackish areas where spores are formed. These are reddish brown, smooth, and measure 4-5 x 5-5 µm. The infection is systemic. host plants Poaceae, monophagous Stipa capillata, dasyphylla, eriocaulis, pennata, pulcherrima. synonyms Ustilago minima Arthur, 1885;…

Ustilago aeluropodis parasite

Ustilago aeluropodis (Trotter) Vánky, 1985 on Aeluropus gall In the place of the inflorescence is a fusiform swelling that eventually ruptures lengthwise, releasing a blackish brown powdery mass of spores. hostplants Poaeae, monophagous Aeluropus littoralis. synonyms Crozalsiella aeluropodis. references Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Savchenko & Heluta (2010b, 2012a), Vánky (1994a),…

Brachonyx pineti parasite

…& Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1968a, 1988a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1957a), Hoffmann (1954a), Houard (1908a), Koch (1932a), Pérez Fortea, Hernandez Alonso & Martin Bernal (1995a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Scherf (1964a), Schnaider (1991a), Tomasi (2003a, 2012a, 2014a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Orchestes testaceus parasite

…(Curculionidae.be, 2010). NE recorded (Heijerman, 1993a). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007). distribution within Europe Almost all of Europe, except Ireland, the Iberian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2007). synonyms Rhynchaenus, Trecticus, testaceus; Rhynchaenus scutellaris (Fabricius, 1801). parasitoids, predators Tetrastichus leocrates, miser. notes According to Hering (1957a) the…

Dryomyia circinans parasite

…Skuhravý &a Skuhravá (1971a) inquilines See Synergus variabilis. predators Torymus longicalcar. predators references Bellmann (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chireceanu, Chiriloaie, Teodoru & Sivu (2015a), Cilbircioğlu & Ünal (2009a), Cogolludo (1921a), Csóka (2012a), Doğanlar (2017a), Gagné (2010a), Gregor, Šefrová, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2022a), Hellrigl (2006a, 2010a), Kollár (2007a), Löw (1888a),…

Cerodontha phragmitidis parasite

…few times I noted two minuscule perforations in the leaf epidermis where this was touched by the rear spiracula; how they were made is unclear. references Beuk (2002a), Černý & Merz (2007a), Černý & Vála (1996a), Dursun, Civelek, Barták, Kubík, Yildirim & Černý (2015a), Griffiths (1962a), Guglya (2021a), Kabos (1971a),…

Rabdophaga dubiosa parasite

…mm wide, all-sided or, often, unilateral swelling of one year old branches, mostly at the base of side branches; the bark is not cracked. If the gall is one-sided it always ends upon a bud. Inside, a number of oval, generally coalescing gall chambers. Per chamber one lemon yellow or…

Phyllonorycter strigulatella parasite

Phyllonorycter strigulatella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846) grey-alder midget Alnus incana, Pietersberg detail mine Elongated, lower-surface, in the end tubular contracted tentiform mine, usually starting at a small distance from the midrib. The lower epidermis with many weak wrinkles but no clear folds. Often several mines in a leaf. All frass…

Phyllonorycter messaniella parasite

Phyllonorycter messaniella (Zeller, 1846) garden midget Castanea sativa, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Retie, Prinsenpark © Carina Van Steenwinkel mine with exuvium frass pattern Quercus x hispanica, Amsterdam-Oost; most mines occur in the basal half of the leaf a young and a fully developed mine the right one of the two above,…

Vulcaniella cognatella parasite

Vulcaniella cognatella Riedl, 1990 mine Not well known; probably the larva lives in a silken tube under a leaf, that from there is mined out (Koster & Sinev, 2003a). hostplants Lamiaceae, monophagous Salvia officinalis. distribution within Europe From the Ukraine to Sardinia and Greece (Fauna Europaea, 2009). synonyms References in…

Cosmopterix orichalcea parasite

…in a hibernaculum (Koster, 2002c). BENELUX Found in the Netherlands (Tuinstra, 2018a) and Belgium (Benoit Molitor, Waarnemingen.be, 2018). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Head flattened, blackish brown with U-shaped marking. Body yellow, ventrally a light brown, more or less oblong, spot…

Coleophora uliginosella parasite

Coleophora uliginosella Glitz, 1872 on Vaccinium case © T Rinta-Paavola 2012 (from insects.fi) mine The larva lives in a silken tube, around which a mined and withered leaf has untidily been folded. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium uliginosum. phenology Larvae full-grown already in autumn (Toll, 1962a). BENELUX Not known…

Coleophora onobrychiella parasite

Coleophora onobrychiella Zeller, 1849 from Toll (1962a) case Straw-coloured lobe case of 8-10 mm, with ventrally long lobes, and a mouth angle of 55-60°. The shape of the case is exceptionally variable (Baldizzone, 1987b; Suire, 1961a). Although it is not visible in the illustration above, the mouth opening is shifted…

Coleophora conyzae parasite

Coleophora conyzae Zeller, 1868 spikenard case-bearer from Toll (1962a) Pulicaria dysenterica, Belgium, prov. West-Flanders, Adinkerke, Westhoek reserve © Steve Wullaert case Larva in a spatulate leaf case, at the underside of the leaf. The case is 10-12 mm long, straight, brown, tubular, laterally compressed, patently hairy (depending on the host…

Phyllonorycter roboris parasite

…Jaworski (2009a), Kasy (1983a, 1987a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Maček (1999a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Nel & Varenne (2014a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), De Prins & Steeman (2011a), Robbins (1991a), Schmid (2019a), Schütze (1931a), Sefrová…

Bucculatrix thoracella parasite

…Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, except Ireland, and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009), Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2017a). larva Head yellowish white, pronotum light grey (Hering, 1957a). pupa In a white, ribbed cocoon, often on the trunk of the host plant. The pupa is described by Patočka (1996a),…

Acalyptris pistaciae parasite

Acalyptris pistaciae van Nieukerken, 2007 Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Pistacia terebinthus, Greece, Délfi (NB the blotchy mines with much frass are Ectoedemia terebinthivora); from van Nieukerken (2007a). detail Pistacia lentiscus, Cyprus; from van Nieukerken (2007a) Pistacia lentiscus, Greece, Athens © Steve Wullaert Pistacia lentiscus, Greece, Lesbos, Krátigos mine On Pistacia lentiscus the…

Elachista bifasciella parasite

Elachista bifasciella Treitschke, 1833 mine Mine descends from just below the leaf tip to half-way the leaf or even lower. The mine remains between leaf margin and midrib; no tissue is left along the leaf margin, but in broadleaved species (Holcus) some uneaten tissue-islands may remain. The mine is somewhat…

Ectoedemia cerris parasite

…2009). larva Whitish, head dark; ventral plates black, conspicuous. synonyms Stigmella cerris. references Gregor, Šefrová, Laštůvka & Laštůvka (2022a), Hering (1957a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), A & Z Laštuvka, 1997a, 2005a), Z & A Laštuvka (1998a), van Nieukerken (1985a, 1986a), van Nieukerken, A & Z Laštuvka (2010a), Sefrová (2005a), Szőcs…

Fomoria luisae parasite

Fomoria luisae (Klimesch, 1978) Hypericum calycinum, Thrace; from Klimesch (1978a). mine Egg at the upper surface of the leaf. Here begins a very thin and tortuous corridor that is almost entirely filled with frass. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch, where the frass is deposited in the centre. Pupation…

Ectoedemia rubivora parasite

Ectoedemia rubivora (Wocke, 1860) dewberry pigmy Rubus fruticosus, Duin en Kruidberg detail Rubus spec, Schiermonnikoog: leaf with several young mines © Dik Vonk mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a highly contorted gallery, strongly widening towards the end. Frass in the second half of the…

Ectoedemia spinosella parasite

Ectoedemia spinosella (de Joannis, 1908) blackthorn pigmy Prunus spinosa, België, prov. Namen, Couvin, Frasnes © Stéphane Claerebout Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle © Jean-Yves Baugnée Prunus spinosa, Belgium, prov. Namur, Chevetogne © Jean-Yves Baugnée Prunus spinosa, Wrakelberg; leg Diersystematiek VU mine Egg at the underside of the leaf, usually…

Ectoedemia terebinthivora parasite

Ectoedemia terebinthivora (Klimesch, 1975) Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Pistacia terebinthus, Greece, Délfi (NB the narrow corridors are from Acalytris pistaciae); from van Nieukerken (2007a) detail Pistacia terebinthus, Anatolia; from Klimesch (1978b) mine Oviposition at the leaf underside, close to a major vein. First part of the mine a strongly contorted gallery with…

Stigmella aurella parasite

…Beshkov (2004a), Černý (2001a), Corley, Nunes, Rosete & Ferreira (2019a), Corley, Rosete, Romão ao (2015a), Diškus & Stonis (2012a), Drăghia (1968a), Emmet (1971a, 1973-74, 1983a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Haase (1942a), Hartig (1939a), Hering (1927a, 1932g, 1934b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huemer (1985a, 1988a, 2012a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1965a),…

Stigmella luteella parasite

…1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, with exception of the Balkan Peninsula. larva Larva yellow, head light brown; lies venter-upwards in the mine. the ventral ganglia are colourless, inconspicuous. See Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a) for a detailed description. synonyms Nepticula luteella. notes…

Stigmella nylandriella parasite

…August, sometimes a small autumn generation in September – October (Johansson ao, 1990a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe with exception of the Iberian and Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva synonyms…

Phyllonorycter cerasicolella parasite

…a number of localities in the Netherlands (Noctua, 2007) it may be assumed that the species is present at least in the Netherlands. distribution within Europe Entire Europe except the north of Scandinavia (Triberti, 2007a). larva Extensively described by Cravedi (1992a). pupa Margins of frontal appendage straight. Rear margin of…

Phyllocnistis xenia parasite

…(1981a, 1992b), Corley, Ferreira, Grundy, ao (2018a), Csóka (2003a), Delplanque (1998a), Deutschmann (2008a), Drăghia (1968a, 1972a), Emmet, Watkinson & Wilson (1985a), Hering (1936b, 1957a), Huber (1969a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2009a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a, 2005a), Jaworski (2009a), Kasy (1965a), Klimesch (1957a), Kollár & Hrubík

Glaucolepis liskai parasite

Glaucolepis liskai (A & Z Laštuvka, 2000) Globularia cordifolia; from A & Z Laštuvka (2000a) mine Oviposition generally at the upperside of the leaf. The mine begins as a straight, very narrow, completely frass-filled corridor. Often the mine crosses to another leaf, where the corridor becomes somehwat wider. hostplants Plantaginaceae,…

Cameraria ohridella cocoon parasite

…protection against the ovipositors of parasitoids. Aesculus hippocastanum, Nieuwendam Less often an elaborate cocoon is made. Such cocoons serve during the hibernation (the picture was made in a fallen leaf, mid-November). But when the number of mines in a leaf becomes excessive already earlier, cocoons like these may be made…

Monochroa moyses parasite

Monochroa moyses Uffen, 1991 coast neb mine Full depth gallery, up to 10 cm long, not in a particular section of the blade, usually ascending towards the leaf tip. The width at first is less than one mm, in the end it is up to 25 mm. The mine begins…

Digitivalva pulicariae parasite

Digitivalva pulicariae (Klimesch, 1956) fleabane fanner mine Whitish or brownish full depth blotch, preceded by a short corridor that originates on the midrib or in the leaf base. Frass grains irregularly dispersed; part of the frass is ejected from the mine. The larva makes several mines. Pupation outside the mine….

Caloptilia hauderi parasite

Caloptilia hauderi (Rebel, 1906) Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae mine The mine begins as a lower-surface corridor then widens into a blotch; here all leaf tissue except the veins is consumed. Later larval stages live free in three, consecutively larger, leaf rolls of downfolded leaf segments. hostplants Sapindaceae, monophagous Acer campestre, pseudoplatanus. phenology…

Caloptilia hemidactylella parasite

…Netherlands, there probably is another, earlier, larva generation (Corver ao, 2011a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2011). NE recorded (Corver ao, 2011a). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2011). distribution within Europe Europe, except Iceland, Ireland and the Balkan peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2011). >larva pupa references Bengtsson & Johansson (2011a), Biesenbaum (2010a), Brown…

Caloptilia nobilella parasite

Caloptilia nobilella (Klimesch, 1942) from Klimesch (1942a): youth mine and leaf cone mine Oviposition at underside of midrib. From here a winding, epidermal corridor, resembling a snail’s trail, runs towards the leaf margin. Here a tentiform mine is made. The leaf margin folds over the mine, that in the end…

Exoteleia dodecella parasite

…(Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva pupa See Adamski ao, Patočka, Patočka & Turčáno. synonyms Teleia dodecella. parasitoids, predators Capellia orneus. notes Especially numerous in industrial regions (Schnaider, 1991a). references Adamski, Landry, Passoa & Tracy (2010a), Baldizzone (2004a), Baldizzone & Scalercio (2018a), Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Buhr (1935b), Corley, Maravalhas &…

Colopha compressa parasite

Colopha compressa (Koch, 1856) elm cockscomb gall aphid on Ulmus, primary host plant Ulmus spec., France, dép. Maine-et-Loire, Maine, Angers, 23.v.2019 © Édouard Beslot: mass occurrence galls Ulmus glabra, Hungary, Halászi, 23.vi.2018 © László Érsek detail opened gall apterae aptera aptera, ventral Ulmus laevis, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Kerkhoven, den Tip,…

Caloptilia stigmatella parasite

Caloptilia stigmatella (Fabricius, 1781)…

Coleotechnites piceaella parasite

…the leaves of the previous year, but Bland ao emphatically mention leaves of the current year. Führer writes that before winter only a single leaf is mined out. references Bland, Corley, Emmet ao (2002a), Csóka (2003a), Elsner, Huemer & Tokár (1999a), Freeman (1967a), Führer (1963a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), McLeod…

Phyllocnistis unipunctella parasite

…Langmaid & Doorenweerd (2016a), Kasy (1965a), Klimesch (1950c, 1957a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Kvičala (1938a), A & Z Laštůvka (2011a), Lhomme (1934d), Lüders (1990a), Maček (1999a), Martynova (1955a), Matošević, Pernek, Dubravac & Barić (2009a), Parenti & Varalda (2000a), Patočka…

Perittia echiella parasite

Perittia echiella (de Joannis, 1902) Echium plantagineum, Spain; from Hering (1936b) mine Mine lower-surface, starting at a flat, iridescent egg shell, then an undulating epidermal corridor of about 5 cm, that abruptly widens into an elliptic blotch of ca. 5 cm length, which almost fills all space between midrib and…

Elachista tengstromi parasite

Elachista tengstromi Kaila, Bengtsson, Šulcs & Junnilaninen, 2001 small wood-rush dwarf mine A strongly contracted upper-surface tentiform mine, generally in the lower third of the leaf, beginning at the leaf base. Often a second or third mine is made, starting from the leaf tip. These secondary mines begin as a…

Epermenia aequidentellus parasite

Epermenia aequidentellus (Hofmann, 1867) carrot lance-wing mine Young larvae make several small, full depth blotch mines. They have an opening at the underside, through which most frass is ejected. Mines mostly in the apical part of the composite leaves. Older larvae live externally on the plant under a light web….

Elachista obliquella parasite

…Patočka (1999a). synonyms E. megerlella auct. In de oudere literatuur vaak verward met Elachista adscitella. parasitoids, predators Hemiptarsenus unguicellus. references Baran (2005a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Bland (1996a), Buszko (1990a), Ford (1943a), Hering (1925a, 1957a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Patočka (1999a),…

Phyllocnistis labyrinthella parasite

…Europe, missing in the British Isles, Italy (but see Hartig, 1939a), the Mediterranean Islands and parts of the Balkan (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva, pupa Larva and pupa are described in much detail by Lüders (1900a); see for the pupa also Parenti (2001a) or Parenti & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Phyllocnistis sorhageniella…

Elachista nobilella parasite

Elachista nobilella Zeller, 1839 surrey dwarf mine Short and relatively broad, flat, whitish mine. Pupation outside the mine. host plants grassy plants (Commelinids); narrowly polyphagous Agrostis stolonifera; Arrhenatherum; Avenella flexuosa; Bromus; Carex; Dactylis; Festuca versicolor; Holcus lanatus; Luzula pilosa. According to Steuer (1976a), who has studied the biology of this…

Phyllocnistis ramulicola parasite

Phyllocnistis ramulicola Langmaid & Corley, 2007 new sallow bent-wing on Salix Salix caprea, Frankrijk, dép. Saône-et-Loire, Le Creusot, vii.2020 © Jean Béguinot vacated mines with exuvia mine Oviposition on a young twig. From there a long corridor is made in the bark, up to 30 cm in length, running up…

Elachista nielswolffi parasite

Elachista nielswolffi Svensson, 1976 mine Unknown. hostplants Poaceae The only grasses at the site where the species was collected were Avenella/a> flexuosa and Nardus stricta. distribution within Europe Scandinavia, North Russia (Fauna Eutopaea, 2011). references Parenti & Varalda (1994a), Svensson (1976a)….

Stigmella trojana parasite

Stigmella trojana Z & A Laštuvka, 1998 Quercus trojana, Greece (mainland); from Z & A Laštuvka (1998a). mine Corridor, undistinguishable from the mines of St. zangherii or szoecsiella. hostplants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus trojana. The species has also been collected in Turkey, where Q. trojana does not occur. phenology Probably bivoltine….

Ectoedemia caradjai parasite

Ectoedemia caradjai (Groschke, 1944) Quercus cf pubescens, Rhodes; from Klimesch (1978b) Quercus macrolepis, Anatolia; from Klimesch (1978b) mine Oviposition of the underside of the leaf. The mine is a short, strongly contorted corridor, almost completely filled with frass, widening into a pear-shaped upper-surface blotch with the frass in its basal…

Scrobipalpa costella parasite

Scrobipalpa costella (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845) winter groundling Solanum dulcamara, Cadzand same mine, detail (the strange colours resulted from movements of the larva during the exposure) mine Young larvae bore in the midrib that turns somewhat pale and translucent; from here they make rather small, brownish, wrinkled, not very transparent…

Smynthurodes betae parasite

Smynthurodes betae Westwood, 1849 on Pistacia, primary host plant gall There are two types of galls. The fundatrix lives in a small red gall in the midrib. The secondary gall of her offspring is a 2 cm long, strongly swollen, reddened upwards fold of the leaf margin bordering the petiole;…

Euura proxima parasite

Euura proxima (Serville, 1823) on Salix Salix alba, Nieuwendam: upperside underside transverse section Salix x fragilis, Nieuwendam; the young larva is remarkably small compared to the size of the gall Salix alba, Nederhorst den Berg; larva terminal abdomen segments Salix alba, Vreeland, Lambertskade: galls form a breeding ground for fungi…

Fenusa dohrnii parasite

…larvae may be found as late as November. BENELUX BE recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE recorded (van Ooststroom, 1976a). LUX recorded (Chevin, Ellis & Schneider, 2011a). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, with possible exception of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Fenusa dohrni. parasitoids, predators Chrysocharis pentheus; Sympiesis…

Fenella monilicornis parasite

Fenella monilicornis (Dahlbom, 1835) Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae mine So far known the mine cannot de distinguished from that of F. minuta, living on the same hostplant. The imago differs from that of F. minuta in having 14-16 antennal segments, rather than 12-14 (Hering, 1957a). hostplants Geraniaceae, monophagous Geranium sylvaticum. F. minuta…

Hoplocampa testudinea parasite

Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug, 1816) european apple sawfly Malus domestica, Loenen ge © Arnold Grosscurt mine oviposition in a young fruit, just below the calice segments. The young larva makes a gallery just below the epidermis. When the apple grows the epidermis covering the gallery ruptures and an elongated scar is…

Leptocybe invasa parasite

…references Anagnou–Veroniki, Papaioannou–Souliotis, Karanstasi & Giannopolitis (2008a), Dhahri, Ben Jamaa & Lo Verde (2010a), Floris, Cocco, Buffa ao (2018a), Garonna, Bernardo, Gualtieri ao (2018a), Hrnčić, Radonjić & Perović (2017a), Inghilesi, Cervo, Pennacchio ao (2013a), Mendel, Protasov, Fisher & La Salle (2004a), Mifsud (2012a), Suma, Nucifora, Caleca ao (2018a), Viggiani (2015b)….

Glaucolepis saturejae parasite

Glaucolepis saturejae (Parenti, 1963) mine Long, slender gallery with a narrow central frass line. Usually the mine begins at the underside of a leaf (and is lower-surface then, and completely invisible from above), then descends along the petiole to the rind of the stem. Here a long gallery is made,…

Bucculatrix demaryella parasite

…this may refer to cases of xenophagy. phenology Bivoltine; hibernation as pupa. BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Ellis: Dudelange). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Iberian Peninsula, parts pf the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009)….

Trigonaspis brunneicornis parasite

Trigonaspis brunneicornis Kieffer, 1901 on Quercus Quercus pyrenaica, galls (from Houard, 1908a) gall one, often more, fusiform gall at the underside of a leaf, lengthwise attached to a thick vein; the end points are free. The surface has irregular ridges and is white-hairy. hostbplants Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous Quercus pyrenaica. very…

Panteliella fedtschenkoi parasite

Panteliella fedtschenkoi (Rübsaamen, 1896) on Phlomis Phlomis tuberosa, galls (from Houard, 1909a) gall upper side of the leaf with 2- mm large, globular, long, white-hairy unilocular galls, each with an apodous larva or pupa; sometimes up to 100 galls on a leaf. The galls may develop also at the inside…

Andricus kollari parasite

…larva and its chamber have been ousted by a number of inquilines, each in its own compartment Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dinant: old parasitised gall © Jean-Yves Baugnée gall Perfectly globular, unilocular, up to 2 cm large gall; at maturity the gall is hard and woody. Fresh galls, greenish…

Pseudodineura mentiens parasite

Pseudodineura mentiens (CG Thomson, 1871) on Hepatica Hepatica nobilis, eastern Denmark © Simon Haarder occupied mine larva, ventral view Same population, one month later (August, 6th) lighted from behind mine Very transparant full depth blotch that starts at the leaf margin (there a clump of frass), that finally occupies a…

Bactericera acutipennis parasite

Bactericera acutipennis (Zetterstedt, 1828) on Comarum Comarum palustre, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon, Landbruch; © Jean-Yves Baugnée underside of the leaf gall the leaves are hardly disfigured, but a slight change of colour is discernable. The larvae are oval, strongly depressed, and have along the outline of their a seam of…

Andricus amblycerus parasite

Andricus amblycerus (Giraud, 1859) on Quercus gall (from Houard, 1908a) gall Bud gall on both lateral and terminal buds. The unilocular gall is 4-6 mm long, its wall is lined with a short velvet. The gall consists of a swollen lower part that bears some five blunt upwards and outwards…

Bucculatrix frangutella parasite

…Entire Europe, including Portugal and Spain, except the Balkan Peninsula (Baugnée in litt., 2012; Corley ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2008). larve pupa Described by Patočka (1996a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms B. fragulella. Goeze’s original spelling of the specific name is frangutella. Given the name of the host plant, and…

Dreyfusia nordmannianae parasite

…of Aphrastasia pectinatae, but the wax thread are much thinner and curly. They are not attended by ants. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Abies alba, balsamea, cephalonica, cilicia, concolor, firma, grandis, homolepis, nordmanniana, procera, sibirica, veitchii. synonyms Adelges nordmannianae, ; Adelges nusslini (Bórner, 1908). predators Aphidoletes abietis. notes Originally native in…

Prociphilus xylostei parasite

Prociphilus xylostei (DeGeer, 1773) on Lonicera, primary host plant Lonicera xylosteum, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Chimay, Lompret, 26.iv.2015 © Sébastien Carbonnelle another specimen Lonicera spec., Hungary, Budapest, 10.v.2020 © László Érsek: galled leaf unfolded gall aptera, dorsal same, after most of the was has been removed ventral gall the spring generation…

Forda marginata parasite

Forda marginata Koch, 1857 crusty pistachio-grass root aphid on Pistacia, primary host plant Pistacia terebinthus, Spain, prov. Léon, San Juan de Paluezas © Nicolás Pérez gall There are two types of galls.The fundatrix lives in a small open gall at the top of a leaflet, generally the odd leaflet of…

Bucculatrix paliuricola parasite

Bucculatrix paliuricola Kuznetzov, 1960 mine Short gallery, quickly widening into a blotch; the result is pyriform. Frass in the corridor section in a broad stripe, that continues for some length into the blotch. Older larvae live free on the leave, where they cause window feeding. hostplants Rhamnaceae, monophagous Paliurus spina-christi….

Forda formicaria parasite

Forda formicaria von Heyden, 1837 grass-root aphid on Pistacia, primary host plant Pistacia terebinthus, gall (from Houard, 1909a) Pistacia terebinthus, Greece, Sterea, Konitsa, 25.vii.2020 © Cor Zonneveld Pistacia terebinthus, Spain, Huesca, Embalse de Santa Ana, 15.vi.2019 © Cor Zonneveld: secondary galls fundatrix galls detail fundatrix galls, lighted from behind fundatrix…

Parornix devoniella parasite

…LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Europe, excluding the Balkan and the Mediterranean Islands (Corely ao, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva pupa synonyms Ornix devoniella; Ornix, Parornix avellanella (Stainton, 1854); Parornix cotoneastri (Caradja, 1920). notes When the mine of Phyllonorycter coryli lies close to the leaf margin, it…

Parna tenella parasite

…(2015a), Blank & Taeger (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a, 1965a), Burger, van Frankenhuyzen, de Goffau & Ulenberg (1984a, 1985a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Edmunds (2016a), Haarder & Liston (2018a), Halsted (2004a, 1009a), Haris (2009a), Hering (1924a, 1957a), Hoop (1983a), Huber (1969a), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Lengesova (2008a),…

Micrurapteryx kollariella parasite

Micrurapteryx kollariella (Zeller, 1838) Cytisus scoparius, Belgium, prov. Limburg © Frank Van de Meutter mine The mine begins as a starlike, lobed blotch on top of the midrib. It develops into an upper-surface blotch that occupies almost the entire leaflet. The colour is light green at first, soon turning brown….

Phyllonorycter platani parasite

…Bulgaria, Varna © Stéphane Claerebout: two initial galleries (lighted from behind) mine The mine begins as an epidermal corridor, sometimes several cm in length. This widens into a shallow, greyish green, irregularly lobed blotch. The fully developed mine is an orange brown tentiform mine with a number of length folds….

Phyllonorycter klemannella parasite

Phyllonorycter klemannella (Fabricius, 1781) dark alder midget on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Hungary, Kimle, 29.vi.2018 © László Érsek: mine, upper side of leaf underside lava in opened mine larva, dorsal and ventral view head and thorax dorsal view head and thorax ventral view larva, lateral 19.vii.2019, pupa, dorsal view vental view…

Phyllonorycter harrisella parasite

…NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa synonyms Lithocolletis harrisella; Glyphipteryx, Lithocolletis, Phyllonorycter cramerella (Fabricius, 1777). parasitoids, predators Achrysocharoides latreillii; Cirrospilus diallus; Euderus viridis. notes The biology…

Phyllonorycter insignitella parasite

…recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). pupa Described by Gregor & Patočka (2001a) and Patočka & Turčáni (2005); see also King & Murria (2002a). The pupa strongly resembles the one of Ph. medicaginella, but the 10th abdomen segment is clearly wider…

Heterarthrus flavicollis parasite

…shown above conspicuous differences are recognisable in extent and number of the ventral and also dorsal (mesothorax) spots. This may be due to the younger age of the Russian larva; but also regional differences may exist. references Altenhofer & Zombori (1987a), Blank ao (1998a), Hering (1957a), Liston (1993a,d, 1995a), Liston,…

Metallus pumilus parasite

Metallus pumilus (Klug, 1816) raspberry leaf-mining sawfly on Rubus Rubus spec., Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek underside mine, lighted from behind larva in dorsal view … … lateral … …and ventral Rubus spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Lanaken, de Hoefaert © Carina Van Steenwinkel larva in the mine Rubus fruticosus, Dronten,…

Heterarthrus microcephalus parasite

Heterarthrus microcephalus (Klug, 1818) Salix spec., Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel prepupa in cocoon (another leaf) Salix caprea, Belgium, prov.Antwerp, Meerhout © Carina Van Steenwinkel: prepupa in cocoon Salix cinerea, Reusel: mine with cocoon > Salix triandra, Amsterdam Salix fragilis, Nederhorst den…

Phyllonorycter coryli parasite

Phyllonorycter coryli (Nicelli, 1851) nut-leaf blister moth Corylus avellanam Hongarije, Mosonmagyaróvár, 24.vii.2018 © László Érsek young mine, underside older mine, underside young larva, dorsal same larva, lateral; note the extremely flattened head same larva, ventral pupa Corylus avellana, Naarderbos, 30.ix.2011: not infrequently several mines on a single leaf Corylus avellana,…

Parornix petiolella parasite

Parornix petiolella (Frey, 1863) on Malus Malus domestica, Hungary, Kimle © László Érsek: rather young mine older, but not yet strongly contracted mine frass heaped together mine Upper-surface, epidermal, white-silvery blotch that may contract the leaf so strongly that all that is visible is a white line. The older larva…

Phyllonorycter barbarella parasite

Phyllonorycter barbarella (Rebel, 1901) Lepidoptera, Graciillariidae mine Lower-surface tentiform mine betwee two side veins; the mine can trespass over e vein, even the midrib. hostplants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus faginea, pubescens. phenology Larvae in March to May. distribution within Europe Iberia, southern France. synonyms Phyllonorycter neli Buvat, 1996. notes Buvat (1996a)…

Phyllocnistis unipunctella larva parasite

Phyllocnistis unipunctella Populus x canadensis, Nieuwendam: larva; the larva is dead – living larvae are strongly hyaline head and abdomen end, dorsal The full grown larva is remarkably slender, legless, hyaline; in the third instar often with a large roundish black spot on the pronotum (see the note on the…

Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella parasite

Phyllonorycter quinqueguttella (Stainton, 1851) sandhill midget Salix repens, Zandvoort; the mine at right still quite young mine Lower-surface tentiform mine, that in small leaves can occupy the entire underside. The mine does contract strongly, folding the leaf, sometimes causing it to become tube-like. Lower epidermis with many fine folds. Pupa,…

Antispila treitschkiella parasite

…(2013a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ellis (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2004a, 2005a), Kasy (1983a, 1987a), Klimesch (1950c), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & van Frankenhuyzen (1999a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Lhomme (1934c), Kurz (2016a) , Kurz & Kurz (2007a), Kvičala (1938a),…

Phyllonorycter ulmifoliella parasite

…monophagous Betula x alpestris, grossa, pendula, pubescens. Reported by Hering (1957a) as an occasional miner of Ribes. The statement by Kollár (2007a) and Kollár & Hrubík (2009a) that the species were a pest on op Ulmus glabra and laevis must be due to a mistake. phenology Larvae in July and…

Phyllobrostis hartmanni parasite

Phyllobrostis hartmanni Staudinger, 1867 on Daphne mine Oviposition in the leaf tissue. The mine begins a a fine corridor, often following the leaf margin. Next a large, somewhat inflated, full depth, blotch is made, extending from the leaf tip, that in the end may occupy the entire leaf. The mine…

Ectoedemia angulifasciella parasite

Ectoedemia angulifasciella (Stainton, 1849) bent-barred pigmy on Rosa Rosa canina, Belgium, Prov. Namur, Couvin, Petigny, Barrage du Ry de Rome © Stéphane Claerebout occupied mine Rosa sp., Losser Rosa sp., Brummen mine Oviposition at the underside of the leaf, usually not far from the midrib. The mine is a corridor;…

Etainia albibimaculella parasite

…Pale yellow, head pale brown. synonyms Ectoedemia albibimaculella. notes Possibly many larvae will never arrive at mining a leaf (Johansson ea, 1990). references Aarvik, Bakke, Berg ao (1997a), Adamczewski (1947a), Bengtsson (2008a), Gustafsson (1985a), Hering (1957a), Johansson ao (1990a), Laštuvka & Laštuvka (1997a), van Nieukerken (1986a), Skala (1939a), Sønderup (1949a)….

Acalyptris loranthella parasite

Acalyptris loranthella (Klimesch, 1937) Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Loranthus europaeus, Czechia; from van Nieukerken (2007a) mine In connection with the thickness of the leaf, the mine is superficial: egg, mine and exit at the same side, either upper-surface or lower-surface. The mine is a corridor, often somewhat contorted, especially near the start,…

Mompha terminella parasite

Mompha terminella (Humphreys & Westwood, 1845) enchanters mompha Circaea lutetiana, Luxemburg, Kautenbach detail Circaea lutetiana, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Rachecourt; © Jean-Yves Baugnée; det. Sjaak Koster mine Egg at the upper side of the leaf, not near the midrib. The larva starts by making a long, narrow, full depth corridor that…

Mompha sturnipennella parasite

…summer generation live in the fruits, without any outwards sign of their presence. host plants Onagraceae, monophagous Chamerion angustifolium. synonyms Mompha nodicolella Fuchs, 1902. references Buhr (1964a), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Huemer (2007a), Huisman, Koster, van Nieukerken & Ulenberg (2001a), Klimesch (1960a, 1989a), Koops (2013a), Koster & Sinev…

Mompha propinquella parasite

…montanum, palustre. phenology Mines in early spring (Koster, 2002b). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2010). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except the Mediterranean Islands and large parts of the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva Body…

Mompha ochraceella parasite

Mompha ochraceella (Curtis, 1839) buff mompha on Epilobium Epilobium hirsutum, Belgium, prov. East-Flanders, Lebbeke, 12.iv.2020 © Ruben Meert: infested plant in spring broken stem base with bore hole three tunnels larva higher up in the stem larva taken out of its gallery 1.v.2020: cocon in the base of a leaf…

Mompha lacteella parasite

Mompha lacteella (Stephens, 1834) rust-blotch mompha mine Large full depth blotch in the lower leaves. Much frass in coarse grains. The larva easily leaves its mine and restarts elsewhere. Pupation either in the mine or in the ground. Mines cannot be told apart from those of Mompha propinquella. host plants…

Phyllobrostis fregenella parasite

Phyllobrostis fregenella Hartig, 1941 on Daphne Daphne gnidium, France, Corsica, Haute Corse, Galéria © Stéphane Claerebout mine detail mine, lighted from behind mine Oviposition within the leaf tissue. The mine begins as a narrow corridor along the midrib, not far from the leaf tip. Then a large full depth blotch…

Spulerina simploniella parasite

Spulerina simploniella (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1840) on Castanea, Quercus gall long, tortuous, very shallow gallery just below the bark of a still smooth stem; in the end the gallery widens into a blotch. Callus formation may suggest galling. hostplants Fagaceae, oligophagous Castanea sativa; Quercus petraea, pubescens, robur. synonyms Dialectica, Eutrichocnemis,…

Leucoptera sinuella parasite

…Europe. phenology Larvae in June and September; hibernation as pupa (Emmet, 1985a; van Frankenhuyzen & Freriks, 1970a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, except Ireland, the Balkan Peninsula and the…

Leucoptera lotella parasite

Leucoptera lotella (Stainton, 1859) little bent-wing on Dorycnium, Lotus, Securigera Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Namur, Philippeville, RN les Tournailles, 17.vii.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout mine in backlight Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Liège: Ben-Ahin, Lovegnée-Bosquet © Jean-Yves Baugnée Lotus uliginosus, Belgium, prov. Brabant, Cortil-Noirmont © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind Lotus…

Leucoptera laburnella parasite

…thereby. phenology Larvae in June – July and in September (Emmet, 1985a; Wörz, 1957a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, but missing in European Russia and in the southern end of the Balkan

Phylloporia bistrigella parasite

Phylloporia bistrigella (Haworth, 1828) striped leaf-cutter Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Tenneville © Jean-Yves Baugnée living larva Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Namur, Mettet © Jean-Yves Baugnée Betula pubescens, Britain, Fleet © Rob Edmunds Betula pubescens, Nieuw-Bergen mine Long, very narrow corridor that may wind several times through the leaf, freely…

Heliozela hammoniella parasite

Heliozela hammoniella Sorhagen, 1885 birch lift Betula pubescens, Lauwersmeer, Ballastplaatbos; © Corrie van As: vacated mine with excision Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Namur, Nismes © Stéphane Claerebout: vacated mine detail of the excision Betula pubescens, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol, © Carina Van Steenwinkel: mine with an exceptionally long gallery section…

Euura destricta parasite

Euura destricta (MacGillivray,…

Triberta helianthemella parasite

…the fact that pupation occurs outside the mine, in a transparent cocoon. host plants Cistaceae, oligophagous Helianthemum canariense, chamaecistus, nummularium & subsp. obscurum; Tuberaria guttata. phenology Larvae in November, December, then again in June (Groschke, 1944a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe From…

Triberta cistifoliella parasite

Triberta cistifoliella (Groschke, 1944) on Cistus mine The mine begins as an epidermal lower-surface corridor that closely follows a thick vein. It continues into a tentiform mine with strong folds, that may occupy almost an entire leaf, and be very transparent in the end. Frass in a loose accumulation. Very…

Cameraria ohridella larva parasite

Cameraria ohridella Aesculus hippocastanum, Nieuwendam; head, dorsal and ventral, of the sap drinking stage The very first larval instar is rather squat. The next stage, dorsal… … and ventral. The larvae are described by Sefrová & Skuhravy (2000a). As in all Gracillariidae the demonstrate hypermetamorphosis, but in a way that…

Coleophora lineolea larva parasite

Ballota nigra, Cadzand; the larva was dead, which may be responsible for the white colour….

Coleophora lixella parasite

…Europe, perhaps excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Described by Suire (1961a) and Emmet ao (1993a). notes In Britain the case may be confused with the one of Coleophora tricolor. This species does not have a composite, but rather a tubular leaf case. references Baldizzone (1979a, 2004a), Biesenbaum…

Elachista bisulcella parasite

Elachista bisulcella (Duponchel, 1843) yellow-tipped dwarf mine Mine a descending and widening corridor, in the end an elongate blotch that may occupy the entire width of the leaf. The mine contracts somewhat, narrowing the leaf. Frass in some elongate lumps in the centre of the mine. host plants Poaceae, Cyperaceae,…

Ochromolopis ictella parasite

Ochromolopis ictella (Hübner, 1813) mine Short, full depth, irregularly linear mine. The larva may make several mines. The older larva lives free on the plant under some spinning. host plants Santalaceae, monophagous Thesium linophyllon subsp. montanum, pyrenaicum. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe…

Tebenna micalis parasite

Tebenna micalis (Mann, 1857) vagrant metal-mark mine A sizable blotch with an ample quantity of frass. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Older larvae often live free in a web under the leaf. This description, based on Hering (1927a, 1957a), and probably stemming from his experience on…

Elachista pomerana parasite

Elachista pomerana Frey, 1870 fen dwarf mine The mine begins near the leaf tip and descends towards the base. The mine occupies the entire width of the blade. Frass initially scattered, later in an irregular central line. Fully developed mine c. 8 cm long. Probably the larva is capable of…

Elachista maculicerusella parasite

…2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, excepted the Iberian Peninsula and perhaps also the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Yellowish green, head and pronotum pale brown; see Steuer (1987a) for a detailed description. pupa Described by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Elachista cerusella (Hübner,…

Elachista luticomella parasite

Elachista luticomella Zeller, 1839 yellow-headed dwarf mine Long, narrow, white corridor, descending from close to the leaf tip to the leaf base or even stem. Frass in an inconspicuous grey line. From the stem the larva may enter a new leaf (Steuer, 1987a; Bland, 1996a). hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous Bromopsis ramosa;…

Elachista irenae parasite

Elachista irenae Buszko, 1989 Lepidoptera, Elachistidae mine The mine usually starts about a cm below the tip of the leaf, and descends as a slender, whitish, full depth gallery for a length of 3-4 cm. Not infrequently stripes of uneaten parenchyma can be found. Frass in a sometimes interrupted and…

Coleophora flavipennella parasite

…Baldizzone (1979a,b, 1984a, 2004a), Baldizzone & scalercio (2018a), Drăghia (1968b), Emmet, Langmaid, Bland ao (1996a), Goodey (1992a), Hering (1930b, 1934a, 1957a), Huemer (2012a), Huemer & Erlebach (2003a), Ivinskis & Savenkov (1991a), Kasy (1987a), Klimesch (1942a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Leutsch (2011a),…

Elachista freyerella parasite

…Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Yellowish grey, head and protharal shield black; prothoracal shield divided. pupa Described by Patočka (1997a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Cosmiotes freyerella; Elachista nigrella (Hübner, 1805); Cosmiotes aridella…

Elachista compsa parasite

…mine is formed then that takes the full width of the leaf. In the end one half to two third of the leaf is mined out. Pupation external. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous (?) Deschampsia cespitosa; Melica nutans, uniflora. The occurrence on Deschampsia is strongly doubted by Steuer and others. phenology…

Elachista cingillella parasite

…Baran (2005a), Bidzilya, Budashkin & Zhakov (2016a), Bland (1996a), Buhr (1935b), Buszko (1990a), Hering (1957a), Kaila & Junnilainen (2002a), Kaila, Nupponen, Junnilainen, Nupponen, Kaitila & Olschwang (2003a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de Vos (1999a), Parenti (2005a), De Prins (1998a), Schütze (1931a), Szőcs (1977a, 1981a), Traugott-Olsen & Nielsen (1977a)….

Coleophora gryphipennella Uncategorized

Coleophora gryphipennella (Hübner, 1796) rose case-bearer Fragaria vesca, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel, det. Camiel Doorenweerd, DNA detail case Rosa pimpinellifolia, Duin en Kruidberg Rosa rubiginosa, Duin en Kruidberg: case mine The larvae, that hatch around the end of August make three…

Coleophora hospitiella parasite

Coleophora hospitiella Chrétien, 1915 Medicago laciniata, La Gomera; left the youth case, right the adult case, on a fructiferous inflorescence; from Klimesch (1982a) case Rather flat lobe case, finally about 7-9 mm long, composed of fairly large leaf fragments. Later the larve changes its life style, and starts feeding on…

Bucculatrix argentisignella parasite

Bucculatrix argentisignella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 mine At first a very narrow, upper- or lower-surface gallery. Further on the gallery widens, and becomes full depth. Frass here in coarse grains in the centre of the corridor. The larva may leave its mine and continue elsewhere. Contrary to most Bucculatrix species the larva…

Elachista argentella parasite

…NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Entire Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Grey green with a faint white dorsal line. Head pale brown; prothoracic shield brown, consisting of 4+4 small plates (Bland, 1996a). pupa Described…

Coleophora idaeella parasite

Coleophora idaeella Hofmann, 1869 scotch case-bearer from Toll (1962a) Vaccinium myrtillus, Belgium, prov. Liège, High Fens © Steve Wullaert feeding traces, with excision and youth case case The full-grown larva in a bivalved composite leaf case, composed of three leaf fragments of increasing age and decreasing size; the case measures…

Nymphula nitidulata parasite

…on helophytes ? Elodea; Glyceria maxina; Nuphar lutea; Nymphaea alba; Potamogeton; Sparganium ememrsumm, erectum. Sparganium is the main hostplant. phenology Larvae and mines from August till May of the following year (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2010). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2010). LUX recorded (Fauna…

Cynaeda dentalis parasite

Cynaeda dentalis (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) starry pearl Echium vulgare, Belgium, prov. Liège, Herstal, Petite Bacnure © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Large, full depth blotch, mainly in the lower leaves. The opaque centre is strongly inflated. Here the frass is concentrated, and in the end also pupation takes place here. The…

Vulcaniella extremella parasite

Vulcaniella extremella (Wocke, 1871) mine The mine begins as a short corridor, generally along the midrib. When a side vein is reached an irregular, elongate blotch is made that may reach the leaf margin, and causes the leaf to contract somewhat. Almost all frass is ejected through an opening in…

Pancalia nodosella parasite

Pancalia nodosella (Bruand, 1851) mine young larvae bore in the petiole, but may make irregular blotch mines in the leaves. The older larvae may cause external window feeding, but ultimately they bore in the rootstock (Koster & Sinev, 2003a). hostplants Violaceae, monophagous Viola canina, tricolor subsp. curtisii. phenology Larvae in…

Cosmopterix schmidiella parasite

Cosmopterix schmidiella Frey, 1856 vivid cosmet mine Large blotch, that may occupy an entire leaflet. During feeding pauses the larve rests in a silken resting place above the midrib, and is well hidden then. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Fabaceae, oligophagous Lathyrus linifolius, niger; Vicia sepium, pisiformis. Preference for…

Coleophora laricella parasite

Coleophora laricella (Hübner, 1817) larch case-bearer on Larix Larix decidua, Maarn detail Larix sp., Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Beloeil © Stéphane Claerebout: spring picture: the dark part of the case has hibernated, the light part is a recent extension Larix decidua, Heerde, lg de Dellen © Hans Jonkman: another image from…

Cosmopterix lienigiella parasite

Cosmopterix lienigiella Zeller, 1846 fen cosmet Phragmites australis; coll Sjaak Koster mine At first a gallery, but soon widened to a broad blotch, entirely or partly running upwards, in the end half as wide as the leaf. The mine is widened without consideration for the length veins, making the mine…

Coleophora spiraeella parasite

Coleophora spiraeella Rebel, 1916 from Toll (1962a) case Dark brown to blackish spatulate leaf case of 7-9 mm. Rear end somewhat lighter in colour, bivalved. Mouth angle sharp (Toll, 1962a). Hering (1957a) writes that the youth case is bivalved, the final case however trivalved. Toll’s drawing does not seem to…

Coleophora spinella parasite

…Crataegus monogyna, Castricum: although this is exceptional for leaf miners, the larvae of C. spinella -if indeed they are spinella– can be found in numbers on the still closed flower buds. Crataegus monogyna, Belgium, prov. Namur, Viroinval, Treignes © Stéphane Claerebout characteristic damage to the flower references Baldizzone (1979a, 2004a),…

Coleophora sergiella parasite

Coleophora sergiella Falkovitch, 1979 case Bivalved spatulate leaf case of c. 6 mm with a mouth angle of c. 45°; the case is light brown with a felty surface. The case may have dorsal lobes, when the original mine was near the leaf margin. In a few specimens the case…

Elachista scirpi parasite

Elachista scirpi Stainton, 1887 saltern dwarf mine The mine begins as a narrow corridor, somewhere halfway the leaf; it ascends towards the tip, doubles, and descends to about the starting point. Meanwhile the corridor has widened to about half the width of the leaf. Most frass is accumulated as an…

Stephensia cedronellae parasite

Stephensia cedronellae (Walsingham, 1908) Lepidoptera, Elachistidae Bystropogon plumosus & Cedronella canariensis; from Hering (1927a) mine Narrow gallery, often following the leaf margin for some distance, ending in a large full depth blotch. Some silk is layed in the blotch, causing it to pucker slightly. In the corridor the frass is…

Calybites phasianipennella parasite

Calybites phasianipennella (Hübner, 1813) little slender on Persicaria, etc. Persicaria maculosa, Leersum, 8.ix.2020 © Ben van As mine and leaf roll Lysimachia vulgaris, Poland, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonelle: mine and leaf roll cocoon, taken out of the leaf roll pupa Lysimachia vulgaris, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Sampont; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Rumex…

Pseudodineura clematidis parasite

Pseudodineura clematidis (Hering, 1924) mine Large, full depth, primary blotch that begins with a very short and quickly widening corridor starting at the leaf margin. Frass in thick black lumps. The larva can vacate its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly mnophagous Clematis alpina….

Caloptilia populetorum parasite

…2005a). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Europe, except Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Whitish, head light brown; pronotum without black markings (Brown, 1947a). pupa Described by Patočka & Zach (1995a) and…

Caloptilia flava parasite

Caloptilia flava (Staudinger, 1871) mine Oviposition at the underside of a leaflet. From there runs a narrow, shallow corridor that may be so strongly contorted as to suggest a secondary blotch. This is continued into a lower-surface tentiform mine of 6-9 mm long, with a longitudinal fold, that causes the…

Aspilapteryx multipunctella parasite

Aspilapteryx multipunctella Chrétien, 1916 Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae Plantago arborescens, Teneriffa; from Klimesch (1979a) mine The young larva spins 2-3 young leaves together, and mines them out completely. The older larva lives free in the centre of a bundle of leaves of the tip of a shoot, that are spun together. The…

Euura polita parasite

Euura polita (Zaddach, 1883) on Salix Salix purpurea, Zeeland, Braakman © Tineke Cramer; from Mol (2013a) gall The leaf margin at one side of the leaf is sharply folded downwards, forming a quite flat tube that is open at both ends. (No spinning is involved here!) The solitary larva can…

Euura scotaspis parasite

Euura scotaspis (Förster, 1854) on Salix Salix viminalis, Millingerwaard detail gall The solitary larva lives in the downwards rolled leaf margin, that has become a narrow tube. Only on the base of the larva the gall can be distinguished from those of E. anglica or piliserra; the identification of the…

Glyphipterix umbilici parasite

Glyphipterix umbilici Hering, 1927 mine Initially a branching corridor with a broad, central green frass line; in the end a full depth blotch; pupation outside the mine. The larva can leave its mine and restart elsewhere. host plants Crassulaceae, monophagous Umbilicus rupestris. phenology Larvae in February, April (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX…

Digitivalva orientella parasite

Digitivalva orientella (Klimesch, 1956) Lepidoptera, Glyphipterigidae mine Undescribed, probably similar to the mine of D. granitella. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Inula germanica. In the older literature “Inula” can also refer to Dittrichia and Pulicaria. distribution within Europe Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Ukaine, Southern Russia (Fauna Europaea, 2009). references Gaedike & Baldizzone (2008a)…

Euura bridgmanii parasite

…Member of the Euura proxima species group. references Altenhofer, Hellrigl & Mörl (2001a), Askew (1985a), Béguinot (2012a), Bellmann (2012a), Beneš (2015a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Benson (1961a), Boevé, Peter, Jacobs, ao (2009a), Buhr (1965a), Chinery (2011a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dietrich (2016a), Ecott (2012a), Koops (2013a),…

Digitivalva granitella parasite

Digitivalva granitella (Treitschke, 1833) Inula conyza, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais, carrières d’Asty-Moulin © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail mine The mine begins with a long and narrow corridor, that, according to Hering (1957a) originates in the midrib or leaf base. This continues into a large, full depth blotch from which almost all…

Profenusa pygmaea parasite

…within Europe All of Europe, perhaps excluding the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Fenusella pygmaea. parasitoids, predators Achrysocharoides cilla; Chrysocharis nitetis; Closterocerus trifasciatus; Pnigalio pectinicornis. references Altenhofer (2003a), Amsel & Hering (1931a), Beiger (1979a), Blank ao (1998a), Buhr (1933a, 1941a, 1964a), Chevin, Ellis & Schneider (2011a), Csóka (2003a),…

Acrolepiopsis vesperella parasite

…the pupation occurs in a net-like cocoon (Klimesch, 1983a). host plants Dioscoreaceae, Smilacaceae; narrowly polyphagous Dioscorea communis; Smilax aspera, canariensis. phenology Larvae in March (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe From Germany to the Iberian Peninsula, Italy, and the Balkan; also…

Teleiopsis lunariella parasite

Teleiopsis lunariella (Walsingham, 1908) Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae Rumex lunaria; uit Hering (1957a) mine Large, glassy blotch from which all frass has been ejected. The blotch lies against the leaf margin, that curls over the mine somwhat. The larva may also bore in a young shoot. Pupation external. hostplants Polygonaceae, narrowly monophagous…

Paracrania chrysolepidella parasite

Paracrania chrysolepidella (Zeller, 1851) small hazel purple Carpinus betulus, Valkenburg, St. Jansbosch © Maarten Immerzeel” occupied mine larva in the mine larva Corylus avellana, Epen © Arnold Wijker Corylus avellana, Belgium, prov. Namur, Doische, Matagne-la-Grande, RN des Hurées © Stéphane Claerebout Corylus avellana, Belgium, prov. Namur, Rochefort, Ri d’Howisse ©…

Pseudodineura clematidisrectae parasite

Pseudodineura clematidisrectae (Hering, 1924) mine Large, full depth, primary blotch. Frass in thick black lumps. The larva may vacate its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly monophagous Clematis recta. phenology Larvae in end May (Lorenz & Kraus (1957a), June -July (Hering (1957a). distribution within…

Pseudodineura enslini parasite

Pseudodineura enslini (Hering, 1923) mine Large, full depth blotch, starting with a short corridor, that often follows the leaf margin. Often 5-12 mines in a leaf. Mines mainly in the lower leaves. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Ranunculaceae, monophagous Trollius…

Silliana lhommei parasite

Silliana lhommei (Hering, 1934) Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae on Phillyrea Phillyrea latifolia, France, Montpellier © Stéphane Claerebout mine, upperside, with red oviposition scar mines, underside two occupied mines, lighted from behind larva in the mine, ventral view mine Large, full depth blotch, narrow at first, but often occupying a large part of…

Scrobipalpula tussilaginis parasite

Scrobipalpula tussilaginis (Stainton, 1867) colt’s-foot groundling Tussilago farfara, Belgium; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Namur, Maizeret © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind larva mine Initially a branching corridor, later more an elongate upper-surface blotch from the leaf base tot the leaf margin, finally occupying a good part…

Scrobipalpula psilella parasite

…shield greenish-yellow (Benander, cited by Huemer & Karsholt [1998a]). Uniformly light grey, head and pronotum light brown (Hering, 1957a). synonyms Gnorimoschema psilellum; Gelechia, Lita, Phthorimaea, psilella references Aarvik, Karsholt, Larsen & Schnack (1988a), Bland, Heckford & Langmaid (2002a), Chrétien (1909a), Corley, Maravalhas & Passos de Carvalho (2006a), Elsner, Huemer &…

Scrobipalpa spergulariella parasite

Scrobipalpa spergulariella (Chrétien, 1910) mine The larva spins groups of leaves together and mines them out, but may also live free in the inflorescence. host plants Caryophyllaceae, monophagous Spergularia media. In the original description, “Spergularia azorica” is mentioned as the host plant, but that is en endemic of the Azores….

Scrobipalpa ergasima parasite

Scrobipalpa ergasima (Meyrick, 1916) mine Full depth, flat, very transparent blotch. The larva makes several mines, that generally develop from near the midrib towards the leaf margin. Each new mine obviously begins with a hole, and some frass may be found here; otherwise the mines are free of frass. Pupation…

Ectoedemia atricollis parasite

Ectoedemia atricollis (Stainton, 1857) pinch-barred pigmy on woody Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna, Belgium, prov. Namur, Boneffe, 4.x.2018 © Jean-Yves Baugnée (along the leaf margin also an unfinished mine of Stigmella regiella) Malus domestica, Belgium, prov. Liege, Ben-Ahin 25.ix.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout mine, upper side; note the exit slit mine, underside mine…

Monochroa rumicetella parasite

Monochroa rumicetella (Hoffmann, 1868) mine Large full depth blotch, that in R. acetosella may occupy almost the entire leaf. In R. acetosella the frass is concentrated in the leaf tip, in R. acetosa on the midrib. Pupation external (Hering, 1957a). host plants Polygonaceae, monophagous Rumex acetosa, acetosella. Mainly on R….

Bucculatrix ainsliella parasite

Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, 1905 Quercus rubra, Wezep © Erik van Nieukerken detail mine Tiny, full depth gallery, often in a vein axil, apart from the larval chamber almost completely filled with blackish brown frass. The mine starts at an iridescent egg shell next to a thick vein. Older larvae live…

Bucculatrix ainsliella pupa parasite

Bucculatrix ainsliella Quercus rubra, Hoenderloo, Hoge Veluwe (exuvium): th 2-3, ab d1-2 abd 3-4 and 4, anterior part, in detail abd 7-10 detail of abd 10, dorsal view abd 1-2 On the basis of the key by Patočka & Turčáni (2005a) ainsliella stands next to B. frangutella and demaryella. The…

Aproaerema anthyllidella parasite

Aproaerema anthyllidella (Hübner, 1813) vetch sober Medicago cf lupulina, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Chimai: young, still mining larva © Steve Wullaert mine Larvae in a small full depth blotch, often with extensions. Frass concentrated in one corner of the mine. The mining activities may cause the leaf to roll inwards. Older…

Cameraria gaultheriella parasite

Cameraria gaultheriella (Walsingham, 1889) Gaultheria shallon, Oldenzaal (intercepted introduction) © Steven IJland Gaultheria shallon, Leiden (intercepted introduction), mine, lighted from behind, with larva; © Erik van Nieukerken detail Gaultheria shallon, Amersfoort (intercepted introduction) © Willem Oosterhof: clearly a living, healthy larva (December, 2015) mine Short gallery, quickly but gradually widening…

Trifurcula cryptella parasite

Trifurcula cryptella (Stainton, 1856) wood lotus pigmy Lotus corniculatus, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Gellik © Steve Wullaert cocoon – pupation is external Coronilla varia, France, dép. Savoie; from van Nieukerken (2007b) Lotus corniculatus, Losser; ex coll. Sjaak Koster mine Oviposition at the leaf underside. The mine begins as a long corridor…

Etainia obtusa parasite

…Spain, France, Italy, Croatia (Fauna Europaea, 2012). synonyms Ectoedemia obtusa. notes A considerable number of cocoons was found on trunks of Fraxinus ornus; at some distance also Acer monspessulanum was growing. references van Nieukerken, Doorenweerd, Hoare & Davis (2016a), van Nieukerken & A Laštůvka (2002a), van Nieukerken, A & Z…

Coleophora obscenella parasite

Coleophora obscenella Herrich-Schäffer, 1855 on Aster parasite The larva in a 5-6 mm long, trivalved, dark brown cylindrical silken case with a mouth angle of 40°-70°. The larvae feed upon the fruits. Emmet ao write that in the case fragments of the pappus are incorporated. It is not clear whether…

Corythucha arcuata parasite

…(2013a), Çerçi̇, Karataş & Karataş (2021a), Çerçi & Koçak (2016a), Chireceanu, Teodoru & Chiriloaie (2017a), Dioli, Boggio & Limonta (2019a), Dobreva, Simov, Georgiev ao (2013a), Forster, Giacalone, Moretti ao (2005a), Kovács, Nagy, Radócz & Szarukán (2020a), Küçükbasmaci (2014a), Rabitsch (2008a), Simov, Grozeva, Langourov ao (2018a), Streito, Balmès, Aversenq, ao (2018a)….

Golovinomyces asperifoliorum host plant genus

…(rarely 3) spores. Appendages numerous, attached on and below the equator. They are up to 2 x as long as the diameter, flaccid, hyaline, septate, generally unbranched. host plants Boraginaceae, narrowly oligophagous Pulmonaria affinis, angustifolia, dacica, longifolia, mollis, montana, obscura, officinalis, rubra, saccharata; Symphytum asperum, bulbosum, caucasicum, cordatum, grandiflorum, ibericum,…

Leucaspis lowi parasite

Leucaspis lowi (Colvée, 1882) on (Abies), Pinus The three Leucaspis-soorten: from left to right: L. pini, pusilla, lowi (from Isaia & Manea). parasite Scales up to 2 mm long, on the upper side of the young needles. host plants Pinaceae, oligophagous Abies; Pinus brutia, halepensis, mugo, nigra & subsp. pallasiana,…

Leucaspis pusilla parasite

…Selmi (2006a), Blay Goicoechea (1992a), Çalişkan Keçe & Ulusoy (2017a), Carnero Hernandez & Perez Guerra (1986a), Fetykó (2014a), Gómez-Menor Ortega (1957a, 1965a), Hellrigl (2004a), Isaia & Manea (2008a), Kozár, Guignard, Bachmann ao (1994a), Malumphy & Kahrer (2011a), Mifsud, Mazzeo, Russo & Watson (2014a), Pellizzari, Porcelli, Seljak & Kozár (2011a), Şi̇şman…

Parlatoria oleae parasite

…Europe (PESI, 2018). references Akkuzu, Arslangündoğdu & Selmi (2006a), Blay Goicoechea (1992a), Çalişkan Keçe & Ulusoy (2017a), Carnero Hernandez & Perez Guerra (1986a), Elenis (2007a), Gomez-Menor Ortega (1948a, 1957a, 1960a), Hellrigl (2004a), Japoshvili & Karaca (2002a), Mansour, Mkaouar, Grissa Lebdi ao (2011a), Masten Milek, Šimala, Pintar & Markotić (2017a), Mifsud,…

Aproceros leucopoda parasite

Aproceros leucopoda Takeuchi, 1939 zigzag elm sawfly on Ulmus Ulmus spec., Hungary, Halászi, 13.v.2019 © László Érsek: feeding pattern young larva, feeding head and thorax, lateral view cocoon detail larva, dissected out of the cocoon above 27.vii.2019, feeding pattern Ulmus spec. © Tineke Cramer, Leersum: feeding pattern (from Mol &…

Adelges funitectus parasite

Adelges funitectus (Dreyfus, 1888) on Picea host plants Picea abies, orientalis. synonyms The name “A. funitectus” cannot be associated with a known species, it is a “nomen dubium” (Aphid Species File, 2018). references Houard (1908a)….

Delia coarctata parasite

Delia coarctata (Fallén,1825) wheat bulb fly on grasses cephalic skeleton (from Dušek) puparium parasite Oviposition in the soil. The larvae bore in the culm of grasses; one larva can destroy several culms. Pupation and hibernation in the soil. hostplants Poaceae, oligofaag Dactylis; Elymus; Hordeum; Lolium; Ochlopoa annua; Phleum; Secale cereale;…

Melanagromyza aeneoventris parasite

…hun eigen diameter gescheiden, voorzien van een centrale gechitiniseerde stekel, die gaaf kan zijn maar ook stomp en rafelig, omgeven door 14-18 goed gedifferentieerde papillen. puparium Puparium yellowish white to pale straw coloured. Rear spiracula chitinised, solid black, separated by their own diameter, bearing 14-18 well-differentiated papillae in an incomplete…

Trifurcula trasaghica parasite

Trifurcula trasaghica A & Z Laštůvka, 2005 on Cytisus mine (from Laštůvka & Laštůvka) parasite The larva lives as a borer, making a spiral, gradually widening, gallery around the pith. The stem can become somewhat swollen, like galled. hostplants Fabaceae, narrowly monophagous Cytisus decumbens. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2018). references…

Coleophora niveiciliella parasite

Coleophora niveiciliella Hofmann, 1877 on ? Lavandula case (from Baldizzone, 1988b) parasite Of this species a case is known, but there is no further information about its biology. Based on the synonymy with C. maneella its host plant is “probably Lavandula spica“. According to thr Euro+Med PlantBase (2018) this can…

Coleophora virgaureae parasite

Coleophora virgaureae Stainton, 1857 golden-rod case-bearer on Galatella, Solidago, (Tripolium) case (from Patzak, 1974a) parasite The larva in a 5-6 mm long, trivalved, dark brown cylindrical silken case with a mouth angle of 40°-70°. The larvae feed upon the fruits. As the picture above shows, fragments of the pappus are…

Coleophora semicinerea parasite

Coleophora semicinerea Staudinger, 1859 on Fabaceae Colutea arborescens (from Baldizzone, 1989c) Anthyllis vulneraria, zak Malta © Michael Zerafa case on Lotus edulis. opened pod Tripodion tetraphyllum with larva feeding on a seed (from Nel, 1994b) parasite The young larva devores the ovary of a flower, then uses the calyx (or,…

Lixus subtilis parasite

…may develop. host plants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Amaranthus retroflexus; Atriplex sagittata, tatarica; Beta vulgaris; Chenopodium album, vulvaria; Spinacia. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Davidian, Korotyaev & Gültekin (2017a), Dieckmann (1983a), Gültekin (2007a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Stejskal (2004b), Stejskal & Trnka (2013a), Volovnik (2007a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Macrosiphum centranthi parasite

Macrosiphum centranthi Theobald, 1915 on Centranthus, Valeriana parasite Apterae 2-4 mm, whitish green, yellowish green or green with darker green spinal stripe, and femora and siphunculi darker towards apices. The eyes are dark brown (not red as in M. euphorbiae, that may occur on the same plant). On leaves and…

Coccidae parasite

soft scales Coccidae often resemble Diaspididae, but the dorsal shield of the female in Coccidae forms an integral part of her dorsum. The shield may be smooth, but may also be filamentous or powdery. Some species make a large ovisac out of wax threads, mostly behind the female, sometimes ±…

Schizaphis jaroslavi parasite

Schizaphis jaroslavi (Mordvilko, 1921) on Calamagrostis parasite Apterae ± 2 mm, pale green to yellow green with a darker green median stripe and dark tips to siphunculi, slightly wax-powdered. hostplants Poaceae, ? monophagous Calamagrostis epigeios. Blackman & Eastop list more species (other genera), but add that this may be connected…

Rhopalosiphum maidis parasite

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856) corn leaf aphid on Poaceae Zea mays, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 1.ix.2013 © László Érsek colony ant attendannce Sorghum bicolor, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 13.ix.2013 © László Érsek colony another image parasite Apterae 1-2 mm, oval, yellowish green dark olive green or bluish green, sometimes dusted with wax, with short…

Coleophora limoniella parasite

…seed case from the emptied fruit. Next it eats the seeds of number of fruits more, from time to time replacing its case by a larger one. Once fully fed the larva bores itself for the hibernation in a stem, of the host plant of some other plant nearby. The…

Key to the Euura species groups specials

Key to the species groups within the super-genus Euura Based on Liston, Heibo, Prous ao (2017a). 1a Gall closed => 2 1b Gall open => 4 2a Gall in a shoot, bud, petiole or midrib : amerinae group 2b Gall in/on the leaf disk => 3 3a Gall epiphyllous, often…

Elatobium abietinum parasite

Elatobium abietinum (Walker, 1849) green spruce aphid on Picea, etc. Abies alba, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints. Picea abies, Germany, Saarland, Bexbach, 250 m, 27.iv.2022 © Volker Fäßler alate gall De aphids sit in small groups on the older needles. De needles turn yellow and drop prematurely….

Fungi introduction

Traditionally rust and smut fungi (Pucciniomycotina and Ustilaginomycotina) are considered gall causers, but only as far as they cause conspicuous swellings of plant parts. By this limitation an arbitrary division is created in the rusts, that does no justice to their biological importance. Even more arbitrary is the admission of…

systemic

Most fungal infection are local. However, in some species the mycelium pervades the entire plant body. This has important biological implications: the fungus may be dispersed by infected seed, and the fungus may hibernate in the below-grond pats of the plant….

sclerotium

(pl sclerotia). A hard, dry of fungal tissue that is resistant to unfavourable conditions and may remain in a resting state for an extended period….

feeding punctures

Pin-sized puncture made by an agromyzid female with her ovipositor in the surface of leaf. She subsequently drinks from the extruding sap. Males, not having an ovipositor, drink from the punctures that the females have made. A single female can make many tens of punctures in a leaf. When Agromyzidae…

oviposition scar

In cases where the egg is deposited within the plant tissue, this is done either by means of an ovipositor, or by biting a hole in the leaf (mostly a thick vein). This causes a wound reaction of the plant, that may remain long after the mine has been vacated….

parasitoid

Many insects place their egg in or on the egg or larva of their prey; the larva that emerges slowly devours the host larva. To call this behaviour parasitic is not justified, because real parasites, like fleas or lice, need to keep their host alive, rather than to kill it….

Temnocerus nanus parasite

…top of the shoot as food. host plants Betulaceae, Salicaceae, restricted polyphagous Alnus; Betula; Salix caprea, cinerea, repens, viminalis. phenology Hibernation as mature larva in the soil. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Pselaphorhynchites nanus. references Alonso Zarazaga (1983a), Dieckmann(1974a), Reinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Lixus elegantulus parasite

…congruence in supposed host plant and the systematic affinity it might be guessed that the larvae live and pupate in the root. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous ? Scorzoneroides autumnalis. Feeding adults observed at Chondrilla juncea; Crepis distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Dieckmann (1983a), Stejskal & Trnka (2013a), Volovnik (2013a)….

monophagous

Living on a single plant genus. If this species contains, within the distributional area of the parasite, many species, while the parasite lives on just one or a few of them, one can call the parasite “narrowly monophagous”….

Cochylis epilinana parasite

Cochylis epilinana Duponchel, 1842 on Linum parasite Larvae bore in the green fruits. host plants Linaceae, monophagous Linum campanulatum, catharticum, narbonense, usitatissimum. Klimesch writes that the moth has been bred from the fruits of Asphodelus “microcarpus”; this cannot possibly the same species. Also the attributions of Solidago and Cephalaria leucantha…

Cecidostiba geganius parasite

Cecidostiba geganius (Walker, 1848) on Quercus parasite Specific parasitoid of the agamic generation of Andricus quercusradicis. The larvae of this species are gregarious, many parasitoid larvae being found in a single cell of the multilocular host gall. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus faginea, pyrenaica. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). references…

Torymus ramicola parasite

Torymus ramicola Ruschka, 1921 parasite Parasitoid of “Diplosis ramicola” and Dryocosmus kuriphilus. host plants polyphagous Artemisia; Castanea sativa. distribution within Europe PESI (2022). notes The gall midge “Diplosis ramicola Kieffer” would live on Artemisia; O’m unable to interprete this name. references Doğanlar (2017a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a)….

Cacyreus marshalli parasite

…Drouet (2013a), Gascoigne-Pees, Hall & Russell (2002a), Hornemann (2004a), Hrnčić, Radonjić & Perović (2017a), Huertas Dionisio (2007a), Köhler (2014a), Lepiforum (2021), Milojković, Vujić, Djurić & Tot 2021a), Pérez De-Gregorio & Rondós i Casas (2006a), Šturm (2020a), Vegliante & Zilli (2007a), Verovnik, Polak & Seljak (2011a), Wiemers, Acosta-Fernández & Larsen (2013a)….

Carcharodus alceae parasite

Carcharodus alceae (Esper, 1780) mallow skipper on Malva, etc. parasite Larvae in a folded leaf segment; in larger leaves a segment is cut loose. host plants Malvaceae, oligophagous Abutilon theophrasti; Alcea rosea, setosa; Althaea officinalis; Hibiscus; Malva alcea, moschata, neglecta, sylvestria, thuringiaca; Malvella sherardiana. It has been found in Israel…

Aglaope infausta parasite

Aglaope infausta (Linnaeus, 1767) on Prunus, etc. parasite Larvae freely on the leaves. host plants Rosaceae, oligophagous Amelanchier ovalis; Crataegus monogyna; Malus domestica; Prunus armeniaca, avium, domestica, dulcis, mahaleb, persica, spinosa; Pyracantha coccinea; Pyrus communis; Sorbus aria. Occasionally Rhamnus cathartica distribution within Europe PESI (2021). larva, pupa see Fänger &…

Ips acuminatus parasite

Ips acuminatus (Gyllenhal, 1827) on Pinus, etc. parasite Larvae and adults in the bark; polygamous species. Generally in downed trees, but may occur in healthy trees that then may be killed. host plants Pinaceae, oligophagous Abies; Picea abies; Pinus nigra, sylvestris, uncinata. phenology Bivoltine. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). parasitoids,…

Xyleborus dispar parasite

Xyleborus dispar (Fabricius, 1792) broad-leaved pinhole borer on woody plants Schematic array of the gallery system (from Lombardero, 1996a) parasite Ambrosia beetle, also capable to infect healthy trees. host plants polyphagous Abies; Acer campestre, negundo; Actinidia chinensis; Aesculus hippocastanum; Alnus glutinosa, incana; Betula pendula, pubescens; Carpinus betulus; Castanea dentata, sativa;…

Orthotomicus erosus parasite

…(2007a), Lukić, Zgrablić & Mičetić Stanković (2019a), Mendel, Madar & Golan (1985a), Mifsud & Knížek (2009a), Munroe (1926a), Nikulina, Mandelshtam, Petrov, ao (2015a), Ruiz-Portero, Barranco & Cabello (2004a), Sanchez, Chittaro, Germann & Knížek (2020a), Sarıkaya (2013a), Sarikaya & Şen (2017a), Sarikaya & Yildirim (2011a), Vorst, Heijerman, van Nunen & van…

Parahypopta caestrum parasite

Parahypopta caestrum (Hübner, 1808) on Asparagus parasite Ovipisition in the soil near a plant. Larvae bore in the underground parts, laer also in the stengels. A lava may need several plants. host plants Asparagaceae, monophagous Asparagus acutifolius, albus, maritimus, officinalis. phenology Uivoltine; the larva hibernates in a silken tube in…

Loxocera sylvatica parasite

Loxocera sylvatica Meigen, 1826 on Luzula parasite The larva bores in the stem, is capable to move to a new stem; pupation internal. host plants Juncaceae, monophagous Luzula pilosa. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). puparium See Bland & Rotheray. references Bland & Rotheray (2002a)….

Coniosporium corticale parasite

Coniosporium corticale (Ellis & Everhart) Gregory & Waller, 1952 sooty bark disease of sycamore on Acer, etc. gal After an infection by way of a wound the fungus may live for a long time in the xylem, without causing apparent damage. However, in periods of drought stress an extensive stroma…

Thrips angusticeps parasite

Thrips angusticeps Uzel, 1895 field thrips, cabbage thrips on herbs parasite Larvae and adults among the youngest leaves; the shoot tips and inflorescences become malformed and wither; the entire plant mey become stunted. host plants polyphagous Beta; Citrus sinensis; Convolvulus; Linum usitatissimum; Pisum sativum; Quercus; Sinapis; Triticum aestivum; Vicia sativa….

Eccopisa effractella parasite

Eccopisa effractella Zeller, 1848 royal knot-horn detritus feeder parasite Observations by Ruben Meert have demonstrated that the larva can fulfill its entire development on dead organic material; als reared from galls on oak and willow. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2020). references Andreev (2005a), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Graf, Jacobasch,…

Anthonomus rectirostris parasite

…in the flesh of the fruit when the fruit has been punctured by the female beetle. references Delbol (2013a), Dieckman (1968a, 1988a), Lechapt (2015a), Meijer, Smit, Beukeboom & Schilthuizen (2012a), Morris, Mendel, Barclay ao (2017a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý & Meyer (2014a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Gypsonoma sociana parasite

Gypsonoma sociana (Haworth, 1811) white cloaked shoot on Populus, (Salix) parasite In late summer the larva lives as a borer in a young shoot, of which the distal part may die off. After the hibernation the larva bores in a swelling bud; the infection then is recognisable by frass that…

Pammene argyrana parasite

…plate two-coloured; prnacula brown, prominent. pupa See Patočka & Turčáni. synonyms Pammene costipunctana auct. references Aarvik (1992a), Bradley, Tremewan & Smith (1979a), Corley, Marabuto & Pires (2007a), Deutsch (2012a), Disqué (1905a), Hancock & Bland (2015b), de Jong & Beeke (1956a), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a), Schütze (1931a), Swatschek (1958a), Szőcs (1977a)….

Thrips viminalis parasite

Thrips viminalis Uzel, 1895 on Salix parasite Thrips in the buds and very young leaves. Suction damage may result in malformations of the developing leaves. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Salix purpurea, x fragilis. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Buhr (1965a), Karadjova & Krumov (2015a), Kobro (2003a), Mound, Morison, Pitkin…

Caudospora taleola parasite

Caudospora taleola (Fries) Starbäck, 1899 on Quercus parasite A saprotroph or weak pathogen of oaks, which can cause canker diseases. Generally found on dead branches. That the species would cause cankerous malformations on green twigs, as stated by Buhr, probably is exceptional. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus. distribution within Europe…

Cydia fagiglandana parasite

Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller, 1841) large beech piercer, intermediate chestnut moth on Fagus, Quercus, etc. parasite The larva bores in a fruit, teat gradually becomes packed with frass; if the fruit turns out too small, the larva may move to another fruit/ host plants (Betulaceae), Fagaceae, ± oligophagous Castanea sativa; Corylus…

Cintractia baccata parasite

Cintractia baccata (Wallroth) von Sydow, 1924 on Carex This name cannot be interpreted, because in the original publication the name of the host Carex is not indicated with sufficient precision. The name is a synonym of eiter Anthracoidea arenariae or A. caryophylleae. references Buhr (1964b), Roskam (2019a), Tomasi (2003a, 2014a),…

Celypha striana parasite

Celypha striana (Denis & Schiffermüller, 1775) barred marble on Taraxacum parasite Initially the larva lives under a web at the outside of the taproot; later it lives within. It may cause the death of the plant. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale. The occurrence on Plantago lanceolata need further confirmation….

Trisetacus relocatus parasite

Trisetacus relocatus Bagnyuk & Shevchenko, 1982 on Picea parasite The mites live under the scapes of fresh buds; this may disturb the development of the shoot. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Picea abies. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Lewandowski, Skoracka, Szydło ao (2014a)….

Acaphylla theae parasite

Acaphylla theae (Watt, 1898) on Camellia parasite Mites live as vagrants at the undersides of the leaves. At high densities bronzing may occur. host plants Theaceae, monophagous Camellia japonica. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Acaphylla steinwedeni Keifer, 1943. references Han, Zuo, Xue & Hong (2014), Mansilla Vázquez, Pérez Otero,…

Cosmopterix pararufella parasite

Cosmopterix pararufella Riedl, 1976 leaf midrib miner on sugarcane mine Eggs one by one at the upper side of the midrib. The mine is a gradually widening gallery in them midrib that may be become sufficiently weakened as transversely snap the leaf. Pupation within the mine; before a circular, silk-covered…

Caryocolum fraternella parasite

Caryocolum fraternella (Douglas, 1851) mouse-ear groundling on Cerastium, Stellaria parasite The larva bores inn a young shoot, that shows “gall-like growth” (Bland ao). The larva may handle several shoots. host plants Caryophyllaceae, oligophagous Cerastium arvense, fontanum & subsp. vulgare; Stellaria alsine, graminea, holostea. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). synonyms Gnorimoschema…

pseudo-Bucculatrix mine specials

An unusual cause of death of a Stigmella-larva: a “pseudo-Bucculatrix” mine Normally a mining larva doesn’t only eat the tissue right in front: it also eats with its head a bit to the side, causing the corridor to become wider than the larva itself. In some species the corridor may…

Sphenoptera jugoslavica parasite

Sphenoptera jugoslavica Obenberger, 1926 bronze knapweed root borer on knapweed parasite The larvae bore in the taproot, that may become swollen gall-like. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Centaurea diffusa, stoebe. distribution within Europe (PESI, 2019). references Müller (1989a), Panin, Săvulecu & Ruicănescu (2015a), Sakalian (2003a)….

polyphagous

Living on two or more plant genera belonging to different families. If these families are closely related, one can speak of “narrow polyphagous”, in the opposite case of “broad polyphagous”….

green island

An autumn phenomenon. The presence of an occupied mine in a dying leaf can block the yellowing process. The tissue around the mine keeps its original green colour, even when the leaf already has fallen to the ground….

Stigmella arbusculae parasite

Stigmella arbusculae (Klimesch, 1951) mines on Salix arbuscula, retusa and reticulata; from Klimesch (1951e). mine Egg usually near the midrib. Here begins a narrow gallery completely filled with frass, that widens into a full depth blotch. In dwarf willows with very small leaves the entire leaf can be mined out….

Trifurcula eurema parasite

Trifurcula eurema (Tutt, 1899) field lotus pigmy Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Greece, nom. Fókis; from van Nieukerken (2007b) mine with cocoon mine Egg at the upperside or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a long narrow corridor with a linear frass line. The corridor abruptly widens into a blotch that…

Ochsenheimeria vacculella parasite

Ochsenheimeria vacculella Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1842 cereal stem-moth mine Not described. The first instar lave mines in a leaf; after that it lives as a stem borer. hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous Agropyron cristatum; Bromopsis erecta, inermis; Elymus caninus; Elytrigia repens; Lolium; Phleum pratense; Poa; Schedonorus pratensis; Secale cereale; Triticum aestivum. Can…

Prays oleae parasite

…within Europe Mediterranean Region (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Described by Amsel & Hering (1931a). synonyms Prays oleella (Fabricius, 1794. parasitoids, predators Ageniaspis fuscicollis; Asecodes erxias; Baryscapus nigroviolaceus; Chrysocharis gemma, nephereus; Cirrospilus elongatus; Dicladocerus westwoodii; Elasmus arcuatus, flabellatus, masii, nudus, westwoodi; Euderus albitarsis; Eupelmus urozonus; Hemiptarsenus unguicellus; Hockeria bifasciata, unicolor; Mesopolobus…

Prays fraxinella parasite

…(Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe All Europe, except the Mediterranean islands and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva pupa Illustrated and described by Patočka (1997a, 1999b), Patočka & Turčáni (2005a). synonyms Prays curtisella (Donovan, 1793). references Agassiz (1996), Baldizzone…

Epinotia bilunana parasite

Epinotia bilunana (Haworth, 1811) crescent bell on Betula gall the larva, a caterpillar, lives during the summer in a female catkin, that may become somewhat disfigured, and finally is eaten out completely. The larve hibernates in the catkin and in spring pupates either there, or in the litter. host plants…

Epiblema scutulana parasite

…host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Arctium; Carduus nutans; Centaurea jacea, nemoralis, nigra; Cirsium palustre, vulgare; Senecio. larva body reddish brown; head, prothoracic and anal plates and thoracic feet dark brown (Swatschek). pupa See Patočka & Turčáni. synonyms Epiblema scutulanum; E. luctuosana Duponchel, 1835; E. pflugiana (Haworth, 1811) references Bradley, Tremewan &…

Cochylis nana parasite

Cochylis nana (Haworth, 1811) birch conch on Betula gall the larva, a caterpillar, lives during the summer in a female catkin, that may become somewhat disfigured; in autumn pupation follows in a bark fissure. host plants Betulaceae, monophagous Betula pendula, pubescens. larva Boy dirty yellowish-white; head brown; prothoracic plate brownish,…

Argyroploce lediana parasite

Argyroploce lediana (Linnaeus, 1758) on Rhododendron gall the larva lives among the flowers and young leaves but prior to the hibernation, bores into a young shoot where some swelling may occur. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Rhododendron tomenentosum (= Ledum palustre). larva, pupa Pictures on Lepiforum; see also Patočka & Turčáni,…

Coptotriche gaunacella parasite

Coptotriche gaunacella (Duponchel, 1843) grey carl on Prunus Prunus cerasus, Belgium, prov. Liège, Huy © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine, lighted from behind, with larva mine Upper-surface blotch. The inner wall is lined with much silk, giving the mine a white colour. The silk also causes the mine to contract, pulling the…

Coptotriche angusticollella parasite

…and pupates only in spring. BENELUX BE recorded (Phegea, 2009). NE recorded (Kuchlein & de Vos, 1999a; Microlepidoptera.nl, 2009). LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach). distribution within Europe Almost all Europe, but is missing in Ireland, and rare or absent in the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva pupa synonyms Emmetia, Tischeria…

Paranthrene tabaniformis parasite

Paranthrene tabaniformis (Rottemburg, 1775) on Populus gall the larva tunnels during two years in the wood of 3-6 years old trees; in not too thick branches or suckers this may result in a recognisable swelling. Oten in old galls, like those of Saperda populnea. Pupation the gallery, not in a…

Stenoptilia zophodactylus parasite

Stenoptilia zophodactylus (Duponchel, 1840) dowdy plume Gentiana sp. Amstelveen mine Full depth irregular blotch that may occupy an entire leaf. Frass in numerous, dispersed, brown grains. Some larvae remain in the mine until shortly before pupation, others leave the mine in an early stage and feed externally on the flower…

Glaucolepis teucriella parasite

Glaucolepis teucriella (Chrétien, 1914) mine Corridor, widening into a blotch that may occupy the entire leaf. By way of the petiole the larva can move to the opposite leaf. Pupation external. hostplants Lamiaceae, monophagous Teucrium chamaedrys. phenology Probably two generations, with larvae in October – April and in July. distribution…

Trifurcula anthyllidella parasite

…outside the mine, exit slit in the lower or upper epidermis. hostplants Fabaceae, narrowly monophagous Anthyllis cytisoides, terniflora. phenology Larvae may be found almost the whole year, but most numerous in April – June. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Spain, Balearic Islands…

Moehringia host plants

Moehringia three-nerved sandwort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Moehringia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora chalcogrammella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine begins near an under-surface egg shell (the…

Stigmella trimaculella parasite

…(1071a, 1983a), van Frankenhuyzen & Houtman (1972a), van Frankenhuyzen Houtman & Kabos (1982a), Gustafsson (1985a), Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a), Hartig (1939a), Haase (1942a), Hering (1923a), Huber (1969a), Johansson ao (1990a), Kasy (1983a), Klimesch (1936a, 1950c, 1978b), Kollár (2007a), Kollár & Hrubík (2009a), Kuchlein & Donner (1993a), Kuchlein & de…

Stigmella tormentillella parasite

Stigmella tormentillella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) on Potentilla Potentilla aurea (left), P. crantzii, Austria, 1750 and 1800 m, resp.; from Klimesch (1981a) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a corridor that considerably widens in the end, and may occupy an entire leaf segment. Frass initially in an…

Stigmella stelviana parasite

Stigmella stelviana (Weber, 1938) Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae Potentilla grandiflora, Austria, 2200 m; from Klimesch (1981a) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a corridor that strongly widens in the end, and may occupy an entire leaf segment; when the leaf is too small the larva may move…

Stigmella sorbi parasite

Stigmella sorbi (Stainton, 1861) barred rowan pigmy on Sorbus, etc. Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Rocherath, 23.vi.2014 © Carina Van Steenwinkel occupied mine vacated mine Sorbus aucuparia, Italy, Aosta; herbarium Ben van As Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium (from Wullaert, 2010c). Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Arlon; © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Oviposition…

Stigmella samiatella parasite

Stigmella samiatella (Zeller, 1839) chestnut pigmy on Castanea, Quercus Castanea sativa, Tilburg, de Kaaistoep, 19.ix.2020 © Paul van Wielink Castanea sativa, Bergen op Zoom, 31.vii.2012 (egg at the underside, exit slit at upper side of the leaf) Quercus robur, Naardensebos, 11.viii.2002 mine Oviposition mostly at the leaf underside, almost always…

Stigmella ruficapitella parasite

…that with absolute certainty can be identified on the base of the mine (Erik van Nieukerken in litt.) references Amsel & Hering (1931a), Anisimovas, Diškus & Stonis (2006a), Beiger (1979a), Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a, 1972b), Buhr (1936a, 1964a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Buszko & Beshkov (2004a), J Černý (2001a), Diškus…

Stigmella rhamnella parasite

…also Estonia; not in the southern Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2009). larva Green; see the description by Gustafsson & van Nieukerken (1990a). synonyms Stigmella rhamnipumilae Klimesch, 1950. references Bengtsson (2008a), Borkowski (1969a), Buszko & Baraniak (1989a), Corley (2005a), Corley, Nunes, Rosete & Ferreira (2019a), Drăghia (1968a), Gustafsson (1981b), Gustafsson &…

Stigmella pallidiciliella parasite

Stigmella pallidiciliella Klimesch, 1946 mine Oviposition at the upperside, next to the midrib. The larva at first makes a long corridor along the midrib, with an often interrupted frass line that leaves a clear zone at either side. The mine develops into a broad elongate blotch that in narrow leaves…

Stigmella oxyacanthella parasite

Stigmella oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854) common fruit-tree pigmy Crataegus monogyna, Nieuwendam, 22.x.2011 Crataegus monogyna, Duin en Kruidberg, 11..x.2001 detail Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Tournai, RN de la Carrière de l’Orientm 22.viii.2016 © Stéphane Claerebout mine Long corridor, that widens only little, and winds freely through the leaf, not influenced by…

Stigmella minusculella parasite

Stigmella minusculella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) brown-tipped pigmy on Pyrus Pyrus communis, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Resteigne © Jean-Yves Baugnée Pyrus communis, Luxemburg, Kautenbach Pyrus spinosa, Rhodes (Nepticula embonella); from Klimesch (1978b) mine Egg at the underside of the leaf. The mine is a not very strongly contorted corridor, also not limited to…

Stigmella magdalenae parasite

Stigmella magdalenae (Klimesch, 1950) northern rowan pigmy Sorbus aucuparia, Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Lanaken, de Hoefaert © Carina Van Steenwinkel same mine, lighted from behind another specimen Cotoneaster integerrimus; Czechia, North Bohemia, Děčín; © Jindra Černý Sorbus aucuparia, Nunspeet mine Egg at the underside of the leaf, independent of the venation….

Stigmella hybnerella parasite

Stigmella hybnerella (Hübner, 1796) greenish thorn pigmy Crataegus monogyna, Nieuwendam mine Oviposition at random point of the leaf, either at upper- or lower-surface. First a quite slender corridor is made, with a relatively broad, continuous, frass line, that always leaves a clear margin at either side; the corridor winds freely…

Stigmella desperatella parasite

Stigmella desperatella (Frey, 1856) scarce apple pigmy Malus domestica, Austria, (Kärnten) Pörtschach, 5 km W Völkermark;leg JJ Boomsma & EJ van Nieukerken mine Egg either at upper side or underside of the leaf. The mine begins as a narrow gallery, often following a vein or the leaf margin. Later sections…

Beta host plants

Beta beet See also Patellifolia. Beet miners are described in more detail by Skuhravy ao (1967a). (For a dichotomous table for galls on Beta by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1amine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot…

Portulaca host plants

Portulaca purslane, pigweed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine upper- and/or lower-surface => 2 1b mine essentially full depth, transparant: Hypurus bertrandi 1c the larva mines from a transportable case: Coleophora texanella 1d galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a narrow corridor, continued in a blotch; larva…

fleck mine

Full depth blotch, not containing frass, and invariably with one, more or less central, usually circular, hole. Made by a larva (usually a Coleophora that operates from the outside. The larva first bites the hole in the epidermis, then from that point it eats away as much leaf tissue as…

Calepina host plants

Calepina (For a dichotomous table for galls on Calepina by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface (sometimes full depth in places); larva a maggot => 4 1c galls, etc => Tables for all…

case

Transportable, tubular or rarely helicoidal structure, made of plant material, silk, rarely detritus, in which a larve lives and walks around, and from which it may make a fleck mine. Most often made byColeophoridae larvae….

ascogenous cell

Ascomycota: a cell out of which later an ascus may develop. In Protomyces they are embedded in the galled host tissue. They have a double wall, the outer one conspicuously thickened….

aecium

(pl aecia). The second stage in the life history of rust fungi, Pucciniales. Puccinia poarum: underside of a leaf with aecia characteristically, the spores are produced in a chain only under exceptionally quiet circumstances a picture like this can develop…

Ectoedemia albifasciella Uncategorized

Ectoedemia albifasciella Overproduction of eggs? Sometimes an excessive number of eggs is deposited on a small number of leaves. By far most of the resulting larvae perish. Quercus robur, Hoog Soeren Of the four larvae on this picture only the lowest, largest, is still alive. The number of these failed…

albifasciella special specials

Overproduction of eggs in Ectoedemia albifasciella Overproduction of eggs? Sometimes an excessive number of eggs is deposited on a small number of leaves. By far most of the resulting larvae perish. Quercus robur, Hoog Soeren Of the four larvae on this picture only the lowest, largest, is still alive. The…

Shape: blotch mines introduction

Shape: blotch mines blotch mines When a larva has the opportunity to eat away the leaf tissue in all directions, the result is a more or less circular bladder, a blotch mine. However, a blotch may also result when the loops of a corridor mine are so strongly convoluted that…

Pseudomines introduction

Pseudomines In the field it sometimes is not easy at all to distinguish real mines from other damage to the leaves. The variation in these ‘pseudomines’ is endless, but two types can fairly easily be singled out. window feeding Window feeding means that a larva has been eating away all…

Predators introduction

…the larvae were eaten then by birds (Brower, 1934a). Especially tits are well known predators of miners (Ellis, 2000a; Hespenheide, 1991a; Owen, 1975a). A mine that has been handled by a bird has a characteristic V-shaped opening. Tischeria ekebladella op eik Especially in suburban situations bird predation on Phytomyza ilicis…

Larvae introduction

Larvae The larvae of the four main groups of leaf miners -Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Coleoptera- generally are not difficult to tell apart Diptera Mining fly larvae always are maggots: more or less spindle-shaped, feet and eyeless beings without an apparant head. As a matter of fact, the head is…

Introduction introduction

…these changes are not determined only by the biochemical mechanism of the plant, but also by substances that are given off by the herbivore. When the herbivore induces the formation of novel, protective of nutritive tissue, one can speak of a gall. However, most authors use a much wider definition…

Depth of the mine introduction

…squeezed toghether like basalt columns; in other plant species the palissade parenchyma may consist of two or three layers. Photosynthesis takes place mainly in this part of the leaf. For this reason, and also because the cells are so densely packed, this is the most nutritious layer of the leaf….

Potamogeton host plants

Potamogeton pondweed Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva with a distinct, chitinised, head capsule => 2 1b larva a virtually headless maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a larva with three pairs of thoracic feet => 3 2b larva with one pair of…

Diplotaxis host plants

Diplotaxis wall rocket (For a dichotomous table for galls on Diplotaxis by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine either ends, or begins, in the stem, petiole or midrib => 2 1b mine at most on the midrib, or free in the leaf blade => 4 1c…

Cardamine host plants

Cardamine bitter-cress, cuckoo flower Incl. Dentaria. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Cardamine by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a larva in stem and petioles, sometimes making excursions into the leaf that start from the midrib => 2 1b larva not in stem or petiole =>…

Knautia host plants

Knautia field scabious (For a dichotomous table for galls on Kautia by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a full depth corridor or blotch; larva with chitinised head => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface, greenish in transparency; larva a maggot => 5 1c galls, etc => Tables…

Prunella host plants

Prunella selfheal Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a corridor and/or blotch => 2 1b fleck mine => 5 1c galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a long, narrow, hardly widening corridor, abruptly changing into a blotch (the corridor may be overrun by the blotch, but is usually recognisable…

Origanum host plants

Origanum marjoram Incl. Majorana (For a dichotomous table for galls on Origanum by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b corridor and/or blotch => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a brownish black sheath case: Coleophora albitarsella 2b…

Glechoma host plants

Glechoma ground-ivy Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch, possibly preceded by a narrow corridor => 2 1b corridor, possibly locally widened => 5 1c fleck mine => 7 1d small full depth mines of undefinable, variable shape; the older larvae live free, either between spun leaves or as causers of…

Teucrium host plants

…2b case more or less straight => 4 3a case about as wide as high; all-European species: Apterona helicoidella 3b case wider than high; Mediterranean species: Apterona helicinella 4a case made out of a single leaf fragment (spatulate leaf case): Coleophora auricella 4b case made out of a number of…

Stachys host plants

Stachys woundwort incl. Betonica. (For a dichotomous table for galls on Stachys by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine full depth => 2 1b mine upper- or lower-surface => 12 1c fleck mine => 16 1d galls, etc. => Tables for all parasites per species 2a…

Pulmonaria host plants

Pulmonaria lungwort (For a dichotomous table for galls on Pulmonaria by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora pennella 1b blotch, at least locally full depth; larva with feet and chitinised head: Dialectica imperialella 1c mine upper- or lower-surface; larva a maggot => 2 1d…

Anchusa host plants

Anchusaalkanet, bugloss (For a dichotomous table for galls on Anchusa by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine; larva mines from a case: Coleophora pennella 1b corridor or blotch => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a mine lower- or upper-surface;…

Erophaca host plants

Erophaca Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a blotch mine, that may fill a complete leaflet; larva a caterpillar: Leucoptera astragali 1b galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species…

Colutea host plants

Colutea bladder senna (For a dichotomous table for galls on Colutea by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine: Coleophora colutella 1b gallery => 2 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a corridor from start to end, winding freely through the leaflet;…

Amelanchier host plants

Amelanchier juneberry (For a dichotomous table for galls on Amelanchier by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine in fallen leaves: Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus 1b fleck mine => 2 1c blotch, without a trace of a preceding corridor => 4 1d corridor, may be widened at the end…

Betula host plants

Betula birch (For a dichotomous table for galls on Betula by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a mine ends in a round or oval excision => 2 1b blotch without a preceding corridor (or this corridor < 3 mm) => 6 1c blotch preceded by a corridor…

Alnus host plants

…falconipennella 11b lower epidermis yellow-green or yellow, usually larger, not necessarily at the leaf margin => 12 12a lower epidermis with 1, strong, fold => 13 12b lower epidermis with numerous weak folds => 14 13a species from almost all Europe; pup: abd. 7 ventrally with group of about 3+3…

Jurinea host plants

Jurinea (For a dichotomous table for galls on Jurinea by Hans Roskam click here) Dichotomous table for leafminers 1a fleck mine => 2 1b no fleck mine => 3 1c galls, etc => Tables for all parasites per species 2a composite leaf case: Coleophora serratulella 2b spathulate leaf case: Coleophora…

Fenusa ulmi parasite

…be dismissed. phenology Mines in May-June, sometimes numerous. BENELUX BE recorded (picture above). NE recorded (Ellis: Amsterdam). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). distribution within Europe From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy, and the Ukraine, and from the UK to Lithuania (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Kaliofenusa, Kaliosysphinga…

Hesperorrhynchus hesperus parasite

Hesperorrhynchus hesperus (Wollaston, 1864) Aichryson dichotomum; from Hering (1927a) mine Long and narrow, now and then branching corridors that remain narrow till their very end; mined leaves are easily shed. The larva can migrate through the stem to a new leaf. Pupation outside the mine. host plants Crassulaceae, monophagous Aichryson…

Fenella minuta parasite

…and restart elsewhere. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Geraniaceae, monophagous Geranium columbinum, dissectum, pratense, pusillum, pyrenaicum, rotundifolium, sylvaticum. phenology Larvae were found in the Netherlands in mid-May and in the first half of September. BENELUX BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE Found in 2007 in numbers in the Schinkelbos…

Melampsora pulcherrima parasite

Melampsora pulcherrima Maire, 1921 on Mercurialis Mercurialis annua, Crete, Rethimnon, 11.ii.2021 © Paul Fontaine gall Aecia pulvinate (not cupulate), mainly on the stem, that may be completely covered over a length of several cm. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, narrowly monophagous Mercurialis annua. Not on M. perennis. ​ on Populus Populus alba,…

Hyaloperonospora brassicae parasite

Hyaloperonospora brassicae (Gäumann) Göker, Voglmayr, Riethmüller, Weiß & Oberwinkler, 2003 on Brassicaceae gall upperside of the leaves locally bleached; at the underside a greyish-white fungal down consisting of erect, distally branched conidiophores. host plants Brassicaceae, oligophagous Brassica napus, nigra, oleracea, rapa; Raphanus raphanistrum, sativus; Sinapis alba & subsp. dissecta, arvensis…

Peronosporales parasite

Peronosporales form an internal parasitic mycelium within a host plant. In different structures conidia are formed. They germinate while forming motile spores that than reinfect a host plant. Within the host plant by sexual means, after fertilisation of an oogonium, thick-walled oospores are formed that enable hibernation. The oospores germinate…

Tilletia brachypodii-ramosi parasite

Tilletia brachypodii-ramosi Zogg, 1967 on Brachypodium gall long, swollen, brown striae on the leaves, covered by the epidermis; when this splits open a blackish-brown, fetid, powdery mass of spores is released. The spores measure 18-23 µm; their surface is deeply reticulate, while the top of the ridges is acute (contrary…

Exobasidium juelianum parasite

Exobasidium juelianum Nannfeldt, 1981 dwarfling redleaf on Vaccinium gall the entire plant is dwarfed and unusually strong branched, the leaves are reduced. The plant may be lined with a pale pink hymenium. The spores are banana-shaped, up to 14 µm, usually septate. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium vitis-idaea. references…

Physoderma gerhardtii parasite

Physoderma gerhardtii Schröter, 1886 on Poaceae gall up to 5 mm long blackish brown stripes on the leaves. Embedded in the tissue ovoid resting sporangia. Contrary to Ph. graminis, that may occur on the same host plants, the growth and development of the host is not disturbed. hostplants Poaceae, oligophagous…

Naohidemyces vacciniorum parasite

Naohidemyces vacciniorum (Schröter) Spooner, 1999 on Tsuga gall spermogonia and aecia known only from North America. spermogonia, aecia Pinaceae, monophagous Tsuga canadensis, caroliniana. ​ on Vaccinium Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Amstelveen, Thijssepark © Miriam Langeveld Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Amstelveen, Thijssepark underside of a single leaf, with many uredinia and the unavoidable Mycodiplosis larvae…

Uromyces proeminens parasite

Uromyces proeminens (de Candolle) Léveillé, 1847 on Euphorbia Euphorbia chamaesyce, from González-Fragoso (1925a) : urediniospores and teliospores gall no host plant alternation. Aecia hypophyllous, dispersed all over the leaf, pale yellow, peridium inconspicuous. Uredinia mainly epiphyllous, brownish; spores dispersed fine-spinulose, with (4)5(6) pores. Also telia mainly epiphyllous, blackish brown. Teliospores…

Uromyces laburni parasite

Uromyces laburni (de Candolle) Otth, 1864 on Euphorbia gall see Aecidium euphorbiae. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, narrowly monophagous Euphorbia cyparissias, nicaeensis. ​ on Laburnum Laburnum watereri, Hungary, Budapest, arboretum, 31.vii.2019 © László Érsek underside of a leaf with uredinia uredinia 15.x.2019, three months later uredinia and telia gall Uredinia amphigenous; spores…

Puccinia lagenophorae parasite

…This rust fungus is native to Australia, and has been found in Europe (France) as late as in 1961. references Alaei, De Backer, Nuytinck, ao (2009a), Beenken & Senn-Irlet (2016a), Beltran Tejera (1976a), Chinery (2011a), Escobio García, Becerra Romero, Rodríguez Cabrera & Jorge Godoy (2016a), Gjaerum (1970a, 1987a), Gjaerum &…

Puccinia komarovii parasite

Puccinia komarovii Tranzschel, 1936 on Impatiens Impatiens parviflora, Mierlo: stem galled by aecia © Arnold Grosscurt telia Impatiens parviflora, Otterlo, de Zanding; © Arnold Grosscurt underside of the leaf, with brown telia Impatiens parviflora, Overveen: detail of a telium urediniospore teliospore. The constriction between the cells of the teliospore in…

Puccinia aegopodii parasite

…Aniotsbehere (1997a), Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Gäumann (1959a), González Fragoso (1924a), Henderson (2000a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Jage, Scholler & Klenke (2010a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Koops (2013a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a), Kruse (2014a, 2019a), Kruse & Jage (2014a), Maier, Wingfield, Mennicken & Wingfield (2007a), Mułenko, Sałata &…

Endophyllum sempervivi parasite

Endophyllum sempervivi (Albertini & Schweinitz) de Bary, 1863 on Sempervivum Sempervivum tectorum, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ferrières, 20.iv.2012 © Jean-Yves Baugnée detail with telia (here as small pits) Sempervivum spec., Italy, Aosta, vii.2013 © Ben van As Aeonium spec., Canary IsLlands, Tenerife, RN Teno, 9.ii.2020 © Sébastien Carbonelle detail gall Endophyllum…

Melampsora populnea parasite

Melampsora populnea (Persoon) Karsten, 1879 on Larix, Pinus Papaveraceae gall Aecia 1 mm, often confluent, yellow-orange, without a peridium. spermogonia, aecia Euphorbiaceae, Papaveraceae, Pinaceae, polyphagous Chelidonium majus; Corydalis cava & subsp. marschalliana, intermedia, solida; Larix decidua, kaempferi, sibirica; Mercurialis annua, perennis; Papaver dubium; Pinus brutia, halpenenis, mugo, nigra & subsp….

Peronospora hornungiae parasite

Peronospora hornungiae Gustavsson, 1959 on Hornungia gall upperside of the leaves with paled, slightly embossed patches; at the corresponding underside a greyish fungal down, consisting of erect, distally strongly branched conidiophores. In cases of severe infestation the entire plant may be covered. The conidia measure 13-21 x 14-23 µm. hostplants…

Cronartium flaccidum parasite

Cronartium flaccidum (Albertini & Schweinitz) Winter, 1880 on Pinus gall large swellings, 10-20 cm long of the younger branches, sometimes as thick as the branch itself, with large groups leaf-like, orange-yellow aecia, up to 7 mm large. The mycelium in the branches is systemic and lives for many years. spermogonia,…

Pseudoidium pedaliacearum parasite

Pseudoidium pedaliacearum (Shin) Shin, 2012 on ? Ibicella, Sesamen gall mycelium amphigenous, greyish white, thin, effuse. Appressoria more or less strongly lobed, single or paired. Conidia solitary, elliptic, without fibrosin bodies. Conidiophore comparatively short. Cleistothecia unknown. hostplants ? Martyniaceae, Pedaliaceae ? Ibicella lutea; Sesamum indicum. notes The species is described…

Podosphaera clandestina parasite

Podosphaera clandestina (Wallroth) Léveillé, 1851 on woody Rosaceae Crataegus monogyna, Amstelveen, Schinkelbos gall mycelium amphigenous, often also on stem, forming a thin white film. The fungus may cause galling and reddening of young shoots. Appressoria poorly developed to nipple-shaped. Conidia short-oval, formed in chains, with fibrosin bodies. Cleistothecia with a…

Phyllactinia betulae parasite

Phyllactinia betulae (de Candolle) Fuss,1878 on Betula Betula pubescens, Amstelveen, Thijssepark: hypophyllous cleistothecium Betula pendula, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Mol, Buitengoor-Meergoor © Carina Van Steenwinkel same leaf, underside with cleistothecia cleistothecium, with aciculate appendages asci cushion of peniciillate cells on top of the cleistothecium penicillate cell Betula spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp,…

Golovinomyces cucurbitacearum parasite

Golovinomyces cucurbitacearum (Zheng & Chen) Vakalounakis & Klironomou, 2001 on Cucurbitaceae gall mycelium amphigenous, white. Appressoria nipple-shaped, often indistinct. Conidia in short chains, without fibrosin bodies, ± ovoid. Foot-cell of the conidiophore straight. Cleistothecia are only rarely found. They contain 5-15 asci with 2 spores. Appendages numerous, on and below…

Erysiphe alphitoides parasite

Erysiphe alphitoides (Griffon & Maublanc) Braun & Takamatsu, 2000 on Quercus Quercus robur, Zwanenwater Quercus robur, Nieuwendam: cleistothecium, hand lens image cleistothecium appendage, tip ascus notes mycelium conspicuous, mainly epiphyllous, on often disfigured young leaves. Appressoria lobed, sometimes nipple-shaped or multilobed, solitary or paired. Conidia solitary, barrel-shaped, without fibrosin bodies….

Rhytisma andromedae parasite

…5-10 mm long, on the upper side of a leaf; may cover the entire upper side of the leaf. host plants Ericaceae, monophagous Andromeda polifolia. synonyms Placuntium andromedae (Persoon) Ehrenberg, 1818. references Brandenburger (1985a), Buhr (1964b), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Sandu Ville, Lazǎr & Hatmanu (1969a)….

Taphrina sadebeckii parasite

Taphrina sadebeckii Johanson, 1886 on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Naardermeer Alnus glutinosa, Leiden Alnus glutinosa, Nieuwendam; upper side of the leaf underside asci, strong magnification (lighted from below) Alnus glutinosa, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Tongerlo, Engelse Kamp © Carina Van Steenwinkel detail; the mealy appearance of the galls indicates that the fungus…

Protomycopsis leontodontis parasite

Protomycopsis leontodontis Büren, 1922 on Leontodon, Scorzoneroides gall roundish thickened spots at the underside of the leaf; also fusiform swellings of the midrib. They are witish and somewhat glassy at first, later almost dark brown; the surrounding leaf may turn red. Within the leaf tissue dark brown fungal spores are…

Trisetacus juniperinus parasite

Trisetacus juniperinus (Nalepa, 1911) on Juniperus Juniperus communis (from Houard, 1908a) gall Shoot tip gall. The final internodes are strongly shortened and the upper needles are swollen and widened at their base. The result is a globular gall. Also lower on the shoot a number of needles may basally swollen….

Trisetacus ehmanni parasite

Trisetacus ehmanni Keifer, 1963 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheaths at the base of the needles and also free on the needles. At higher densities this can result in chlorosis, twisting and shortening of the needles, and repeated attacks may lead to twisting of the branches. hostplants…

Tegoprionus dentatus parasite

Tegoprionus dentatus (Nalepa, 1894) on Galium mite, lateral and dorsal view; scale bar 20 µm (from Chetverikov ao) gall the mites are vagrants in the inflorescence; at high densities this may become disfigured. host plants Rubiaceae, monophagous Galium aparine, verum. Roivainen (1951a) cited the species also from Pimpinella saxifraga, but…

Tegonotus scoticus parasite

Tegonotus scoticus Roivainen, 1950 Acari, Eriophyidae on Ligusticum Ligusticum scothicum: normal and galled leaflets; from Roivainen (1950a). gall the leaves are disfigured; also the inflorescence may be disfigured, and the leaves greened. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Ligusticum mutellina, scothicum. synonyms Epitrimerus scoticus. references Buhr (1964b), Farkas (1965a), Roivaianen (1950a). 31/10/2014…

Peronospora farinosa parasite

Peronospora farinosa (Fries) Fries, 1849 on Amaranthaceae gall underside of the leaves with a fungal down consisting of vertical conidiophores that apically several times are dichotomously branching, each branch ending upon an elliptic conidium. notes Peronospora kochiae Gäumann, 1919. But the study by Choi ao has shown that P. farinosa…

Peronospora lapponica Uncategorized

Peronospora lapponica Lagerheim, 1888 on Euphrasia gall upperside of the leaves locally bleached; at the corresponding underside a greyish-purple fungal bloom consisting of erect, distally strongly branched conidiophores, 0.4-0.7 mm high; conidia elliptic in shape. hostplants Orobanchaceae, monophagous Euphrasia frigida, rostkoviana. notes contrary to Plasmopara euhprasiae, that also may occur…

Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae parasite

Rhyncaphytoptus ficifoliae Keifer, 1940 on Ficus mite, lateral (from Keifer, 1939b) gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities a mosaic of yellowish discolourations, and malformation of the leaf may occur. host plants Moraceae, monophagous Ficus carica. The discovery by Petanović on Medicago sativa…

Ceutorhynchus minutus parasite

…altissimum, officinale; Teesdalia nudicaulis; Thlaspi arvense, perfoliatum; Tropaeolum. phenology Larvae in May-July (Scherf, 1964a). BENELUX BE observed Curculionidae.be, 2010a). NE observed (Fauna Europaea, 2007; Heijerman, 1993a). LUX not observed (Fauna Europaea, 2007). distribution within Europe All over Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva synonyms Ceutorhynchus contractus (Marsham, 1802); according to Rheinheimer…

Stenocarus ruficornis parasite

…Marsham, 1802. references Avgın & Colonnelli (2011a), Colonnelli (1990a), Colonnelli, Osella & Cornacchia (2011a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1972a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1957a), Maček (1999a), Mifsud & Colonnelli (2010a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Sert (2009a), Stüben (2017a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Pseudorchestes pratensis parasite

…situations with an extremely heavy grazing pressure (Morris, 1993a). references Buhr (1933a), Caillol (1954a), Forbicioni, Abbazzi, Bellò ao (2019a), Heeger (1858a), Heijerman (1993a), Hering (1923a, 1930a, 1957a), Kleine (1924/25a), le Monnier (2003a), Morris (1993a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Scherf (1964a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Protopirapion atratulum host plants, parasite

…Krátký & Schön (2016a), Braunert (2017a), Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Schröder & Zwölfer (1970a), Ugarte San Vicente (2005a), Velázquez de Castro, Alonso Zarazaga & Outerelo (1990a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Orthochaetes setiger parasite

…Allium ursinum. Because no larva was mentioned this observation is not fully certain. However, later larvae have also been found in the leaves and -in considerable number- the fruit wall of Hyacinthoides non-scripta (Bland, 2021a). phenology Larvae in May-July (Hering, 1957a; Buhr, 1964a; Scherf, 1964a). BENELUX BE recorded (Curculionidae.be, 2010)….

Orthochaetes insignis parasite

…olusatrum; Tanacetum; Teesdalia nudicaulis; Umbilicus; Valerianella locusta; Verbascum; Veronica. phenology Larvae almost throughout the year (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2010). distribution within Europe British Isles, France, Iberian Peninsula, Italy (Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva synonyms Comasinus insignis, C. insignus notes In the northern part…

Orchestes fagi parasite

…in April-May (Scherf, 1964a). BENELUX BE recorded (Curculionidae.be, 2010). NE recorded (Heijerman, 1993a) LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2007). distribution within Europe From Norway, Ireland and France eastwards till Poland, the Balkan Peninsula and Italy. larva synonyms Rhynchaenus, Euthoron, fagi parasitoids, predators Pnigalio agraules; Tetrastichus miser. notes In the Netherlands…

Melanobaris laticollis parasite

…luteola; Sisymbrium. larva See Urban. synonyms Baris laticollis. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Houard (1908a), Lechapt (2015a), Lessieur, Dauphin, Labatut & Lacombe (2017a), Morris (1982a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Scholze (1991a), Stüben (2017a), Urban (1914a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a) ….

Lepidapion argentatum parasite

Lepidapion argentatum (Gerstäcker, 1854) on Adenocarpus, Genista gall larva or pupa in a swelling of the stem. However, the larva may also develop within a pod, without causing any gallig. host plants Fabaceae, oligophagous Adenocarpus complictus; Genista anglica, monspessulana, umbellata. synonyms Apion argentatum. references Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Houard (1909a),…

Isochnus sequensi parasite

…within Europe From Scandinavia, the UK and France to Bulgaria and Romania (Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva pupa synonyms Rhynchaenus, Isochnus populicola Silfverberg, 1977; Orchestes, Rhynchaenus populi (Fabricius, 1792). notes Hering (1957a) describes the species as very common and numerous; this is not generally true in the Netherlands, although it may…

Hypurus bertrandi parasite

Hypurus bertrandi (Perris, 1852) from Hoffmann & Tempère (1944a) mine Narrow, irregular, full depth gallery the quickly widens into a large, full depth blotch. The larva can mine several leaves. Pupation external. host plants Portulacaceae, monophagous Portulaca oleracea. phenology Larvae in July and September (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from…

Hylobius transversovittatus parasite

…up to 2 cm large swelling. host plants Lythraceae, monophagous Lythrum salicaria. references Balalaikins & Bukejs (2012b), Behne (1981a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Dieckmann (1962a), Péricart (1960a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Reimann (2013a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Wilson, Schwarzlaender, Blossey & Bell Randall (2004a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Hemitrichapion reflexum parasite

…shortened and unusually dense. Inside a single weevil larva or pupa. host plants Fabaceae, monophagous Onobrychis arenaria, montana, viciifolia. synonyms Apion, Eutrichapion, reflexum. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2013a), Dieckmann (1977a), Ehret (1990a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Ceutorhynchus pectoralis parasite

…to Romania and Bulgaria (Fauna Europaea, 2010). references Buhr (1964b), Clayhills (2011a), Cunev (2013a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1962a., 1971a, 1972a), Hering (1957a), Hoffmann (1954a), Houard (1908a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Ceutorhynchus erysimi parasite

…Compte (1981a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1971a, 1972a), Dieckmann & Herger (1985a), Günthart (1949a), Heijerman & van der Leij (1997a), Hering (1957a), Hoebeke & Griffin (2015a), Nilsson (2005a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Sanz Benito, García-Ocejo Izquierdo & de los Mozos Pascua (1996a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Urocystis anemones parasite

Urocystis anemones (Persoon) Winter, 1880 anemone smut on Anemone etc. Anemone nemorosa, Belgium, prov. Flemish Brabant, Hoegaarden, Meldertbos, 30.iii.2019 © Carina Van Steenwinkel another image spore balls spore balls, more strongly magnified Anemone nemorosa, England, Vice County: South-west Yorkshire, VC63 © Malcolm Storey, BioImages spore balls gall lead-coloured blisters or…

Ceutorhynchus chalibaeus parasite

…Ceutorhynchus moguntiacus Schultze, 1895; C. timidus Weise, 1883. references Buhr (1964b, 1965a), Compte (1981a), Delbol (2008a, 2013a), Dieckmann (1971a, 1972a), Gültekin (2014a), Hering (1957a), Hinz & Diaconu (2015a), Houard (1908a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Brachiodontus alpinus parasite

Brachiodontus alpinus (Hampe, 1867) mine Untidy, sometimes branching, full depth corridor with irregular sides; sometimes several mines in a leaf. The larva may change mine. Pupation outside the leaf. hostplants Primulaceae, monophagous Soldanella alpina. phenology Larvae in August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009a)….

Argopus ahrensii parasite

Argopus ahrensii (Germar, 1817) mine Initially a large upper-surface blotch, without a preceding corridor. Later also the sponge parenchyma may be consumed (possibly only in crowded situations). Mine yellowish-green, first part often browned. Frass in numerous grains scaterred through the mine. Up to seven larvae in a mine; they may…

Agrilus biguttatus parasite

…& Bercedo Páramo (2005b), Bilý (1999a), Buhr (1965a), Evangelista & Cristiano (2013a), Fiala (2017a), Halstead (1992a), Moraal (1997a), Moraal & Hilszczanski (2000a), Murria Beltrán & Murria Beltrán (2005a), Panin, Săvulecu & Ruicănescu (2015a), Reed, Denman, Leather, ao (2018a), Sakalian (2003a), Škorpík, Křivan & Kraus (2011a), Verdugo (2005a), Verdugo Páez (2002a)….

Xiphinema diversicaudatum parasite

Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micoletzky, 1927) polyphagous gall Longidoridae are comparatively large nematodes, free living in the soils, that attack plant roots. This may lead to the formation of conspicuous, massive swellings. Some species also act as vectors of plant virus. host plants strongly polyphagous, cited, for instance, from: Cucumis sativus, Fragaria,…

Paralongidorus maximus parasite

Paralongidorus maximus (Bütschli, 1874) polyphagous gall Longidoridae are comparatively large nematodes, free living in the soils, that attack plant roots. This may lead to the formation of conspicuous, massive swellings. Some species also act as vectors of plant virus. host plants strongly polyphagous, cited, for instance, from: Allium; Beta vulgaris;…

Ditylenchus destructor parasite

Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 gall Buhr mentions this species as a causer of galls in potato. The nematode feeds on the underground storage tissues of a number of plants species, like Dahlia, Gladiolus, Iris, Solanum, Taraxacum, Tulipa. It often is associated with a bacterium, and particularly then tissue rot may…

Sporisorium andropogonis parasite

Sporisorium andropogonis (Opiz) Vánky, 1985 on Bothriochloa, Dichanthium, ? Andropogon. Andropogon distachyos, southern Crete © Paul Fontaine gall Infested parts of the inflorescence are turned into a spore mass of 1-3 cm long and 1-3 mm thick. Initially this is enclosed in membrane built out of mycelial tissue, but after…

Mycosarcoma maydis parasite

…Ellis & Ellis (1997a), Ivić, Sever, Scheuer & Lutz (2013a), Jage, Kruse, Kummer ao (2013a), Kabaktepe & Akata (2019a), Klenke & Scholler (2015a), Koops (2013a), Kruse (2019a), Llorens i Villagrasa (1984a), Lutz & Vánky (2009a), McTaggart, Shivas, Boekhout ao (2016a), Melgarejo Nárdiz, García-Jiménez ao (2010a), Mułenko, Piątek, Wołczańska ao (2010a),…

Moesziomyces bullatus parasite

…sori, some burst open gall Individual ovaries are turned into small smut sori. When they open reddish to blackish brown spores are released, united in small clusters. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Echinochloa crus-galli, muricata; Paspalum dischichum. synonyms Tolyposporium bullatum Schröter, 1887. notes can be confused with the much more numerous…

Anthracoidea arenariae parasite

Anthracoidea arenariae (Sydow) Nannfeldt, 1977 on Carex Carex arenaria, England, Vice County: Dorset, VC9 © Malcolm Storey, BioImages gall the contents of the ultimately rupturing utriculi is transformed into a hard, globular, dusty, black body consisting of agglutinated spores. The spore walls are uneven in thickness, finely verruculose. host plants…

Urocystis pulsatillae-albae parasite

Urocystis pulsatillae-albae Vánky & Tóth, 2009 on Pulsatilla gall blister-like swellings on leaves, petioles and disfigured stems; when they rupture a black powdery mass of spore balls is released. The infestation resembles the one caused by U. pulsatillae, that may occur on the same host plant species, but the spore…

Urocystis antipolitana parasite

Urocystis antipolitana Magnus, 1879 on Anemone gall lead-coloured blisters or pustules that eventually rupture and release a blackish brown, granular-powdery mass of spore balls. The spore balls consist of 1-6(7) sporen, surrounded by a complete layer of lesser sterile cells. host plants Ranunculaceae, narrowly monophagous Anemone baldensis, coronaria, hortensis. synonyms…

Shevtchenkella ligustri parasite

Shevtchenkella ligustri (Farkas, 1963) on Ligustrum gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities light, local discolouration may occur. host plants Oleaceae, monophagous Ligustrum ovalifolium, vulgare. synonyms Tegonotus ligustri; T. ignavus Boczek, 1964. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović…

Rhinophytoptus platani parasite

Rhinophytoptus platani Boczek & Shi, 1995 Acari, Diptilomiopidae on Platanus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may show light, brown spots. The mites also live in the buds, and disturb their unfolding. hostplants Platanaceae, monophagous Platanus x hispanica. references Skoracka,…

Tachyerges stigma parasite

…that time should be used with caution. references Bachmaier (1965a), Caillol (1954a), Heijerman (1993a), Heijerman & van der Leij (1997a), Hering (1930a, 1957a), le Monnier (2003a), Morris (1993a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Roques (1998a), Scherf (1964a), Viramo (1962a), Vorst (2010a), Wanat (1987a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a)….

Aceria galiobia parasite

Aceria galiobia (Canestrini, 1891) on Galium Galium verum, galls (from Houard, 1909a) Galium verum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Pondrome © Jean-Yves Baugnée Galium mollugo, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ben-Ahin, Lovegnée-Bosquet, 4.x.2011 © Jean-Yves Baugnée: old gall Galium mollugo, Germany, Bavaria, Trauchgau: the gall may consist also of a galled leaf © Arnold…

Aculus hyperici parasite

Aculus hyperici (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Hypericum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brownish. hostplants Hypericacae, monophagous Hypericum hirsutum, maculatum, perforatum. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Vasates, hyperici. references Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a),…

Aculus eurynotus parasite

Aculus eurynotus (Nalepa, 1894) on Daucus, Torilis gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Daucus carota; Torilis arvensis, japonica. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Tetra, Vasates, eurynotus. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Houard (1909a), Petanović (1998a), Ripka (2007a),…

Aculus epiphyllus parasite

Aculus epiphyllus (Nalepa, 1892) on Fraxinus Fraxinus ornus, Bulgaria, Varna © Stéphane Claerebout detail of the underside gall At one side, epiphyllous, irregular, yellowish pustules, 1-2 mm high, hollow below. But the mite can also induce hypophyllous, rust-coloured erinea, mainly along the midrib of the leaflets; they consist of multicellular,…

Aculus aucupariae parasite

Aculus aucupariae (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Sorbus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Sorbus aucuparia. synonyms Phyllocoptes. Vasates, aucupariae. references Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Roivainen (1947a), Skoracka,…

Aculus argenteae parasite

Aculus argenteae (Farkas, 1963) on Tilae gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves, possibly causing mild russeting at high densities. hostplants Malvaceae, narrowly monophagous Tilia tomentosa. references Farkas (1963a, 1965a), Ripka (2007a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a)….

Aculodes holcusi parasite

Aculodes holcusi Skoracka, 2004 on grasses gall the mites live free at the upper side of the leaves, mainly near the tip; the leaves can become discoloured. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Aegilops cylindrica; Holcus mollis; Hordeum brevisubulatum. references Kiedrowicz, Rector, Denizhan ao (2014a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria tenuis parasite

…of the grass leaves; on grasses with smooth leaves they are much less numerous. At high densities rolling and withering of the leaves does occur, also growth disturbance, malformations and discolouration of the inflorescence. synonyms Eriophyes tenuis. note galls like those illustrated above are traditionally attributed to Aceria tenuis in…

Aceria sheldoni parasite

Aceria sheldoni (Ewing, 1937) Acari, Eriophyidae on Citrus gall the mites primarily live within the buds and cause serious malformations, both in the leaves as as in the flowers and developing fruits. Also excessive bud formation may occur, resulting in the formation of witches’ brooms. hostplants Rutaceae, monophagous Citrus. serious…

Aceria pistaciae parasite

Aceria pistaciae (Nalepa, 1899) on Pistacia Pistacia terebinthus, galls (from Houard, 1909a) Pistacia terebinthus, France, dép. Bouches-du-Rhône, Les Baux-de-Provence, ii.2003 @ Sébastien Carbonelle: old vegetative gall gall the inflorescence turns into a compact witches’ broom; may also develop from vegetative buds. host plants Anacardiaceae, monophagous Pistacia atlantica, lentiscus, terebinthus, vera….

Aceria macrocheluserinea parasite

Aceria macrocheluserinea (Trotter, 1902) on Acer Acer campestre, Hardenberg © Arnold Grosscurt Acer campestre, Belgium, prov. Namur, Jemelle; © Jean-Yves Baugnée Strongly infested leaves curl in; the gall may then extend also to the upperside. Acer campestre, Nieuwendam: the hairs of the erineum are mushroom-shaped. four hairs host plants Sapindaceae,…

Aceria kuko parasite

Aceria kuko (Kishida, 1927) goji berry gall mite on Capsicum, Lycium, Solanum Lycium barbarum, Hungary, Budapest. 8.ix.2014 © László Érsek upperside galls underside galls older galls burst open Lycium barbarum, Hungary, Budapest, 11.vi.2018 © László Érsek: section mites Lycium barbarum; uit PlantDirect gall numerous amphigenous hard pustules on the leaves:…

Aceria gilloglii parasite

Aceria gilloglii Keifer, 1963 on bamboo gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves and in the leaf sheaths; at high densities a weak witches’ broom may be formed. host plants Poaceae: Bambusoideae, oligophagous Pleioblastus fortunei; Pseudosasa disticha. notes In the UK found in a botanical garden….

Aceria anserina parasite

Aceria anserina (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Argentina gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn distinctly brown. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Argentina anserina (= Potentilla a.). synonyms Eriophyes, Vasates, anserinus. references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a), Skoracka,…

Aculus martialis parasite

Aculus martialis (Liro, 1941) on Viburnum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside, mainly of the younger leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn lightly brown. host plants Adoxaceae, monophagous Viburnum opulus. synonyms Vasates martialis. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Aceria alpestris parasite

Aceria alpestris (Nalepa, 1892) on Rhododendron, Rhodothamnus Rhododendron ferrugineum, galls; at top left also a gall of Exobasidium rhododendri (from Houard, 1909a) gall the leaves are rolled upwards towards the midrib into a narrow tube; they are light-coloured and densely hairy with short, unicellular hairs. Also the development of the…

Acaricalus trinotus parasite

Acaricalus trinotus (Nalepa, 1892) on Alnus Alnus glutinosa, Cadzand © Arnold Grosscurt Alnus glutinosa, Dronten: underside of the leaf; © Arnold Grosscurt hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus glutinosa, incana. synonym Acaphylla, Epitrimerus, trinotus. notes These symptoms can be caused by several species of gall midges that, possibly only facultatively, and maybe…

Acalitus brevitarsus parasite

Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Feitz (2001a, 2012a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Markovskaja (2013a), Nalepa (1919a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka (2007a, 2010a, 2020a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a, 1951a, 1953a), Roskam (2009a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a),…

Tylenchida parasite

Nematoda, Tylenchida The species of this order have a stylet in their buccal cavity that can be projected outwards and forwards….

Symphyta parasite

Symphyta Sawflies The two blades of the ovipositor, which is a common character of all Hymenoptera, are modified here into two saw blades, which are used by the female to cut a wound in a plant’s issue and deposit an egg. Often the plant reacts by the formation of callus,…

Psilidae Uncategorized

Psilidae The larvae are generally borers in stems and roots. sometimes a larva from there may stray into a leaf, as a facultative miner. references De Bruyn (1991a), Mansard-Veken (1999a), Richards & Davies (1977a). 26/11/2014…

Noctuidae parasite

Noctuidae Owlets An enormous moth family. Quite some species live as borers in stems and rootstocks, and a few of them start these activities with a mine in the leaves, before descending deeper into the plant (Godfrey, 1987a). The larva may have either 3 or 4 pairs of abdominal prolegs;…

Nepticulidae parasite

…in the ventral neural chord, the central nervous system of all insects. In most nep larvae this can easily be seen as a grey or brown string, with a widening in each segment. Stigmella hemargyrella: ventral view same larva, dorsal view ventral (dorsal) plates In a number of Ectoedemia species…

Lestidae parasite

Lestidae A family of the Zygoptera. Some species oviposit on branches above a of water. To that end an incision is made in the bark, which may result in an oviposition scar. 05/12/2014…

Ephydridae Uncategorized

Ephydridae A large family of medium-sized grey flies. Most species live near fresh or salt water. There is a large variety of life styles among the larvae. All species of the extensive genus Hydrellia are miners of (semi) aquatic plants, mainly grasses and Potamogetonaceae (Deonier, 1998a). The most important species…

Curculionidae parasite

…Generally they spend some time in spring feeding before the oviposition starts, the so-called maturation feeding. A small number of species are miners. The larvae of many more species live as borers in stems or roots, often accompanied by galling. In many species the females bites a wound in the…

Coleophoridae parasite

…non-coleophorids. The family Coleophoridae consists of probably one single genus, but counts a tremendous number of species. Several authors have attempted to create a classification. A recent survey is provided by Bauer, Stübner, Neinhuis & Nuss (2012a). key to the types of cases 1a case partly or entirely covered or…

Ascomycota parasite

…a wide variety of shapes and structures. In principle hyphae are haploid. By various forms of sexuality a diploid piece of hypha may be formed, that develops into a sac-like structure which is called an ascus. In the ascus meiosis occurs, followed by a mitosis resulting in eight haploid nuclei,…

Aculus latus parasite

Aculus latus (Nalepa, 1891) Acari, Eriophyidae on Veronica gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the underside of the leaves may turn violet. Hellrigl describes this species as an inquiline of Aceria anceps. hostplants Plantaginaceae, monophagous Veronica chamaedrys, longifolia. synonyms Phyllocoptes, Vasates,…

Aculus pteleaevagrans parasite

Aculus pteleaevagrans Boczek, 1964 Acari, Eriophyidae on Ptelea gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Rutaceae, monophagous Ptelea trifoliata. references Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a) 23/11/2014…

Platyphytoptus sabinianae parasite

Platyphytoptus sabinianae Keifer, 1938 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheath around the needle bases, causing chlorotic twisted needles. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus mugo, nigra, sylvestris. references Denizhan, Monfreda, de Lillo & Çobanoğlu (2015a), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Pye (2012a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek…

Epitrimerus longitarsus parasite

Epitrimerus longitarsus (Nalepa, 1897) Acari, Eriophyidae on Alnus gall over considerable, vaguely delimited parts the leaf is somewhat bulging upwards, somewhat pale or brownish; at the underside gallmites are visible. hostplants Betulaceae, monophagous Alnus. notes These symptoms can be caused by several species of gall midges that, possibly only facultatively,…

Phyllocoptes vitisidaeae parasite

Phyllocoptes vitisidaeae Roivainen, 1951 on Vaccinium gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may turn spoon-like and corrugated. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium vitis-idaea. references Buhr (1965a), Davis, Flechtmann, Boczek & Barké (1982a), Roivainen (1951a)….

Phyllocoptes vaccinii parasite

Phyllocoptes vaccinii (Flögel & Goosman, 1933) on Vaccinium Vaccinium myrtillus, Frace, dépt. Ardennes, Gué d’Hossus, RN Trou blanc © Stéphane Claerebout detail Vaccinium myrtillus, Boswachterij Nunspeet © Hans Jonkman another image infested shoots wither and die off gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may brown,…

Phyllocoptes oxycocci parasite

Phyllocoptes oxycocci Roivainen, 1947 on Vaccinium gall the mites are leaf vagrants; at high densities the leaf may turn spoon-like and corrugated. host plants Ericaceae, narrowly monophagous Vaccinium oxycoccos, uliginosum. references Buhr (1965a), Davis, Flechtmann, Boczek & Barké (1982a), Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a)….

Phyllocoptes farkasi parasite

Phyllocoptes farkasi Boczek, 1969 on Pinus gall the mites live in the sheats at the base of the needles. At high densities some discolouration of the needles may occur. host plants Pinaceae, monophagous Pinus jeffreyi, nigra, sylvestris. references Farkas (1965a), Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski &…

Phyllocoptes euphorbiae parasite

Phyllocoptes euphorbiae Farkas, 1962 Acari, Eriophyidae on Euphorbia gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may curl and roll in. hostplants Euphorbiaceae, monophagous Euphorbia cyparissias, salicifolia. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Ripka (2007a), Skoracka, Lewandowski…

Pentamerus septemcarinatus parasite

Pentamerus septemcarinatus (Liro, 1941) Acari, Eriophyidae on Frangula gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may show irregular greyish green spots. hostplants Rhamnaceae, monophagous Frangula alnus (= Rhamnus frangula); Rhamnus cathartica. synonyms Epitrimerus septemcarinatus. references Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a), Farkas…

Leipothrix taraxaci parasite

Leipothrix taraxaci (Liro, 1943) Acari, Eriophyidae on Taraxacum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn unevenly brownish. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale. synonyms Epitrimerus taraxaci. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović (1998a),…

Epitrimerus succisae parasite

Epitrimerus succisae (Roivainen, 1947) on Succisa gall the mites are hypophyllous vagrants. At high densities the underside of the leaves becomes irregular, the leaves turn pale, eventually show russeting. host plants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Succisa pratensis. synonyms Leipothrix succisae. references Buhr (1965a), Farkas (1965a), Petanović & Rector (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a),…

Eriophyes parviflorae parasite

Eriophyes parviflorae Rainiss, 1940 Acari, Eriophyidae on Silene gall all flower parts within the calyce have turned leaflike or are greened. hostplants Caryophyllaceae, narrowly monophagous Silene “parviflora”. Silene parviflora is an ambigous name; according to the Euro+Med PlantBase (2014) it may refer to either Silene borysthenica or cretica. notes species…

Eriophyes junipereti parasite

Eriophyes junipereti Keifer, 1960 on Juniperus gall the mites are vagrants. At high densities the growth of the youngest shoots may be inhibited. host plants Cupressaceae, monophagous Juniperus communis. references Kiedrowicz, Lewandowski & Skoracka (2016a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Eriophyes distinguendus parasite

…dulcis, padus. synonyms Eriophyes paderineus Nalepa, 1909. references Béguinot (2012a), Buhr (1965a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Coulianos & Karlsson (2014a), Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Ripka (2007a), Ripka & de Lillo (1997a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Vaněčková-Skuhravá (1996a), Weidner (1954a)….

Epitrimerus violarius parasite

Epitrimerus violarius Liro, 1941 on Viola gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown. hostp lants Viola, monophagous Viola canina & subsp. ruppii, mirabilis, riviniana, uliginosa. references Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1947a, 1951a)….

Epitrimerus rivalis parasite

Epitrimerus rivalis Roivainen, 1947 Acari, Eriophyidae on Geum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brownish. At high densities the leaf may turn yellowish-brown. hostplants Rosaceae, narrowly monophagous Geum rivale. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1947a, 1950a, 1951a)….

Epitrimerus jaceae parasite

Epitrimerus jaceae Liro, 1943 polyphagous gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may dry and turn brown. host plants polyphagous Centaurea jacea, scabiosa, stoebe subsp. australis; Primula veris. Less often: Campanula persicifolia; Origanum vulgare; Plantago lanceolata; Potentilla erecta, reptans; Prunella…

Anthocoptes eupatorii parasite

Anthocoptes eupatorii Roivainen, 1951 on Eupatorium gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown, especially at the underside, and the margins may roll in; such plants remain sterile. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Eupatorium cannabinum. references Boczek & Petanović…

Epitrimerus gibbosus parasite

Epitrimerus gibbosus (Nalepa, 1892) on Rubus mite, dorsal view (from Gol, Sadeghi Namaghi & Xue) Rubus fruticosus, Vorden: infested leaf felt, seen from above felt, from the side Rubus fruticosus, Stokkum © Arnold Grosscurt: the erineum may be either epiphyllous or hypophyllous host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus apricus, axillaris, bifrons,…

Epitrimerus farinosus parasite

Epitrimerus farinosus Roivainen, 1950 Acari, Eriophyidae on Primula gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn yellow. hostplants Primulaceae, monophagous Primula farinosa. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1950a). 13/11/2014…

Epitrimerus convallariae parasite

Epitrimerus convallariae Liro, 1943 on Convallaria gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may get brownish spots. host plants Asparagaceae, monophagous Convallaria majalis. references Boczek (1964a), Farkas (1965a), Ripka (2007a), Roivainen (1950a, 1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Epitrimerus chaerophylli parasite

Epitrimerus chaerophylli Boczek, 1964 on Chaerophyllum gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. host plants Apiaceae, monophagous Chaerophyllum aromaticum, hirsutum references Boczek (1964a), Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a)….

Epitrimerus alinae parasite

Epitrimerus alinae Liro, 1941 Acari, Eriophyidae on Leucanthemum gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brown. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Leucanthemum vulgare. references Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a). 25/11/2014…

Diptacus gigantorhynchus parasite

Diptacus gigantorhynchus (Nalepa, 1892) on Prunus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities discolouration of the leaves may occur. Often occurs together with Aculus fockeui. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus laevigata; Cydonia oblonga; Malus domestica, sylvestris; Prunus avium, cerasus, domestica & subsp. insititia, spinosa;…

Cecidophyopsis grossulariae parasite

Cecidophyopsis grossulariae (Collinge, 1907) Acari, Eriophyidae on Ribes gall the mites cause deep, hairy cavities at the underside of the vein axils; the leaves become distorted and discoloured. They hibernate in the outer layers of axillary buds, which may damage the enclosed flower primordia. hostplants Grossulariaceae, monophagous Ribes uva-crispa. R….

Callyntrotus lonicerae parasite

Callyntrotus lonicerae Roivainen, 1951 Acari, Eriophyidae on Lonicera gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. hostplants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Lonicera xylosteum. references Farkas (1965a), Roivainen (1951a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a). 25/11/2014…

Calepitrimerus russoi parasite

…discolouration of the leaves as a result of the cell-piercing acivity of the free-living mites. Heavy infestation may lead to black spots at the underside of the leaves and ultimately leaf drop. hostplants Lauraceae, monophagous Laurus nobilis. references Nuzzaci & Vovlas (1977a), Ostojá-Starzewski & Eyre (2007a), Tomasi (2012a, 2014a). 09/06/2015…

Calepitrimerus baileyi parasite

Calepitrimerus baileyi Keifer, 1938 on Malus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities russeting may occur. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Malus domestica, sylvestris. references Denizhan (2011a), Denizhan, Monfreda, de Lillo & Çobanoğlu (2015a), Geçer & Denizhan (2015a), Lotfollahi, Irani-Nejad & de Lillo (2014b),…

Calepitrimerus armatus parasite

Calepitrimerus armatus (Canestrini, 1890) on Crataegus gall the mites live as vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn dirty brownish. hostplants Rosaceae, monophagous Crataegus macrocarpa, monogyna, rhipidophylla. synonyms Epitrimerus armatus. references Farkas (1965a), Hellrigl (2003a), Houard (1908a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Ripka (2007a,…

Calepitrimerus achilleae parasite

Calepitrimerus achilleae Roivainen, 1950 on Achillea gall the mites live as vagrants on the leaves. At high densities the leaves may turn brown and disfigured. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Achillea millefolium. synonyms Epitrimerus achilleae. references Boczek & Petanović (1996a), Farkas (1965a), Jočić & Petanović (2012a), Petanović & Stanković (1999a), Roivainen…

Anthocoptes rubicolens parasite

Anthocoptes rubicolens on Rubus gall the mites are vagrants at the underside of the leaves. At high densities some discolouration may occur. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rubus laciniatus. synonyms Eriophyes rubicolens. references Roivainen (1953a), Skoracka, Lewandowski & Boczek (2005a), Vaněčková-Skuhravá (1996a)….

Tachyerges salicis parasite

…Herger (1985a), Drăghia (1972a), Heijerman (1993a), Heijerman & van der Leij (1997a), Hering (1930a, 1957a), Kleine (1924/1925a), Maček (1999a), Michalska (1972a), le Monnier (2003a), Rheinheimer & Hassler (2010a), Robbins (1991a), Roques (1998a), Scherf (1964a), Sønderup (1949a), Ugarte San Vicente (2005a), Vorst (2010a), Yunakov, Nazarenko, Filimonov & Volovnik (2018a), Zoerner (1970a)….

Trachys pumilus parasite

…considers pumilus a good species, but does not exclude that it might occur on Phlomis crinita and purpurea in the Balkan. Other authors consider scrobiculatus and pumilus synonymous (and in that case pumilus were the valid name and has the species a distribution from Spain and Crete up to Norway)….

Euura amerinae parasite

Euura amerinae (Linnaeus, 1758) on Salix Salix pentandra, Drenthe, Ansen © Ad Mol; from Mol (2013a) gall swelling of a green twig, 2-3 cm long, consisting of c. four cells, each cell with a single larva; the bark of older galls is fissured. Often the gall causes the shoot to…

Dasineura ericaescopariae parasite

Dasineura ericaescopariae (Dufour, 1837) on Erica Erica scoparia, gall (from Houard, 1909a) Erica scoparia, Spain, Barcelona, El Brull © Jordi Montobbio another specimen the shoot can grow through the gall; this seems to show a start gall Conspicuous, large galls at the end of shoots, consisting of a large number…

Rabdophaga heterobia parasite

Rabdophaga heterobia (Loew, 1850) on Salix Salix triandra, Dronten, 12.viii.2018 © Arnold Grosscurt bud gall another specimen opened gall Salix triandra, Wedde (Gr), 11.vi.2017 © Arnold Grosscurt detail Salix triandra, female catkin, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek part of the fruitlets is disfigured, yellowed, swollen larvae in the galls opened…

Rabdophaga giraudiana parasite

Rabdophaga giraudiana Kieffer, 1898 on Populus gall Inconspicuous elongated swelling of young twigs. Under the bark live numerous orange larvae, each in its own cell. Univoltine, pupation within the gall. After the midges have emerged the gall has numerous fine holes. Because of the numerous gall chambers local rotting may…

Pumilomyia protrahenda parasite

Pumilomyia protrahenda Stefani, 1919 on Artemisia gall small, irregular pustules on the leaves, petioles and stems, each with a single larva. At high densities the plants may become stunted. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Artemisia arborescens. synonyms Rhopalomyia protrahenda. references Cerasa (2015a), Gagné & Jaschhof (2010a), Roskam (2009a), Skuhravá &…

Planetella cornifex parasite

Planetella cornifex (Kieffer, 1898) on Carex Carex pallescens (from Houard, 1908a). gall basal, often subterraneous buds are changed into a horn-shaped gall. Also a bud that has resulted in a shoot may be galled into an onion-shaped structure, in which the shoot is included. Larva solitary. hostplants Cyperaceae, monophagous Carex…

Mayetiola schoberi parasite

Mayetiola schoberi Barnes, 1958 on Poa gall The basal part of the stem is more or less swollen. Between the leaf sheath and the stem live here 3-5 white larvae together, each in an oval shallow depression of the stem. Pupation within the gal, in a brown puparium. host plants…

Loewiola centaureae parasite

Loewiola centaureae (Löw, 1875) on Centaurea Centaurea jacea, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, 29.vi.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel opened gall with yellow larva spatula tip of the spatula with adjacent papillae 25.v.2015 here also the gall itself is violet in colour 31.v.2014; underside of a leaf; one of the galls shows…

Janetia nervicola parasite

Janetia nervicola (Kieffer, 1909) on Quercus gall Fusiform, 3-4 mm long lateral broadening of the midrib, less often a lateral vein, often several, one behind the other. At maturity a lateral split opens, enabling the single white larva to leave the gall for pupation. host plants Fagaceae, narrowly monophagous Quercus…

Jaapiella dittrichi parasite

Jaapiella dittrichi (Rübsaamen, 1895) on Seseli, Silaum Seseli libanotis, France, dépt. Ardennes, Givet, lieu-dit “Fort Condé” © Sébastien Carbonnelle detail Silaum silaus, Frakrijk, dép. Nord, Condé sur l’Escaut © Sébastien Carbonnelle the growth severely be disturbed galled parts die off gall The leaf veins are swollen, and the lamina between…

Galiomyza morio parasite

Galiomyza morio (Brischke, 1880) Rubia peregrina, Spain, Asturias, Gijón, Rio Ñora © Jean-Yves Baugnée Galium odoratum, Duitland (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler another specimen mine Long, upper-surface , gradually widening, corridor, in the end often forming a secondary blotch. The corridor regularly crosses itself. Frass in irregular grains or short strings. Pupation outside…

Dasineura turionum parasite

Dasineura turionum (Kieffer & Trotter, 1904) on Asparagus gall The phyllodia at the tip of a still very young shoot are swollen and deformed, and enclose several red larvae. Als the stem itself may be swollen and contorted, while a larve is lying behind each of the phyllodia. Bivoltine, pupation…

Dasineura mali parasite

…& Ioriatti (2005a), Barnes (1948b), Béguinot (2006a), Braggion (2013a), Buhr (1965a), Burton, Carbonnelle, Ellis & Schneider (2019a), Carbonnelle, George, Giot & Romain (2018a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a), Hellrigl (2006a), Ilie & Marinescu (201a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon Schneider & Feitz…

Dasineura erigerontis parasite

Dasineura erigerontis Rübsaamen, 1912 on Erigeron Erigeron acris, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais, Asty-Moulin © Jean-Yves Baugnée another specimen gall the larvae are red. host plants Asteraceae, narrowly monophagous Erigeron acris. larva Spatula variable; the incision between the lobes sometimes rather deep, sometimes missing altogether (Rübsaamen, 1912e). inquilines Prodiplosis rhenana. references…

Dasineura capsulae parasite

Dasineura capsulae Kieffer, 1901 on Euphorbia Euphorbia esula, Hungary, Halászi © László Érsek two galled fruits opened gall larvae gall The fruit is somewhat enlarged, disfigured, ending in an acute, frequently oblique, point. Also the upper leaves of a stem may fuse into a pyriform gall of about 1 cm…

Rabdophaga strobilina parasite

Rabdophaga strobilina (Bremi, 1847) on Salix Salix purpurea, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Virelles © Sébastien Carbonnelle old, opened gall with three cocoons gall This species is closely related to Rabdophaga rosaria, and often confused and even synonymised with that species. In fact, it is an inquiline of rosaria. Several red larvae,…

Contarinia tremulae parasite

Contarinia tremulae Kieffer, 1909 on Populus Populus tremula, Dronten © Arnold Grosscurt detail with larva taken out gall The larva can jump; even when mature it is white; the apex of the spatula is hardly indented. Pupation in the ground. host plants Salicaceae, narrowly monophagous Populus tremula. references Barnes (1951a),…

Contarinia symphyti parasite

Contarinia symphyti Kieffer, 1909 on Symphytum gall The flower buds are lightly swollen at their base; they do not open. The larva can jump. host plants Boraginaceae, monophagous Symphytum officinale. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Kieffer (1909a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2021a: 273), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin &…

Contarinia scabiosae parasite

Contarinia scabiosae Kieffer, 1898 on Scabiosa gall The flowers are swollen and remain closed. In each galled flower a single larva, that can jump. hostplants Caprifoliaceae, monophagous Scabiosa columbaria. references Buhr (1965a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Houard (1909a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (2021a: 260), Skuhravá,…

Contarinia quercina parasite

…are gregarious, white, and can jump. Hibernation in the soil. hostplants Fagcaeae, monophagous Quercus cerris, frainetto, petraea, pubescens, robur. synonyms Diplosis dryophila Kieffer, 1890; Contarinia quaesita Tavares, 1916. notes Can cause serious damage in nurseries. inquilines see Dasineura dryophila, Arnoldiola quercus, Lestodiplosis quercina, and Macrolabis quercicola. references Béguinot (2000b, 2007b),…

Contarinia melanocera parasite

Contarinia melanocera Kieffer, 1904 on Genista galls (from Houard, 1909a) gall Fusiform, fleshy swelling of the tip of a stem. It contains usually several gall chambers, each with one yellowish larva that can jump. Univoltine, pupation and hibernation in the soil. hostplants Fabaceae, monophagous Genista corsica, depressa, germanica, tinctoria. synonyms…

Contarinia heraclei parasite

…references Béguinot (2012a), Buhr (1964b), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), Hansen, Hattendorf, Wittenberg, Reznik, Nielsen, Ravn & Nentwig (2006a), Mirumian (2011a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Roskam & Carbonnelle (2015a), Skuhravá (2006a), Skuhravá & Skuhravý (1999a, 2005b, 2010a, 2021a: 127), Skuhravá, Skuhravý, Dauphin & Coutin (2005a), Skuhravá, Skuhravý…

Contarinia fagi parasite

…papillae (from Möhn, 1955a) notes Harmful in nurseries. Especially numerous in cut hedges, because regularly new opening buds become available. inquilines Macrolabis fagicola. references Barnes (1951a), Buhr (1964b), Burton, Carbonnelle, Ellis & Schneider (2019a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Gagné (2010a), de Goffau & Nijveldt (2005a), Holighaus & Lunderstädt (2009a), Möhn…

Contarinia coryli parasite

Contarinia coryli (Kaltenbach, 1859) on Corylus Corylus avellana, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman: the galled catkins are strongly swollen and the scales are enlarged. the base of the scales is browned by the external digestion of the larvae the larvae are gregarious Corylus avellana, België, prov Namen, Nismes, RN les…

Asphondylia sarothamni parasite

…this is not believable. larva spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a) synonyms Asphondylia mayeri Liebel, 1889. inquilines Trotteria obtusa references Béguinot (2001c, 2006a,c, 2007b), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1965a), Cerasa (2015a), Chinery (2011a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), de Vere Graham & Gijswijt (1998a), Harris (2002a), Houard (1909a), Kieffer (1890a, 1891a), Koops…

Asphondylia dorycnii parasite

Asphondylia dorycnii (Müller, 1870) on Dorycnium Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Spanje, Huesca, Alcolea de Cinca © Jordi Montobbio galled pod gall Two generations: the first one in the swollen terminal buds of lateral shoots, the second in the galled pods. The first generation hibernates; larva solitary, without a recognisable head, pupation in…

Tephritis arnicae parasite

Tephritis arnicae (Linnaeus, 1758) on Asteraceae gall larva or pupa in the receptacle of a not or hardly galled flower head. The larva may also cause a conspicuous, unilateral, bladderlike, smooth-walled, unilocular stem gall. The larva, a maggot, pupates in the gall. hostplants Asteraceae, oligophagous Arnica montana; Doronicum austriacum, grandiflorum,…

Rhagoletis alternata parasite

Rhagoletis alternata (Fallén, 1814) on Rosa gall the larvae tunnel in the fleshy wall of the hip, that thereby may become malformed or shriveled. host plants Rosaceae, monophagous Rosa acicularis, albertii, canina, rugosa, spinosissima, villosa. synonyms Spilographa alternata. notes See also Carpomya schineri with a similar biology. references Balduf (1959a),…

Inuromaesa maura parasite

Inuromaesa maura (Frauenfeld, 1857) on Inula gall larva or puparium in the receptacle that may be unilaterally thickened, in any case is hard, but, even in the end, not lignified. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Inula britannica, ensifolia, hirta, oculus-christi, salicina. larva, pupium Larvae and puparia with black posterior end. synonyms Euribia,…

Rabdophaga nielsenii parasite

Rabdophaga nielsenii Kieffer, 1906 on Salix gall Larva in a 1 x 3 cm large cell in the woord and pith of a one-year old shoot. The wall of the cell is dark coloured, the pith is coloured orange over 2-3 cm At the outside sometimes a 3 x 6…

Rhopalomyia millefolii parasite

…in the capitula. hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Achillea ageratum, arabica, clavennae, clusiana, crithmifolia, millefolium, nobilis & subsp. neilreichii, ochroleuca, ptarmica, seidlii. references Bellmann (2012a), Bruun (2015a), Buhr (1964b), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Doğanlar (2017a), Gagné (2010a), Harris (2008b), Houard (1909a), Kieffer (1901b), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a),…

Cornutrypeta spinifrons parasite

Cornutrypeta spinifrons (Schroeder, 1913) Solidago virgaurea, Germany (Baden-Württemberg), Baden-Weiler mine Broad corridor overlying the midrib. The mine has a number of side branches that distally widen strongly, and may coalesce. Primary and secondary feeding lines very conspicuous. hostplants Asteraceae, oligophagous Aster; Senecio ovatus; Solidago virgaurea. Maček (1999a) adds Callistephus chinensis…

Andricus quadrilineatus parasite

…(2009a, 2012a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Houard (1908a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Meika (2006a), Kwast (2014a), Melika, Csóka & Pujade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (1983a, 2001a), Nieves-Aldrey, Gómez, Hernández Nieves & Lobo (2006a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Tomasi (2014a), Wiebes-Rijks (1976a), Williams (2010a)….

Euura collactanea parasite

…Eupontania, Pontania, collactanea; Eupontania collactanea rosmarinifoliae Vikberg & Zinovjev, 2006; Pontania vacciniella (Cameron, 1876). predators Eupelmus vesicularis. note Member of the Euura viminalis species group. references Bellmann (2012a), Beneš (2015a), Beneš & Holuša (2015a), Buhr (1965a).Chevin (1975a), Coulianos & Holmåsen (1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Fusu (2017a), Houard (1908a), Koops…

Blennocampa phyllocolpa parasite

…(2009a, 2012a), Hoop (1983a), Houard (1908a), Ilie & Marinescu (2011a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a), Lehmann & Flügel (2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Macek (2012c), Pschorn-Walcher & Altenhofer (2000a), Redfern & Shirley (2011a), Roskam (2009a), Savina & Chevin (2012a), Stănescu (2009a),…

Blasticotoma filiceti parasite

Blasticotoma filiceti Klug, 1834 mine The mine, actually a larval cell, consists of a short corridor in the rachis, barely 2 cm in length -hardly longer than the larva itself-, usually at about a decimeter above the ground. The mine has an opening at the level of the rear end…

Synophrus politus parasite

Synophrus politus Hartig, 1843 on Quercus Quercus suber, young and mature gall (from Houard, 1908a) gall More or less globular, unilocular bud gall, eventually greyish brown and up to 2 cm in size, often broadly attached to the shoot. The gall chamber is relatively small, and surrounded by a thick…

Phanacis taraxaci parasite

Phanacis taraxaci (Ashmead, 1897) dandelion gall wasp on Taraxacum Taraxacum officinale, France, dép. Nord, Trélon © Sébastien Carbonnelle transverse section through the gall larva gall 2-4 mm large, hard, unilocular swellings of the midrib, smooth and often red in colour. Often they are aggregated, into masses of upto 3 cm…

Isocolus rogenhoferi parasite

Isocolus rogenhoferi Wachtl, 1880 on Centaurea gall (from Eady & Quinlan, 1963a) gall Unilocular, hard, shining, oval swelling of the base of a bract, c. 8 x 4.5 mm in size. Also an achene can develop into a similar gall. Univoltine, pupation and hibernation in the gall. host plants Asteraceae,…

Chilaspis nitida parasite

Chilaspis nitida (Giraud, 1859) on Quercus, agamous generation Quercus cerris gall (from Houard, 1908a) Quercus cerris, Rotterdam-Schiebroek, 12.x.2017 © Ruud & Betty Middelkoop: locally the species can be very numerous a single gall in the autumn the galls drop from the leaves opened gall larva gall gall attached at one…

Aulacidea pilosellae parasite

…have several generations in a season (Nieves-Aldrey, 2001a) references Askew, Plantard, Gómez, ao (2006a), Bellmann (2012a), Bowdrey (2009a), Buhr (1964a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Fusu (2017a), Gómez, Hernández Nieves, Garrido Torres, ao (2006a), Haarder (2022a), Hellrigl (2009a), Hellrigl & Bodur (2015a), Jennings (2014b), Koops (2013a), Melika…

Aulacidea hieracii parasite

Aulacidea hieracii (Bouché, 1834) on Hieracium, Schlagintweitia Hieracium spec., Italy, Valle d’Aosta, Ville sur Sarre, 1300 m, 28.vii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld the suppression of the stem above the gall is virtually complete here. Hieracium spec. © Roelof Jan Koops Hieracium lachenalii subsp. cruentifolium, Helenaveen, Broemeerbos Hieracium spec., Reusel Hiercium umbellatum,…

Aphelonyx persica parasite

Aphelonyx persica Melika, Stone, Sadeghy & Pujade-Villar, 2004 on Quercus gall up to 15 mm large, almost perfectly globular bud gal, mainly on lateral buds of young shoots; sometimes several close together. They are greyish brown, with a slightly irregular, even at maturity velvety pubescent surface. The gall is hollow;…

Andricus testaceipes parasite

…(1991a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Eady & Quinlan (1963a), Gómez, Hernández Nieves, Garrido Torres, ao (2006a), Houard (1908a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Kwast (2012a, 2014a), Lambinon, Carbonnelle & Claerebout (2015a), Lambinon, Schneider & Chevin (2003a, 2012a), Lehmann & Hannover (2016a), Melika (2006a), Melika, Csóka & Pujiade-Villar (2000a), Nieves-Aldrey (1983a, 2001a),…

Andricus sternlichti parasite

…a diameter of 10-15 mm. The surface is sparsely covered by a number of 2-3 mm high pointed warts, connected by ridges. Young galls are green and fleshy, thy ripe gall is pale brown, extremely hard and does not fall off. host plants Fagaceae, monophagous Quercus infectoria & subsp. veneris,…

Andricus singularis parasite

Andricus singularis Mayr, 1870 on Quercus Quercus cerris, gall (from Houard, 1908a). Quercus ilex, gall (from Houard, 1908a). gall A terminal or lateral bud is transformed into a green, thick-walled, pyriform gall of up to 8 mm length; on the gall some malformed leaves, or even anthers. In the gall…

Andricus foecundatrix parasite

…shows that the inner gall, with living larva, may remain within the gall till well after the winter. Quercus robur, Belgium, prov. Hainaut, Comines, 22.ix.2019 © Martin Windels: old gall gall Up to a cm large globular bud gall consisting of enlarged and over-numerous bud scales. In the central gall…

Rhopalomyia tripleurospermi parasite

Rhopalomyia tripleurospermi Skuhravá, 2000 on Tripleurospermum gall Axillary buds and flower heads may turn into unilocular galls, but the apical meristem mat form an agregate of up to 80 cells, each with one red larva. Multivoltine, pupation in the gall. host plants Asteraceae, monophagous Tripleurospermum inodorum. notes Deployed in the…

Rhytidodus decimusquartus parasite

Rhytidodus decimusquartus (Schrank, 1776) on Populus gall oviposition in young shoots and especially petioles may lead to conspicuous deformations. Larvae and adults free on the leaves. host plants Salicaceae, monophagous Populus nigra. phenology Multivoltine; hibernation in different stages, dependent on the population. synonyms Idiocerus decimusquartus. references Baugnée (2003c), Buhr (1965a),…

Planchonia fimbriata parasite

Planchonia fimbriata (Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834) polyphagous gall first green, later brown, fusiform swelling of a higher part of the stem; the gall may still bear leaves. hostplants Anthyllis cytisoides, terniflora; Campylanthus salsoloides; Coronilla valentina subsp. glauca; Ficus carica; Hedera helix; Hippocrepis emerus; Nerium oleander; Pelargonium; Pittosporum tobira. synonyms Asterolecanium…

Phorodon cannabis parasite

Phorodon cannabis Passerini, 1860 cannabis apid on Cannabis gall Apterae 2-3 mm, shining yellowish green, often with three green length lines. At the underside of the leaves and in the inflorescence. The inflorescence becomes somewhat disfigured; the flowers may be greened and seed set diminished. Eggs are deposited on the…

Mindarus abietinus parasite

Mindarus abietinus Koch, 1857 balsam twig-aphid on Abies Abies balsamea, United States © Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org Abies sp., England © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints gall The needles at the top of a shoot are somewhat shortened, curved, and pale. The shoot may become curved or…

Mimeuria ulmiphila parasite

Mimeuria ulmiphila (del Guercio, 1917) maple leaf-nest aphid on Acer Acer campestre, Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár © László Érsek infested shoot the damage may be considerable group of aphids aptere alate ant attendance to the colony fundatrix with progeny fundatrix, ventral view fundatrix, wool removed two fundatrices, with and without wool. gall…

Laingia psammae parasite

Laingia psammae Theobald, 1922 marram-flower aphid on Poaceae (Cyperaceae) from Wieckzorek (2010a) Calamagrostis epigejos, Belgium, prov. Namur, Romedenne © Sébastien Carbonnelle aphid Arrhenatherum elatius, Polen, Bialowieza © Sébastien Carbonnelle the elongated aphids gall the aphids are unusually elongated, greyish green or dirty yellow, 2-3 mm long. No host plant alternation,…

Kaltenbachiella pallida parasite

…Ellis & Schneider (2022a), Cogolludo (1921a), Dauphin & Aniotsbehere (1997a), Durak, Durak & Borowiak-Sobkowiak (0000a, 2011a), Heie (1980a), Hellrigl (2004a), Houard (1908a), Pérez Hidalgo & Umaran del Campo (2013a), Kollár (2011a), Koops (2013a), Máca (2012a), Nieto Nafría, Mier Durante, Binazzi & Pérez Hidalgo (2002a), Pérez Hidalgo, Martínez Peláez & Nieto…

Aphis pollinaria parasite

Aphis pollinaria (Börner, 1952) on Epilobium gall aphids in the stem tips, 1.5-2 mm, reddish brown with a dorsal wax-pattern. host plants Onagraceae, monophagous Epilobium obscurum, palustre, parviflorum. notes This species may also occur in mixed colonies with Aphis epilobii. references Blackman & Eastop (2014), Buhr (1964b), Tomasi (2014a), Wojciechowski,…

Acyrthosiphon pisum parasite

Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris, 1776) pea aphid on Fabaceae Lathyrus odoratus, UK © Bob Dransfield & Bob Brightwell, InfluentialPoints Pisum sativum, Hungary, Jánossomorja, 18.v.2018 © László Érsek: aptera with larvae aptera immature alate parasitised aptera Cytisus scoparius, Germany, Harz, Wildemann © Hans Jonkman gall conspicuous are the long and very thin…

Wachtliella ericina parasite

Wachtliella ericina (Löw, 1885) on Erica Erica arborea, gall (from Houard, 1909a) Erica arborea, Spain, Castilla y León, Navarredonda de Gredos, ± 800 m, 17.vii.2022 © Cor Zonneveld detail Erica arborea, France, Corsica, Evisa, castel de Vergio, 25.vii.2016 © Stéphane Claerebout Erica arborea, Spain, Girona, Roses © Jordi Montobbio. Contrary…

Tricholaba trifolii parasite

Tricholaba trifolii Rübsaamen, 1917 on Trifolium gall A lealet is folded over the midrib, and contains 1-2 yellow or pale orange larvae, that can jump. Pupation in the ground. host plants Fabaceae, monophagous Trifolium medium, pratense, repens. larva spatula with papillae (from Möhn, 1955a) anal segment (from Nijveldt, 1963a) synonyms…

Stefaniella trinacriae parasite

Stefaniella trinacriae de Stefani, 1900 on Atriplex Atriplex halimus, France, Camargue, La Capelière © Sébastien Carbonnelle three more specimens the gall may occur in the inflorescence as well gall up to 2 cm large, fusiform, plurilocular swelling of the stem. Larvae solitary, yellowish white. Bivoltine, pupation in the gall. host…

Spurgia esulae parasite

Spurgia esulae Gagné, 1990 on Euphorbia Euphorbia esula, Zwolle, 17.viii.2020 © Arnold Grosscurt detail opened gall with larvae larvae opened gall with cocoons Euphorbia esula, Wellerlooi, 3.viii.2011 gall Neither galls nor larvae can be distinguished from those of Spurgia euphorbiae. Larvae yellow to orange when mature, gregarious, active; pupation in…

Euleia separata parasite

Euleia separata (Becker, 1908) mine Large full depth blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines. The larva can make several mines. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Apiaceae, oligophagous Anthriscus caucalis; Apium graveolens; Berula erecta. phenology Larvae from March on in several generations (Hering, 1957a). distribution within Europe Canary Islands…

Acidia cognata parasite

Acidia cognata (Wiedemann, 1817) on Petasites, etc. Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Namur, Dourbes, Montagne aux Buis © Carina Van Steenwinkel Tussilago farfara, Belgium, prov. Luxembourg, Durbuy, la vieille Briqueterie de Rome © Carina Van Steenwinkel mine lighted from behind larva in the mine Tussilago farfara, Schinkelbos: primary and secondary feeding…

Agromyza flaviceps parasite

Agromyza flaviceps Fallén, 1823 Humulus lupulus, Duin en Kruidberg mine Upper-surface corridor, widening to the end, but never becoming a primary blotch, and only rarely a secondary one. Sides irregularly eaten out. No association with the leaf venation. Frass in a diffuse, central, green band. After a shower or two…

Liriomyza eupatorii parasite

Liriomyza eupatorii (Kaltenbach, 1873) Asteraceae Eupatorium cannabinum, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Meerhout, Zeeploop, 17.vi.2016 © Carina Van Steenwinkel Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov. Limbourg, Ham, de Rammelaars, 14.vi.2013 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: occupied mine Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Olen, 13.viii.2017 © Carina Van Steenwinkel: two vacated mines Galeopsis spec., Belgium, prov….

Ophiomyia pulicaria parasite

Ophiomyia pulicaria (Meigen, 1830) Taraxacum officinale, Nieuwendam detail mine Broad corridor overlying the midrib, with short excursion into the blade, mainly in its basal part. Frass concentrated in the basal part of the mine, corridors almost free from frass. Pupation in the mine, also in the basal part. host plants…

Ophiomyia pinguis parasite

Ophiomyia pinguis (Fallén, 1820) mine Little branched corridors, radiating from the leaf base, often deep in the plant tissue. The larva can migrate from one leaf to the other through the petioles. Frass concentrated in the lowest, basal part of the mine; there also the pupation takes place. hostplants Asteraceae,…

Ophiomyia beckeri parasite

Ophiomyia beckeri (Hendel, 1923) Lapsana communis, Nieuwendam mine In Asteraceae the larva mostly lives as a borer in the midrib of the leaves. From there short corridors are made into the blade. Also a corridor can be made overlying the midrib. In Euphorbia a small mine is made in the…

Napomyza lateralis parasite

Napomyza lateralis (Fallén, 1823) polyphagous gall the larva, a typical agromyzid maggot, primarily is a stem borer, but can also often be found in the receptacle of Asteraceae. host plants polyphagous, with a preference for Asteraceae Achillea ptarmica; Anethum graveolens; Anthemis; Anthriscus sylvestris; Bellis; Bidens cernuus; Calendula; Carduus pycnocephalus; Centaurea;…

Napomyza cichorii parasite

…Europe Probably entire Europe, with possible exception of Ireland and the Balkan Peninsula (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva Described by de Meijere (1926a, as N. lateralis). The remarkable brownish-black rear spiraculum has 20-24 papillae in a narrow ellipse; mandible with 2 teeth of unequal size. puparium White, slender (Spencer, 1976b). synonyms…

Napomyza bellidis parasite

Napomyza bellidis Griffiths, 1967 mine Most of the time the larva lives in the midrib of the rosette leaves. Now and then short excursions are made into the blade. At first they are pale green, later they are almost full depth and whitish, and quite conspicuous. They do not contain…

Liriomyza sativae parasite

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938 mine Corridor, freely winding through the leaf. Frass in strings. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Strongly polyphagous Chrysanthemum; Lycopersicon esculentum……… In temperate regions only in greenhouses. distribution within Europe Tropical species; not yet recorded in Europe (EPPO, 2004a; Fauna Europaea, 2007). larva Orange yellow; rear spiraculum…

Liriomyza pusilla parasite

…May-June and August-September (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX BE recorded (De Bruyn & von Tschirnhaus, 1991a). NE recorded (de Meijere, 1924a). Locally sometimes in large populations, but the number of localities remains limited. LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach). distribution within Europe Entire Europe (Fauna Europaea, 2008). larva synonyms Liriomyza fasciola (Meigen, 1838); L….

Liriomyza huidobrensis parasite

…Tschirnhaus, 1995a). NE recorded de Goffau (1991a). LUX not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). distribution within Europe Practically cosmpolitain; in temperate regions mainly in greenhouses. larva Rear spiraculum with 6-9 papillae, arranged in an ellipse. (Darvas, Skuhravá & Andersen write erroneously that the front spiraculum has this number of papillae.). Third…

Liriomyza hieracii parasite

Liriomyza hieracii (Kaltenbach, 1862) mine Primary upper-surface blotch. Pupation outside the mine. hostplants Asteraceae, narrowly oligophagous Hieracium laevigatum, lachenalii & subsp. cruentifolium, murorum, sparsum; Pilosella officinarum. BENELUX BE not recorded (Fauna Europaea, 2008). NE Accepted by Beuk (2002a) on the basis of a reference by Kabos (1971a) of blotch mines…

Liriomyza flaveola host plant species, parasite

Liriomyza flaveola (Fallén, 1823) Schedonorus giganteus, Susteren Bromopsis erecta, Belgium, prov. Namur, Saint-Servais © Jean-Yves Baugnée mine Narrow corridor from start to end, whitish, upper- or lower-surface, generally running downwards. Mine often along the leaf margin. Frass in distinct grains of regular size, alternating along the sides of the corridor….

Liriomyza eupatorii larva parasite

Liriomyza eupatorii Eupatorium cannabinum, Lettele “head” and rear end front and rear spiraculum, lateral front and rear spiracula, dorsal mandibles and mouth field fronatally e field with fine spinulatiion the spinulation is very fine This larva had dorsolaterally on one of the first abdominal segments a pair of ring-shaped marks….

Liriomyza dendranthemae parasite

Liriomyza dendranthemae Nowakowski, 1975 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long, upper-surface, gradually widening corridor, usually forming a secondary blotch that can occupy a large part of the leaf. Frass in long thread fragments or pearl chains alternating along the sides of the mine. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in the lower…

Phytomyza actaeae parasite

Phytomyza actaeae Hendel, 1922 on Actaea Actaea spicata, GD Luxembourg, Hollenfels © Sébastien Carbonnelle young mine and feeding punctures mine Large upper-surface, greyish-green, later brownish, blotch with conspicuous primary and secondary feeding lines. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass in irregularly dispersed granules. According to Hering (1957a), pupation takes…

Liriomyza congesta parasite

Liriomyza congesta (Becker, 1903) Vicia sepium, Susteren Vicia hirsuta, Diemer bos Colutea arborescens, Belgium, prov. Haiaut, Tournai, RN de la Carrière de l’Orient © Stéphane Claerout Trifolium repens, Flevoland, Reve-Abbertbos © Hans Jonkman Trifolium pratense, Zeewolde, Harderbos © Hans Jonkman: young mines in senescent leaves a mine like this can…

Liriomyza clarae parasite

Liriomyza clarae Beiger, 1972 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Deep blotch, that may occupy the while leaf, inluding the petiole; possibly the larva migrates to another leaf via the petiole. Frass in dark green clumps or strings. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in upper epidermis. hostplants Saxifragaceae, narrowly monophagous Saxifraga carpatica….

Hexomyza simplex parasite

Hexomyza simplex (Loew, 1869) asparagus miner on Asparagus mine Oviposition in the rind of the stem, just above the ground. A corridor from there runs upwards for about 30 cm, then reverts and descends to about ground level. Pupation in the mine, just below the epidermis. Usually several mines on…

Chromatomyia soldanellae parasite

Chromatomyia soldanellae (Starý, 1950) on Soldanella Soldanella alpina, Italy, Little St Bernard pass, 2200 m, 1.viii.2018 © Cor Zonneveld mine Mine upper-surface: a narrow corridor, continued into a blotch that in the end may occupy almost an entire leaf. Frass in the blotch in several coarse grains. Pupation now within,…

Chromatomyia saxifragae parasite

Chromatomyia saxifragae (Hering, 1924) Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Broad, tortuous corridor, usually upper-surface. The corridor may run several times through the leaf, crossing itself, and create a secondary blotch. Frass grains in groups along the sides of the corridor. Pupation mostly within the mine, in which case the front spiracula penetrate…

Chromatomyia aprilina parasite

…Lonicera alpigena, biflora, caerulea, caprifolium, etrusca, implexa, ledebourii, maacki, nigra, periclymenum, tatarica, xylosteum; Symphoricarpos albus, occidentalis. phenology Larvae have been found from June to August mines till October; according to Griffiths there are two generations. However, possibly the number of generations is indefinite: Stéphane Claerebout found in southern Belgium, after…

Cerodontha suturalis parasite

Cerodontha suturalis (Hendel, 1931) on Bolboschoenus, Carex Carex arenaria, Zandvoort a single leaf mine Upper-surface, interparenchymatous (therefore yellowish) corridor in the middle part of the leaf. The mine starts not far from the leaf tip, descends, and changes direction at least twice. Often in the end the corridor occupies the…

Cerodontha staryi parasite

Cerodontha staryi (Starý, 1930) mine Mine upper-surface, sometimes locally interparenchymatous, in the basal half of the leaf. The mine is more or less a a corridor (but may sometimes occupy the entire width of the leaf), doubles at least twice, and often ends in the leaf sheath. All frass in…

Aulagromyza caraganae parasite

Aulagromyza caraganae (Rohdendorf-Holmanová, 1959) on Caragana Caragana arborescens, Belarus, Grodno region, Svislach © Fedor Sautkin same mine, lighted from behind vacated upper-surface mine, with exit slit same mine, lighted from behind mine broad compactly wound gallery, soon gradually widening into a large white blotch; mostly the entire mine is lower-side,…

Amauromyza gyrans parasite

Amauromyza gyrans (Fallén, 1823) Campanula rotundifolia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Angleur, Ourthe © Jean-Yves Baugnée Campanula trachelium, Germany, Baden-Württemberg: Baden-Weiler (herbarium specimen) Campanula rapunculus, Amstelveen, JP Thijssepark mine Upper-surface blotch, preceded by a very short corridor. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass in isolated grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit…

Agromyza reptans parasite

Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823 mine Full depth (unusual for an agromyzid) corridor that mostly starts near the leaf margin, and never begins with a series in close, “intestine-like” curves. Further on the corridor strongly widens, and usually remains close to the leaf margin. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass…

Agromyza phragmitidis larva parasite

Agromyza phragmitidis Agromyza phragmitidis, Nieuwendam ‘head’ and rear end Amsterdam, Nederhorst den Berg: front spiraculum lateral; rear spiracula, dorsal Amsterdam, Nederhorst den Berg: mandibles, mouth field The larva is described by Griffiths (1963a) and de Meijere (1925a). The rear arms of the cephalic skeleton quite weakly chitinised. Mandibles with 2,…

Agromyza nana parasite

…characteristically squat larva Medicago sativa, België, prov. Luik, Flémalle-Haute © Jean-Yves Baugnée Medicago sativa, Belgium, prov. Liège, Flémalle-Haute © Jean-Yves Baugnée Melilotus cf officinalis, Amsterdam Noord, JH Vliegenbos: mine with pupa of parasitoid mine Broad and short hook-like upper-surface corridor, ending in a blotch in the centre of a leaflet….

Phytomyza aconiti parasite

Phytomyza aconiti Hendel, 1920 Aconitum vulparia, Belgium, prov. Liège, Ovifat © Jonas Mortelmans detail mine Large, greyish-brown, upper-surface blotch, mostly near the tip of a leaflet, without a preceding corridor. Primary feeding lines conspicuous. Several larvae share a mine. Pupation outside the mine. Exit slit in upper epidermis (Pakalniškis, 2004a)….

Phytomyza anemones parasite

Phytomyza anemones Hering, 1925 On Anemone from Hering (1957a) Anemone nemorosa, eastern Denemark © Simon Haarder mine fairly transparent, upper-surface, gradually widening gallery, forming a secondary blotch near the end. Primary and secondary feeding lines present in fresh mines. Frass in isolated grains of increasing size. Pupation now inside, then…

Acanthiophilus helianthi parasite

Acanthiophilus helianthi (Rossi, 1794) capsule fly on thistles gall One or more larvae feed on the developing achenes causing some malformation of the flower head. Pupation within the flower head; the puparium is shining black. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Amberboa moschata; Atractylis carduus; Carlina vulgaris; Carduus argentatus, nutans, personata; Carthamus…

Phytomyza spinaciae parasite

…curves, and hardly any u-turn, causing the mine to usually occupy the entire length of a leaf. Frass in two rows of grains along the sides. Pupation within the mine, in a lower-surface pupal chamber; the front spiracula penetrate the epidermis. host plants Asteraceae, oligophagous Carduus acanthoides, crispus, nutans; Centaurea…

Hydrellia nigricans parasite

Hydrellia nigricans (Stenhammer, 1844) Diptera, Ephydridae mine Verty fine gallery that spirals around the base of the leaf; the part of the leaf above turns yellow or red. The larva can kae several mines. Pupation within the mine. hostplants Juncaceae, monophagous Juncus articulatus, bufonius. phenology Larvae in June. BENELUX Not…

Hydrellia albifrons parasite

Hydrellia albifrons (Fallén, 1813) on Hydrocharis, etc. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Belgium, prov. Antwerp, Laakdal, de Roost, 5.ix.2021 © Carina Van Steenwinkel mine initially a gallery a blotch later larva slender larva outside of the mime the frontal and posterior end of the puparium still below the epidermis mine Broad upper surface…

Anthomyza collini parasite

Anthomyza collini Andersson, 1976 on Phragmites, etc. gall inquiline of Lipara lucens, but the larva may also live independently, living in the leaf sheaths and in the galls of Steneotarsonemus phragmitidis. host plants narrowly polyphagous Calamagrostis canescens; Carex nigra, vesicaria; Leersia oryzoides; Phragmites australis. references Baetens & De Bruyn (1999a),…

Pegomya terebrans parasite

Pegomya terebrans (Rondani, 1866) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine The full grrown mine is an upper-surface elongate blotch overlying the midrib, quite homogenous in depth, and very irregular in shape. Equally irregular branches radiate into the leaf. Frass in very numerous, extremely small granules that form a shadow line along the midrib,…

Pegomya seitenstettensis parasite

Pegomya seitenstettensis (Strobl, 1880) mine Corridor, widening into a full depth blotch. At the start of the corridor a lower-surface elliptic egg shell. The larva is capable of leaving its mine and making a new blotch mine elsewhere. Frass in the corridor in a central line, in the blotch as…

Delia seideli parasite

Delia seideli (Hering, 1925) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine Uknown. hostplants Boraginaceae Borago officinalis. distribution within Europe Described from Poland, Sudetes Mountains. synonyms Hylemia, Phorbia seideli. The species cannot be interpreted, because the type mateiral cannot be found, and is probably lost (Pont & Ackland, 2009a). references Hering (1925b, 1957a), Pont &…

Delia platura parasite

Delia platura (Meigen, 1826) seedcorn maggot polyphagous cephalic skeleton of 3rd instar larva (from Dušek) puparium mine The larva primarily lives as a borer in the stem and petioles, but is able to make corridor-like excursions into the blade. Perhaps the mine can be distinguished from those of Botanophila fugax…

Delia florilega parasite

Delia florilega (Zetterstedt, 1845) mine Primarily a borer in the stem and petiole, but the larva can make corridor-like excursions into the blade. Perhaps the mines can be distinguished from those of Botanophila fugax by Delia mines harbouring several larvae, Botanophila mines just one (Robbins, 1991a). Neither larvae nor mines…

Delia coronariae parasite

Delia coronariae (Hendel, 1925) Diptera, Anthomyiidae mine Large, largely upper- or lower-surface blotch with numerous, large, greenish black frass grains. The larva may leave its mine and restart elsewhere. Pupation external. hostplants Caryophyllaceae, oligophagous ? Cerastium semidecandrum; Silene flos-cuculi; Stellaria alsine. BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea,…

Botanophila fugax parasite

Botanophila fugax (Meigen, 1926) mine Elongated-oval eggs are deposited at either side of the leaf. They have irregularly keeled ribs running from one pole to the other (Miles, 1952a, 1953a). The larva primarily lives as a borer in stem and petioles, but is capable of making corridor-like excursions in the…

Xeniomyza ilicitensis parasite

Xeniomyza ilicitensis de Meijere, 1934 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Very narrow gallery, especially its first part strongly spiralled, not longer than 1 mm. The larva can migrate to another leaf by way of the rind of the stem. Frass in indistinct grains. Pupation external. hostplants Amaranthaceae, oligophagous Salicornia; Suaeda maritima, vera….

Pseudonapomyza spinosa parasite

Pseudonapomyza spinosa Spencer, 1973 mine Blotch, usually in the leaf tip. Because often several larvae live together, the blotch can be quite extensive. Pupation external. host plants Poaceae, oligophagous Brachiaria; Eleusine indica; Hordeum vulgare; Triticum aestivum. distribution within Europe Spain, Greece, Thrace (Černý & Merz, 2006a; Fauna Europaea, 2010). larva…

Phytomyza taraxaci parasite

Phytomyza taraxaci Hendel, 1927 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long corridor; the first part of the mine often for a large part lower-surface. Pupation outside the mine (Hering, 1957a). hostplants Asteraceae, monophagous Taraxacum officinale phenology Larven in May-June and September-October (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2008)….

Phytomyza solidaginis parasite

Phytomyza solidaginis Hendel, 1920 Diptera, Agromyzidae Solidago virgaurea, Belgium, prov. Luxemburg, Montauban: parasitised mine mine Upper surface corridor, 6-9 cm in length, densely wound, easily confluent into a secondary blotch. Frass unusual, in more or less connected strings at either side of the corridor. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit…

Phytomyza aposeridis parasite

Phytomyza aposeridis Groschke, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Initially a very fine, upper- or lower-surface corridor. It comntinues in an exceptionally long, finally rather broad, upper-surface corridor. The corridor can be branched; the sides are irregularly scalloped. Often the corridor follows the leaf margin for some distance. Frass in tiny, scarce,…

Phytomyza seseleos parasite

Phytomyza seseleos Hering, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Quite shallow, therefore greenish, corridor mine. Frass initially in pearl chains, later in coarse grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in lower epidermis. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Seseli libanotis. phenology Larvae in July-August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna…

Phytomyza rhodopaea parasite

Phytomyza rhodopaea Beiger, 1979 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine “Larva forming an upper surface blotch-mine with fine herring-bone pattern [secondary feeding lines?], placed on the top part of the leaf-blade. The mine is greenish with darker grains and strips of frass. Pupation externally.” hostplants Boraginaceae, monophagous Symphytum ottomanum. phenology Larvae in the…

Phytomyza rhodiolae parasite

Phytomyza rhodiolae Griffiths, 1976 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Long gallery that winds freely through the leaf, sometimes crossing itself and sometimes forming a secondary blotch (also because more than one mine may be present in a leaf). Frass in discrete grains. Mines mainly in the younger leaves. Pupation sometimes outside the…

Phytomyza rapunculi parasite

Phytomyza rapunculi Hendel, 1927 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Very long, rather deep corridor, initially lower-surface, later upper-surface. In smaller leaves almost always a secondary blotch originates, that can occupy the entire leaf. Frass initially in pearl strings, later in scattered aggregations. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in upper epidermis. hostplants…

Phytomyza ranunculivora parasite

…polyanthemos, repens. phenology Larvae in July-August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX BE recorded (Mortelmans ao, 2013a). NE recorded (Ellis: a number of localities all over the country). LUX recorded (Ellis: Kautenbach, Clervaux, Flaxweiler). distribution within Europe From Scandinavia and Finland to the Pyrenees, Italy and Slovakia, and from the UK to Belarus…

Phytomyza ranunculi parasite

Phytomyza ranunculi (von Paula Schrank, 1803) on Ranunculus etc. Ficaria verna, Epen, Heimansgroeve, 17.iv.2019 © Cor Zonneveld Ranunculus repens, Arnhem Ranunculus repens, Amstelveen: detail Ranunculus repens, lg. Tongeren © Hans Jonkman mine Rather long, somewhat untidy, upper-surface corridor. Frass in many small grains that are close together of form pearl…

Phytomyza obscura parasite

…In the literature a number of other plants are mentioned: Galeopsis pubescens, speciosa, tetrahit; Mentha; Nepeta; Origanum; Lycopus europaeus, and even Symphytum (Boraginaceae). According to the study by Nowakowski (1959a) none of these are plausible as hostplants. phenology Larvae between May and August (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the…

Phytomyza montana parasite

Phytomyza montana Groschke, 1957 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine Exceptionally long, upper-surface corridor, very narrow at first, gradually widening. In the end the corridor may traverse a large leaf, crossing itsself now and then. Frass very variable, either in pearl chains of tiny granules or in large, widely dispersed grains. Pupation outside…

Phytomyza lappae host plants, parasite

Phytomyza lappae Goureau, 1851 Arctium sp., Nieuwendam Arctium sp., Hilversum, Zwarte Berg: frass pattern Arctium spec., Hungary, Mosonmagyaróvár, 1.vi.2018 © László Érsek larva in the mine larva, ventral mine Long, little widening corridor. The first part is contorted, and its very first stretch is lower-surface; all other parts are upper-surface….

Phytomyza hendeli parasite

Phytomyza hendeli Hering, 1923 on Anemonastrum, Anemone from Hering (1957a) Anemone nemorosa, Denmark, Geelskov © Morten Kofoed-Hansen gallery section of the mine larva (rear end); also a part is visible of the very beginning of the gallery mine Narrow upper-surface corridor, often following the leaf margin. Frass initially in strings,…

Phytomyza elsae parasite

Phytomyza elsae Hendel, 1927 on Buplerum Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, prov. Namur, Couvin, lieu-dit “Roche Albéric”, 24.vi.2018 © Stéphane Claerebout detail Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, Viroinval detail Bupleurum falcatum, Belgium, prov Namur, Viroinval, Nismes © Stéphane Claerebout mine Entirely upper-surface corridor. The corridor is winding, often forming a secondary blotch. Frass in…

Phytomyza chaerophylliana parasite

Phytomyza chaerophylliana Hering, 1931 mine Indistinguishable from the mine of Ph. chaerophylli. hostplants Apiaceae, monophagous Chaerophyllum temulum. phenology Larvae in June – July (Hering, 1957a). BENELUX Not known from the Benelux countries (Fauna Europaea, 2009). distribution within Europe Germany, Poland, Czechia, Italy (Fauna Europaea, 2009). notes Because neither larva nor…

Phytomyza bupleuri parasite

Phytomyza bupleuri Hering, 1963 Diptera, Agromyzidae mine The initial part of the mine is a short lower-surface corridor. The is followed by an upper-surface corridor, mostly starting near the leaf tip and descending towards the base, widening quickly and strongly. The corridor lies in loops, and may form a secondary…

Diplodia pinea parasite

…up to 250 µm, conidia 10-16 x 30-45 µm, 0-1-septate. host plants Pinaceae, oligophagous Pinus nigra & subsp. laricio, sylvestris; Pseudotsuga. synonyms Sphaeropsis sapinea (Fries) Dyko & Sutton, 1980. references Brandenburger (1985a: 23), van Dam & de Kan (1984a), Karadžić & Milijašević (2008a), Cech (2012a), Kozłowska, Mułenko & Heluta (2015a)….